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armenia

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armenia


  3  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Armenia 
  n  :  a  republic  in  southwestern  Asia;  formerly  an  Asian  Soviet; 
  throughout  2500  years  the  Armenian  people  have  been 
  invaded  and  oppressed  by  their  neighbors  [syn:  {Armenia}, 
  {Hayastan}] 
 
  From  Easton's  1897  Bible  Dictionary  [easton]: 
 
  Armenia 
  high  land,  occurs  only  in  Authorized  Version,  2  Kings  19:37;  in 
  Revised  Version,  "Ararat,"  which  is  the  Hebrew  word  A  country 
  in  western  Asia  lying  between  the  Caspian  and  the  Black  Sea. 
  Here  the  ark  of  Noah  rested  after  the  Deluge  (Gen.  8:4).  It  is 
  for  the  most  part  high  table-land,  and  is  watered  by  the  Aras, 
  the  Kur,  the  Euphrates,  and  the  Tigris.  Ararat  was  properly  the 
  name  of  a  part  of  ancient  Armenia.  Three  provinces  of  Armenia 
  are  mentioned  in  Jer.  51:27,  Ararat,  Minni,  and  Ashchenaz  Some 
  however,  think  Minni  a  contraction  for  Armenia.  (See  {ARARAT}.) 
 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Armenia 
 
  Armenia:Geography 
 
  Location:  Southwestern  Asia,  east  of  Turkey 
 
  Map  references:  Commonwealth  of  Independent  States  -  European  States 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  29,800  sq  km 
  land  area:  28,400  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  larger  than  Maryland 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  1,254  km  Azerbaijan  (east)  566  km  Azerbaijan 
  (south)  221  km  Georgia  164  km  Iran  35  km  Turkey  268  km 
 
  Coastline:  0  km  (landlocked) 
 
  Maritime  claims:  none;  landlocked 
 
  International  disputes:  supports  ethnic  Armenians  in  Nagorno-Karabakh 
  in  their  separatist  conflict  against  the  Azerbaijani  government; 
  traditional  demands  on  former  Armenian  lands  in  Turkey  have  subsided 
 
  Climate:  highland  continental,  hot  summers,  cold  winters 
 
  Terrain:  high  Armenian  Plateau  with  mountains;  little  forest  land; 
  fast  flowing  rivers;  good  soil  in  Aras  River  valley 
 
  Natural  resources:  small  deposits  of  gold,  copper,  molybdenum,  zinc, 
  alumina 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  17% 
  permanent  crops:  3% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  20% 
  forest  and  woodland:  0% 
  other:  60% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  3,050  sq  km  (1990) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  soil  pollution  from  toxic  chemicals  such  as  DDT; 
  energy  blockade,  the  result  of  conflict  with  Azerbaijan,  has  led  to 
  deforestation  as  citizens  scavenge  for  firewood;  pollution  of  Hrazdan 
  Razdan  and  Aras  Rivers;  the  draining  of  Sevana  Lich,  a  result  of  its 
  use  as  a  source  for  hydropower  threatens  drinking  water  supplies 
  natural  hazards:  occasionally  severe  earthquakes;  droughts 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change, 
  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Wetlands;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Desertification 
 
  Note:  landlocked 
 
  Armenia:People 
 
  Population:  3,557,284  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  31%  (female  542,664;  male  570,998) 
  15-64  years:  61%  (female  1,103,171;  male  1,076,226) 
  65  years  and  over:  8%  (female  154,784;  male  109,441)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  0.94%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  22.79  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  6.66  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  -6.68  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  26  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  72.36  years 
  male:  68.94  years 
  female:  75.95  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  3.06  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Armenian(s) 
  adjective:  Armenian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Armenian  93%,  Azeri  3%,  Russian  2%,  other  (mostly 
  Yezidi  Kurds)  2%  (1989) 
  note:  as  of  the  end  of  1994,  most  Azeris  had  emigrated  from  Armenia 
 
