browse words by letter
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
albania

more about albania

albania


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Albania 
  n  :  a  republic  in  southeastern  Europe  on  the  Adriatic  coast  of 
  the  Balkan  Peninsula  [syn:  {Albania}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Albania 
 
  Albania:Geography 
 
  Location:  Southeastern  Europe,  bordering  the  Adriatic  Sea  and  Ionian 
  Sea,  between  Greece  and  Serbia  and  Montenegro 
 
  Map  references:  Ethnic  Groups  in  Eastern  Europe,  Europe 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  28,750  sq  km 
  land  area:  27,400  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  larger  than  Maryland 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  720  km  Greece  282  km  The  Former  Yugoslav 
  Republic  of  Macedonia  151  km  Serbia  and  Montenegro  287  km  (114  km 
  with  Serbia,  173  km  with  Montenegro) 
 
  Coastline:  362  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  continental  shelf:  200-m  depth  or  to  the  depth  of  exploitation 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  the  Albanian  Government  supports  protection  of 
  the  rights  of  ethnic  Albanians  outside  of  its  borders;  Albanian 
  majority  in  Kosovo  seeks  independence  from  Serbian  Republic;  Albanians 
  in  Macedonia  claim  discrimination  in  education,  access  to  public 
  sector  jobs  and  representation  in  government;  Albania  is  involved  in  a 
  bilaterlal  dispute  with  Greece  over  border  demarcation,  the  treatment 
  of  Albania's  ethnic  Greek  minority,  and  migrant  Albanian  workers  in 
  Greece 
 
  Climate:  mild  temperate;  cool,  cloudy,  wet  winters;  hot,  clear,  dry 
  summers;  interior  is  cooler  and  wetter 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  mountains  and  hills;  small  plains  along  coast 
 
  Natural  resources:  petroleum,  natural  gas,  coal,  chromium,  copper, 
  timber,  nickel 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  21% 
  permanent  crops:  4% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  15% 
  forest  and  woodland:  38% 
  other:  22% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  4,230  sq  km  (1989) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  deforestation;  soil  erosion;  water  pollution  from 
  industrial  and  domestic  effluents 
  natural  hazards:  destructive  earthquakes;  tsunami  occur  along 
  southwestern  coast 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change 
 
  Note:  strategic  location  along  Strait  of  Otranto  (links  Adriatic  Sea 
  to  Ionian  Sea  and  Mediterranean  Sea) 
 
  Albania:People 
 
  Population:  3,413,904  (July  1995  est.) 
  note:  IMF,  working  with  Albanian  government  figures,  estimates  the 
  population  at  3,120,000  in  1993  and  that  the  population  has  fallen 
  since  1990 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  32%  (female  520,186;  male  563,953) 
  15-64  years:  62%  (female  1,026,321;  male  1,104,371) 
  65  years  and  over:  6%  (female  112,252;  male  86,821)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  1.16%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  21.7  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  5.22  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  -4.88  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  28.1  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  73.81  years 
  male:  70.83  years 
  female:  77.02  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  2.71  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Albanian(s) 
  adjective:  Albanian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Albanian  95%,  Greeks  3%,  other  2%  (Vlachs,  Gypsies, 
  Serbs,  and  Bulgarians)  (1989  est.) 
 
  Religions:  Muslim  70%,  Albanian  Orthodox  20%,  Roman  Catholic  10% 
  note:  all  mosques  and  churches  were  closed  in  1967  and  religious 
  observances  prohibited;  in  November  1990,  Albania  began  allowing 
  private  religious  practice 
 
  Languages:  Albanian  (Tosk  is  the  official  dialect),  Greek 
 
  Literacy:  age  9  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1955) 
  total  population:  72% 
  male:  80% 
  female:  63% 
 
  Labor  force:  1.5  million  (1987) 
  by  occupation:  agriculture  60%,  industry  and  commerce  40%  (1986) 
 
  Albania:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Albania 
  conventional  short  form:  Albania 
  local  long  form:  Republika  e  Shqiperise 
  local  short  form:  Shqiperia 
  former:  People's  Socialist  Republic  of  Albania 
 
  Digraph:  AL 
 
  Type:  emerging  democracy 
 
  Capital:  Tirane 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  26  districts  (rrethe,  singular  -  rreth); 
  Berat,  Dibre,  Durres  Elbasan  Fier,  Gjirokaster  Gramsh  Kolonje 
  Korce,  Kruje  Kukes  Lezhe  Librazhd  Lushnje  Mat,  Mirdite  Permet, 
  Pogradec  Puke,  Sarande  Shkoder  Skrapar  Tepelene  Tirane,  Tropoje 
  Vlore 
 
