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algeria

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algeria


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Algeria 
  n  :  a  republic  in  northwestern  Africa;  colonized  by  France  in 
  the  19th  century  but  gained  autonomy  in  the  early  1960s 
  [syn:  {Algeria},  {Algerie}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Algeria 
 
  Algeria:Geography 
 
  Location:  Northern  Africa,  bordering  the  Mediterranean  Sea,  between 
  Morocco  and  Tunisia 
 
  Map  references:  Africa 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  2,381,740  sq  km 
  land  area:  2,381,740  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  less  than  3.5  times  the  size  of  Texas 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  6,343  km  Libya  982  km  Mali  1,376  km 
  Mauritania  463  km  Morocco  1,559  km  Niger  956  km  Tunisia  965  km 
  Western  Sahara  42  km 
 
  Coastline:  998  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  exclusive  fishing  zone:  32-52  nm 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  Libya  claims  part  of  southeastern  Algeria; 
  land  boundary  dispute  with  Tunisia  settled  in  1993 
 
  Climate:  arid  to  semiarid;  mild,  wet  winters  with  hot,  dry  summers 
  along  coast;  drier  with  cold  winters  and  hot  summers  on  high  plateau; 
  sirocco  is  a  hot,  dust/sand-laden  wind  especially  common  in  summer 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  high  plateau  and  desert;  some  mountains;  narrow, 
  discontinuous  coastal  plain 
 
  Natural  resources:  petroleum,  natural  gas,  iron  ore,  phosphates, 
  uranium,  lead,  zinc 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  3% 
  permanent  crops:  0% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  13% 
  forest  and  woodland:  2% 
  other:  82% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  3,360  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  soil  erosion  from  overgrazing  and  other  poor  farming 
  practices;  desertification  dumping  of  raw  sewage,  petroleum  refining 
  wastes,  and  other  industrial  effluents  is  leading  to  the  pollution  of 
  rivers  and  coastal  waters;  Mediterranean  Sea,  in  particular,  becoming 
  polluted  from  oil  wastes,  soil  erosion,  and  fertilizer  runoff; 
  inadequate  supplies  of  potable  water 
  natural  hazards:  mountainous  areas  subject  to  severe  earthquakes; 
  mudslides 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Climate  Change,  Endangered 
  Species,  Environmental  Modification,  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship 
  Pollution,  Wetlands;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Biodiversity, 
  Desertification  Law  of  the  Sea,  Nuclear  Test  Ban 
 
  Note:  second-largest  country  in  Africa  (after  Sudan) 
 
  Algeria:People 
 
  Population:  28,539,321  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  41%  (female  5,678,879;  male  5,885,246) 
  15-64  years:  56%  (female  7,887,885;  male  8,033,508) 
  65  years  and  over:  3%  (female  557,636;  male  496,167)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  2.25%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  29.02  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  6.05  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  -0.49  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  50.3  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  68.01  years 
  male:  66.94  years 
  female:  69.13  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  3.7  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Algerian(s) 
  adjective:  Algerian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Arab-Berber  99%,  European  less  than  1% 
 
  Religions:  Sunni  Muslim  (state  religion)  99%,  Christian  and  Jewish  1% 
 
  Languages:  Arabic  (official),  French,  Berber  dialects 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1990  est.) 
  total  population:  57% 
  male:  70% 
  female:  46% 
 
  Labor  force:  6.2  million  (1992  est.) 
  by  occupation:  government  29.5%,  agriculture  22%,  construction  and 
  public  works  16.2%,  industry  13.6%,  commerce  and  services  13.5%, 
  transportation  and  communication  5.2%  (1989) 
 
  Algeria:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Democratic  and  Popular  Republic  of  Algeria 
  conventional  short  form:  Algeria 
  local  long  form:  Al  Jumhuriyah  al  Jaza'iriyah  ad  Dimuqratiyah  ash 
  Shabiyah 
  local  short  form:  Al  Jaza'ir 
 
  Digraph:  AG 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  Algiers 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  48  provinces  (wilayas,  singular  -  wilaya); 
  Adrar,  Ain  Defla,  Ain  Temouchent  Alger,  Annaba  Batna  Bechar, 
  Bejaia  Biskra  Blida  Bordj  Bou  Arreridj  Bouira  Boumerdes  Chlef, 
  Constantine,  Djelfa  El  Bayadh  El  Oued,  El  Tarf,  Ghardaia  Guelma 
  Illizi  Jijel  Khenchela  Laghouat  Mascara,  Medea,  Mila,  Mostaganem 
  M'Sila,  Naama,  Oran,  Ouargla  Oum  el  Bouaghi  Relizane  Saida,  Setif 
  Sidi  Bel  Abbes,  Skikda  Souk  Ahras  Tamanghasset  Tebessa  Tiaret 
  Tindouf  Tipaza  Tissemsilt  Tizi  Ouzou  Tlemcen 
 