  Religions:  Armenian  Orthodox  94% 
 
  Languages:  Armenian  96%,  Russian  2%,  other  2% 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1989) 
  total  population:  99% 
  male:  99% 
  female:  98% 
 
  Labor  force:  1.578  million 
  by  occupation:  industry  and  construction  34%,  agriculture  and  forestry 
  31%,  other  35%  (1992) 
 
  Armenia:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Armenia 
  conventional  short  form:  Armenia 
  local  long  form:  Hayastani  Hanrapetut'yun 
  local  short  form:  Hayastan 
  former:  Armenian  Soviet  Socialist  Republic;  Armenian  Republic 
 
  Digraph:  AM 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  Yerevan 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  37  regions  (shrjanner,  singular  -  shrjan) 
  and  23  cities*  (kaghakner,  singular  -  kaghak);  Abovyan*,  Akhuryani 
  Shrjan  Alaverdi*,  Amasiayi  Shrjan  Anii  Shrjan  Aparani  Shrjan 
  Aragatsi  Shrjan  Ararat*,  Ararati  Shrjan  Armaviri  Shrjan  Artashat*, 
  Artashati  Shrjan  Art'ik*,  Art'iki  Shrjan  Ashots'k'i  Shrjan 
  Ashtarak*,  Ashtaraki  Shrjan  Baghramyani  Shrjan  Ch'arents'avan*, 
  Dilijan*,  Ejmiatsin*,  Ejmiatsni  Shrjan  Goris*,  Gorisi  Shrjan 
  Gugark'i  Shrjan  Gyumri*,  Hoktemberyan*,  Hrazdan*,  Hrazdani  Shrjan 
  Ijevan*,  Ijevani  Shrjan  Jermuk*,  Kamo*,  Kamoyi  Shrjan  Kapan*,  Kapani 
  Shrjan  Kotayk'i  Shrjan  Krasnoselski  Shrjan  Martunu  Shrjan  Masisi 
  Shrjan  Meghru  Shrjan  Metsamor*,  Nairii  Shrjan  Noyemberyani  Shrjan 
  Sevan*,  Sevani  Shrjan  Sisiani  Shrjan  Spitak*,  Spitaki  Shrjan 
  Step'anavan*,  Step'anavani  Shrjan  T'alini  Shrjan  Tashiri  Shrjan 
  Taushi  Shrjan  T'umanyani  Shrjan  Vanadzor*,  Vardenisi  Shrjan  Vayk'i 
  Shrjan  Yeghegnadzori  Shrjan  Yerevan* 
 
  Independence:  28  May  1918  (First  Armenian  Republic);  23  September  1991 
  (from  Soviet  Union) 
 
  National  holiday:  Referendum  Day  21  September 
 
  Constitution:  adopted  NA  April  1978;  referendum  on  new  constitution  to 
  be  held  5  July  1995 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  civil  law  system 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Levon  Akopovich  TER-PETROSYAN  (since  October 
  1991)  election  last  held  16  October  1991  (next  to  be  held  NA  1996); 
  results  -  Levon  Akopovich  TER-PETROSYAN  86%;  radical  nationalists 
  about  7%;  note  -  Levon  Akopovich  TER-PETROSYAN  was  elected  Chairman  of 
  the  Armenian  Supreme  Soviet  4  August  1990  before  becoming  president 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Hrant  BAGRATYAN  (since  16  February 
  1993);  First  Deputy  Prime  Minister  Vigen  CHITECHYAN  (since  16  February 
  1993) 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  appointed  by  the  president 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  Supreme  Soviet:  elections  last  held  20  May  1990  (next  to  be  held  5 
  July  1995);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA  seats  -  (260  total) 
  non-aligned  136,  ANM  52,  DPA  17,  Democratic  Liberal  Party  17,  ARF  12, 
  NDU  9,  Christian  Democratic  Party  1,  Constitutional  Rights  Union  1, 
  ONS  1,  Republican  Party  1,  Nagorno-Karabakh  representatives  13 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Armenian  National  Movement  (ANM), 
  Ter-Husik  LAZARYAN  chairman;  National  Democratic  Union  (NDU),  David 
  VARTANYAN  chairman;  Armenian  Revolutionary  Federation  (ARF, 
  Dashnaktsutyun);  note  -  banned  until  reorganized;  Democratic  Party  of 
  Armenia  (DPA;  Communist  Party),  Aram  SARKISYAN  chairman;  Christian 
  Democratic  Party,  Azat  ARSHAKYAN  chairman;  Greens  Party,  Hakob 
  SANASARIAN  chairman;  Democratic  Liberal  Party,  Rouben  MIRZAKHANYAN 
  chairman;  Republican  Party,  Ashot  NAVARSARDYAN  chairman;  Union  for 
  Self-Determination  (ONS),  Paruir  AIRIKYAN  chairman 
 