  Independence:  28  November  1912  (from  Ottoman  Empire) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  28  November  (1912) 
 
  Constitution:  an  interim  basic  law  was  approved  by  the  People's 
  Assembly  on  29  April  1991;  a  draft  constitution  was  rejected  by 
  popular  referendum  in  the  fall  of  1994  and  a  new  draft  is  pending 
 
  Legal  system:  has  not  accepted  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal  and  compulsory 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  of  the  Republic  Sali  BERISHA  (since  9  April 
  1992) 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  of  the  Council  of  Ministers 
  Aleksander  Gabriel  MEKSI  (since  10  April  1992) 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  appointed  by  the  president 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  People's  Assembly  (Kuvendi  Popullor):  elections  last  held  22  March 
  1992;  results  -  DP  62.29%,  ASP  25.57%,  SDP  4.33%,  RP  3.15%,  UHP  2.92%, 
  other  1.74%;  seats  -  (140  total)  DP  92,  ASP  38,  SDP  7,  RP  1,  UHP  2 
  note:  6  members  of  the  Democratic  Party  defected  making  the  present 
  seating  in  the  Assembly  DP  86,  ASP  38,  SDP  7,  DAP  6,  RP  1,  UHP  2 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  there  are  at  least  28  political 
  parties;  most  prominent  are  the  Albanian  Socialist  Party  (ASP; 
  formerly  the  Albania  Workers  Party),  Fatos  NANO,  first  secretary; 
  Democratic  Party  (DP);  Albanian  Republican  Party  (RP),  Sabri  GODO; 
  Omonia  (Greek  minority  party),  Sotir  QIRJAZATI  first  secretary; 
  Social  Democratic  Party  (SDP),  Skender  GJINUSHI  Democratic  Alliance 
  Party  (DAP),  Neritan  CEKA  chairman;  Unity  for  Human  Rights  Party 
  (UHP),  Vasil  MELO,  chairman;  Ecology  Party  (EP),  Namik  HOTI,  chairman 
 
  Member  of:  BSEC,  CCC,  CE  (guest),  EBRD,  ECE,  FAO,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO, 
  ICRM,  IDA,  IDB,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INTELSAT 
  (nonsignatory  user),  INTERPOL,  IOC,  IOM,  ISO,  ITU,  NACC,  OIC,  OSCE, 
  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNIDO  UPU,  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Lublin  Hasan  DILJA 
  chancery:  Suite  1010,  1511  K  Street  NW  Washington,  DC  20005 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  223-4942,  8187 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  628-7342 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Joseph  E.  LAKE 
  embassy:  Rruga  E.  Elbansanit  103,  Tirane 
  mailing  address:  PSC  59,  Box  100  (A),  APO  AE  09624 
  telephone:  [355]  (42)  328-75,  335-20 
  FAX:  [355]  (42)  322-22 
 
  Flag:  red  with  a  black  two-headed  eagle  in  the  center 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  An  extremely  poor  country  by  European  standards,  Albania  is 
  making  the  difficult  transition  to  a  more  open-market  economy.  The 
  economy  rebounded  in  1993-94  after  a  severe  depression  accompanying 
  the  collapse  of  the  previous  centrally  planned  system  in  1990  and 
  1991.  Stabilization  policies  -  including  a  strict  monetary  policy, 
  public  sector  layoffs,  and  reduced  social  services  -  have  improved  the 
  government's  fiscal  situation  and  reduced  inflation.  The  recovery  was 
  spurred  by  the  remittances  of  some  20%  of  the  population  which  works 
  abroad,  mostly  in  Greece  and  Italy.  These  remittances  supplement  GDP 
  and  help  offset  the  large  foreign  trade  deficit.  Foreign  assistance 
  and  humanitarian  aid  also  supported  the  recovery.  Most  agricultural 
  land  was  privatized  in  1992,  substantially  improving  peasant  incomes. 
  Albania's  limited  industrial  sector,  now  less  than  one-sixth  of  GDP, 
  continued  to  decline  in  1994.  A  sharp  fall  in  chromium  prices  reduced 
  hard  currency  receipts  from  the  mining  sector.  Large  segments  of  the 
  population,  especially  those  living  in  urban  areas,  continue  to  depend 
  on  humanitarian  aid  to  meet  basic  food  requirements.  Unemployment 
  remains  a  severe  problem  accounting  for  approximately  one-fifth  of  the 
  work  force.  Growth  is  expected  to  continue  in  1995,  but  could  falter 
  if  Albania  becomes  involved  in  the  conflict  in  the  former  Yugoslavia, 
  workers'  remittances  from  Greece  are  reduced,  or  foreign  assistance 
  declines. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $3.8  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  11%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $1,110  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  16%  (1994) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  18%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $1.1  billion 
  expenditures:  $1.4  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $70 
  million  (1991  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $112  million  (f.o.b.,  1993) 
  commodities:  asphalt,  metals  and  metallic  ores,  electricity,  crude 
  oil,  vegetables,  fruits,  tobacco 
  partners:  Italy,  The  Former  Yugoslav  Republic  of  Macedonia,  Germany, 
  Greece,  Czech  Republic,  Slovakia,  Poland,  Romania,  Bulgaria,  Hungary 
 