  Independence:  5  July  1962  (from  France) 
 
  National  holiday:  Anniversary  of  the  Revolution,  1  November  (1954) 
 
  Constitution:  19  November  1976,  effective  22  November  1976;  revised  3 
  November  1988  and  23  February  1989 
 
  Legal  system:  socialist,  based  on  French  and  Islamic  law;  judicial 
  review  of  legislative  acts  in  ad  hoc  Constitutional  Council  composed 
  of  various  public  officials,  including  several  Supreme  Court  justices; 
  has  not  accepted  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Lamine  ZEROUAL  (since  31  January  1994);  next 
  election  to  be  held  by  the  end  of  1995 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Mokdad  SIFI  (since  11  April  1994) 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  appointed  by  the  prime  minister 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral;  note  -  suspended  since  1992 
  National  People's  Assembly  (Al-Majlis  Ech-Chaabi  Al-Watani):  elections 
  first  round  held  on  26  December  1991  (second  round  canceled  by  the 
  military  after  President  BENDJEDID  resigned  11  January  1992, 
  effectively  suspending  the  Assembly);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by 
  party  NA  seats  -  (281  total);  the  fundamentalist  FIS  won  188  of  the 
  231  seats  contested  in  the  first  round;  note  -  elections  (provincial 
  and  municipal)  were  held  in  June  1990,  the  first  in  Algerian  history; 
  results  -  FIS  55%,  FLN  27.5%,  other  17.5%,  with  65%  of  the  voters 
  participating 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court  (Cour  Supreme) 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Islamic  Salvation  Front  (FIS,  outlawed 
  April  1992),  Ali  BELHADJ  Dr  Abassi  MADANI  Abdelkader  HACHANI  (all 
  under  arrest),  Rabeh  KEBIR  (self-exile  in  Germany);  National 
  Liberation  Front  (FLN),  Abdelhamid  MEHRI  Secretary  General;  Socialist 
  Forces  Front  (FFS),  Hocine  Ait  AHMED  Secretary  General 
  note:  the  government  established  a  multiparty  system  in  September  1989 
  and  as  of  31  December  1990,  over  50  legal  parties  existed 
 
  Member  of:  ABEDA,  AfDB  AFESD  AL  AMF,  AMU,  CCC,  ECA,  FAO,  G-15, 
  G-19,  G-24,  G-77,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICRM,  IDA,  IDB,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS 
  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INMARSAT  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  ISO,  ITU,  NAM, 
  OAPEC  OAS  (observer),  OAU,  OIC,  OPEC,  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNHCR 
  UNIDO  UNMIH  UPU,  WCL,  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Osmane  BENCHERIF 
  chancery:  2118  Kalorama  Road  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  265-2800 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Ronald  E.  NEUMANN 
  embassy:  4  Chemin  Cheikh  Bachir  El-Ibrahimi,  Algiers 
  mailing  address:  B.  P.  Box  549,  Alger-Gare,  16000  Algiers 
  telephone:  [213]  (2)  69-11-86,  69-18-54,  69-38-75 
  FAX:  [213]  (2)  69-39-79 
  consulate(s):  none  (Oran  closed  June  1993) 
 