  Member  of:  BSEC,  CCC,  CIS,  EBRD,  ECE,  ESCAP,  FAO,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO, 
  IDA,  IFAD,  ILO,  IMF,  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  IOM,  ITU,  NACC,  NAM 
  (observer),  OSCE,  PFP,  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNIDO  UPU,  WHO  WIPO,  WMO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Ruben  SHUGARIAN 
  chancery:  Suite  210,  1660  L  Street  NW  Washington,  DC  20036 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  628-5766 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  628-5769 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Harry  J.  GILMORE 
  embassy:  18  Gen  Bagramian  Yerevan 
  mailing  address:  use  embassy  street  address 
  telephone:  [7]  (8852)  151-144,  524-661 
  FAX:  [7]  (8852)  151-138 
 
  Flag:  three  equal  horizontal  bands  of  red  (top),  blue,  and  gold 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Under  the  old  Soviet  central  planning  system,  Armenia  had 
  developed  a  more  modern  industrial  sector,  supplying  machine  building 
  equipment,  textiles,  and  other  manufactured  goods  to  sister  republics 
  in  exchange  for  raw  materials  and  energy  resources.  Armenia  is  a  large 
  food  importer  and  its  mineral  deposits  (gold,  bauxite)  are  small  The 
  economic  decline  in  recent  years  (1991-94)  has  been  particularly 
  severe  due  to  the  ongoing  conflict  over  the  ethnic  Armenian-dominated 
  region  of  Nagorno-Karabakh  in  Azerbaijan.  Azerbaijan  and  Turkey  have 
  blockaded  pipeline  and  railroad  traffic  to  Armenia  for  its  support  of 
  the  Karabakh  Armenians.  This  has  left  Armenia  with  chronic  energy 
  shortages  because  of  a  lack  of  capacity  and  frequent  disruptions  of 
  natural  gas  deliveries  through  unstable  Georgia,  as  well  as 
  difficulties  in  obtaining  other  types  of  fuel.  In  addition,  bread  is 
  strictly  rationed  and  there  are  shortages  of  other  goods.  In  1994,  the 
  economy  seemed  to  bottom  out  The  government  has  managed  to  increase 
  its  financial  and  budgetary  discipline,  bringing  inflation  down  from 
  around  40%  per  month  in  first  half  1994  to  single  digits  in  second 
  half  1994  and  the  first  quarter  of  1995.  A  full  economic  recovery 
  cannot  be  expected  until  the  conflict  is  settled  and  the  blockade 
  lifted. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $8.1  billion  (1994 
  estimate  as  extrapolated  from  World  Bank  estimate  for  1992) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  -2%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $2,290  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  27%  per  month  average  (1994  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  6.5%  of  officially  registered  unemployed  but  large 
  numbers  of  underemployed  (1994  est.) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $NA 
  expenditures:  $NA,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA 
 