  Imports:  $621  million  (f.o.b.,  1993) 
  commodities:  machinery,  consumer  goods,  grains 
  partners:  Italy,  The  Former  Yugoslav  Republic  of  Macedonia,  Germany, 
  Czech  Republic,  Slovakia,  Romania,  Poland,  Hungary,  Bulgaria,  Greece 
 
  External  debt:  $920  million  (1994  est.) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  -10%  (1993  est.);  accounts  for  16% 
  of  GDP  (1993  est.) 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  770,000  kW 
  production:  4  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  1,200  kWh  (1994) 
 
  Industries:  food  processing,  textiles  and  clothing,  lumber,  oil, 
  cement,  chemicals,  mining,  basic  metals,  hydropower 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  55%  of  GDP;  arable  land  per  capita  among 
  lowest  in  Europe;  80%  of  arable  land  now  in  private  hands;  60%  of  the 
  work  force  engaged  in  farming;  produces  wide  range  of  temperate-zone 
  crops  and  livestock 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  transshipment  point  for  Southwest  Asian  heroin 
  transiting  the  Balkan  route  and  cocaine  from  South  America  destined 
  for  Western  Europe;  limited  opium  production 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  $303  million  (1993) 
 
  Currency:  1  lek  L  =  100  qintars 
 
  Exchange  rates:  leke  L  per  US$1  -  100  (January  1995),  99  (January 
  1994),  97  (January  1993),  50  (January  1992),  25  (September  1991) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Albania:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  543  km  line  connecting  Podgorica  (Serbia  and  Montenegro)  and 
  Shkoder  completed  August  1986 
  standard  gauge:  509  km  1.435-m  gauge 
  narrow  gauge:  34  km  0.950-m  gauge  (1990) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  18,450  km 
  paved:  17,450  km 
  unpaved:  earth  1,000  km  (1991) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  43  km  plus  Albanian  sections  of  Lake  Scutari  Lake 
  Ohrid  and  Lake  Prespa  (1990) 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  145  km  petroleum  products  55  km  natural  gas  64 
  km  (1991) 
 
  Ports:  Durres  Sarande  Shergjin  Vlore 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  11  cargo  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  52,967  GRT/76,887 
  DWT 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  11 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  3 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  2 
  with  unpaved  runways  over  3,047  m:  2 
  with  unpaved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  1 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  1 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  2 
 
  Albania:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  about  55,000  telephones;  about  15  telephones/1,000 
  persons 
  local:  primitive;  about  11,000  telephones  in  Tirane,  the  capital  city 
  intercity:  obsolete  wire  system;  no  longer  provides  a  telephone  for 
  every  village;  in  1992,  following  the  fall  of  the  communist 
  government,  peasants  cut  the  wire  to  about  1,000  villages  and  used  it 
  to  build  fences 
  international:  inadequate;  carried  through  the  Tirane  exchange  and 
  transmitted  through  Italy  on  240  microwave  radio  relay  circuits  and 
  through  Greece  on  150  microwave  radio  relay  circuits 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  17,  FM  1,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  515,000  (1987  est.) 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  9 
  televisions:  255,000  (1987  est.) 
 
  Albania:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army,  Navy,  Air  and  Air  Defense  Forces,  Interior  Ministry 
  Troops,  Border  Guards 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  919,085;  males  fit  for  military 
  service  755,574;  males  reach  military  age  (19)  annually  33,323  (1995 
  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  330  million  leke,  NA%  of  GNP  (1993);  note  - 
  conversion  of  defense  expenditures  into  US  dollars  using  the  current 
  exchange  rate  could  produce  misleading  results 
 
 
 




more about albania