  Flag:  two  equal  vertical  bands  of  green  (hoist  side)  and  white  with  a 
  red  five-pointed  star  within  a  red  crescent;  the  crescent,  star,  and 
  color  green  are  traditional  symbols  of  Islam  (the  state  religion) 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  The  hydrocarbons  sector  is  the  backbone  of  the  economy, 
  accounting  for  roughly  57%  of  government  revenues,  25%  of  GDP,  and 
  almost  all  export  earnings;  Algeria  has  the  fifth  largest  reserves  of 
  natural  gas  in  the  world  and  ranks  fourteenth  for  oil.  Algiers' 
  efforts  to  reform  one  of  the  most  centrally  planned  economies  in  the 
  Arab  world  began  after  the  1986  collapse  of  world  oil  prices  plunged 
  the  country  into  a  severe  recession.  In  1989,  the  government  launched 
  a  comprehensive,  IMF-supported  program  to  achieve  macroeconomic 
  stabilization  and  to  introduce  market  mechanisms  into  the  economy. 
  Despite  substantial  progress  toward  macroeconomic  adjustment,  in  1992 
  the  reform  drive  stalled  as  Algiers  became  embroiled  in  political 
  turmoil.  In  September  1993,  a  new  government  was  formed,  and  one 
  priority  was  the  resumption  and  acceleration  of  the  structural 
  adjustment  process.  Buffeted  by  the  slump  in  world  oil  prices  and 
  burdened  with  a  heavy  foreign  debt,  Algiers  concluded  a  one-year 
  standby  arrangement  with  the  IMF  in  April  1994. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $97.1  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  0.2%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $3,480  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  30%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  30%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $14.3  billion 
  expenditures:  $17.9  billion  (1995  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $9.1  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994) 
  commodities:  petroleum  and  natural  gas  97% 
  partners:  Italy  21%,  France  16%,  US  14%,  Germany  13%,  Spain  9% 
 
  Imports:  $9.2  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  capital  goods  39.7%,  food  and  beverages  21.7%,  consumer 
  goods  11.8%  (1990) 
  partners:  France  29%,  Italy  14%,  Spain  9%,  US  9%,  Germany  7% 
 
  External  debt:  $26  billion  (1994) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  NA%;  accounts  for  35%  of  GDP 
  (including  hydrocarbons) 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  5,370,000  kW 
  production:  18.3  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  587  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  petroleum,  light  industries,  natural  gas,  mining, 
  electrical,  petrochemical,  food  processing 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  12%  of  GDP  (1993)  and  employs  22%  of  labor 
  force;  products-  wheat,  barley,  oats,  grapes,  olives,  citrus,  fruits, 
  sheep,  cattle;  net  importer  of  food  -  grain,  vegetable  oil,  sugar 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-85),  $1.4  billion; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-89),  $925  million;  OPEC  bilateral  aid  (1979-89),  $1.8  billion; 
  Communist  countries  (1970-89),  $2.7  billion;  net  official 
  disbursements  (1985-89),  $375  million 
 
  Currency:  1  Algerian  dinar  DA  =  100  centimes 
 
  Exchange  rates:  Algerian  dinars  DA  per  US$1  -  42.710  (January  1995), 
  35.059  (1994),  23.345  (1993),  21.836  (1992),  18.473  (1991),  8.958 
  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Algeria:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  4,733  km 
  standard  gauge:  3,576  km  1.435-m  gauge  (299  km  electrified;  215  km 
  double  track) 
  narrow  gauge:  1,157  km  1.055-m  gauge 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  95,576  km 
  paved:  concrete,  bituminous  57,346  km 
  unpaved:  gravel,  crushed  stone,  earth  38,230  km 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  6,612  km  petroleum  products  298  km  natural  gas 
  2,948  km 
 
  Ports:  Algiers,  Annaba  Arzew  Bejaia  Beni  Saf,  Dellys  Djendjene 
  Ghazaouet  Jijel  Mostaganem  Oran,  Skikda  Tenes 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  75  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  903,179  GRT/1,064,211  DWT 
 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  9,  cargo  27,  chemical  tanker  7,  liquefied  gas 
  tanker  9,  oil  tanker  5,  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  12,  short-sea  passenger 
  5,  specialized  tanker  1 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  139 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  9 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  23 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  14 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  5 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  20 
  with  unpaved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  3 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  24 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  41 
 
  Algeria:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  822,000  telephones;  excellent  domestic  and 
  international  service  in  the  north,  sparse  in  the  south 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  12  domestic  satellite  links;  20  additional  satellite  links 
  are  planned 
  international:  5  submarine  cables;  microwave  radio  relay  to  Italy, 
  France,  Spain,  Morocco,  and  Tunisia;  coaxial  cable  to  Morocco  and 
  Tunisia;  2  INTELSAT  (1  Atlantic  Ocean  and  1  Indian  Ocean),  1 
  Intersputnik  1  ARABSAT  earth  station 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  26,  FM  0,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  5.2  million 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  18 
  televisions:  1.6  million 
 
  Algeria:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  National  Popular  Army,  Navy,  Air  Force,  Territorial  Air 
  Defense,  National  Gendarmerie 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  7,124,894;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  4,373,272;  males  reach  military  age  (19)  annually 
  313,707  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $1.3  billion,  2.7%  of 
  GDP  (1994) 
 
 
 




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