  Exports:  $43  million  to  countries  outside  the  FSU  (f.o.b.,  1994) 
  commodities:  gold  and  jewelry,  aluminum,  transport  equipment, 
  electrical  equipment 
  partners:  Iran,  Russia,  Turkmenistan,  Georgia 
 
  Imports:  $120  million  from  countries  outside  the  FSU  (c.i.f.,  1994) 
  commodities:  grain,  other  foods,  fuel,  other  energy 
  partners:  Iran,  Russia,  Turkmenistan,  Georgia,  US  EU 
 
  External  debt:  $NA 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  7%  (1994  est.);  accounts  for  41%  of 
  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  4,620,000  kW 
  production:  5.7  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  1,620  kWh  (1994) 
 
  Industries:  traditionally  diverse,  including  (as  a  percent  of  output 
  of  former  USSR)  metalcutting  machine  tools  (5.5%),  forging-pressing 
  machines  (1.9%),  electric  motors  (9%),  tires  (1.5%),  knitted  wear 
  (4.4%),  hosiery  (3.0%),  shoes  (2.2%),  silk  fabric  (0.8%),  washing 
  machines  (2.0%),  chemicals,  trucks,  watches,  instruments,  and 
  microelectronics  (1990);  currently,  much  of  industry  is  shut  down 
 
  Agriculture:  only  17%  of  land  area  is  arable;  employs  31%  of  labor 
  force  as  residents  increasingly  turn  to  subsistence  agriculture; 
  fruits  (especially  grapes)  and  vegetable  farming,  minor  livestock 
  sector;  vineyards  near  Yerevan  are  famous  for  brandy  and  other 
  liqueurs 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  illicit  cultivator  of  cannabis  mostly  for  domestic 
  consumption;  used  as  a  transshipment  point  for  illicit  drugs  to 
  Western  Europe 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  considerable  humanitarian  aid,  mostly  food  and  energy 
  products,  from  US  and  EU  Russia  granted  60  billion  rubles  in 
  technical  credits  in  late  1994  and  approved  a  110  billion  ruble  credit 
  almost  half  of  which  was  to  go  toward  the  restart  of  the  Metsamor 
  nuclear  power  plant 
 
  Currency:  1  dram  =  100  luma  (introduced  new  currency  in  November  1993) 
 
  Exchange  rates:  dram  per  US$1  -  406  (end  December  1994) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Armenia:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  840  km  in  common  carrier  service;  does  not  include  industrial 
  lines 
  broad  gauge:  840  km  1.520-m  gauge  (1990) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  11,300  km 
  paved:  10,500  km 
  unpaved:  earth  800  km  (1990) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  NA  km 
 
  Pipelines:  natural  gas  900  km  (1991) 
 
  Ports:  none 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  11 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  1 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  2 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  2 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  3 
  with  unpaved  runways  under  914  m:  1 
 
  Armenia:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  about  650,000  telephones;  177  telephones/1,000 
  persons;  progress  on  installation  of  fiber  optic  cable  and 
  construction  of  facilities  for  mobile  cellular  phone  service  remains 
  in  the  negotiation  phase  for  joint  venture  agreement 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  NA 
  international:  international  connections  to  other  former  republics  of 
  the  USSR  are  by  landline  or  microwave  and  to  other  countries  by 
  satellite  and  by  leased  connection  through  the  Moscow  international 
  gateway  switch;  1  INTELSAT  satellite  link 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  NA  FM  NA  shortwave  NA 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  NA  note  -  100%  of  population  receives  Armenian 
  and  Russian  TV  programs 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Armenia:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army,  Air  and  Air  Defense  Forces,  National  Guard,  Security 
  Forces  (internal  and  border  troops) 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  877,414;  males  fit  for  military 
  service  699,167;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually  28,634  (1995 
  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  250  million  rubles,  NA%  of  GDP  (1992  est.);  note 
  -  conversion  of  the  military  budget  into  US  dollars  using  the  current 
  exchange  rate  could  produce  misleading  results 
 
 
 




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