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assyria

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assyria


  3  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Assyria 
  n  :  an  ancient  kingdom  in  northern  Mesopotamia  [syn:  {Assyria}] 
 
  From  Easton's  1897  Bible  Dictionary  [easton]: 
 
  Assyria 
  the  name  derived  from  the  city  Asshur  on  the  Tigris,  the 
  original  capital  of  the  country,  was  originally  a  colony  from 
  Babylonia,  and  was  ruled  by  viceroys  from  that  kingdom.  It  was  a 
  mountainous  region  lying  to  the  north  of  Babylonia,  extending 
  along  the  Tigris  as  far  as  to  the  high  mountain  range  of 
  Armenia,  the  Gordiaean  or  Carduchian  mountains.  It  was  founded 
  in  B.C.  1700  under  Bel-kap-kapu,  and  became  an  independent  and  a 
  conquering  power,  and  shook  off  the  yoke  of  its  Babylonian 
  masters.  It  subdued  the  whole  of  Northern  Asia.  The  Assyrians 
  were  Semites  (Gen.  10:22),  but  in  process  of  time  non-Semite 
  tribes  mingled  with  the  inhabitants.  They  were  a  military 
  people,  the  "Romans  of  the  East." 
 
  Of  the  early  history  of  the  kingdom  of  Assyria  little  is 
  positively  known  In  B.C.  1120  Tiglath-pileser  I.,  the  greatest 
  of  the  Assyrian  kings,  "crossed  the  Euphrates,  defeated  the 
  kings  of  the  Hittites,  captured  the  city  of  Carchemish,  and 
  advanced  as  far  as  the  shores  of  the  Mediterranean."  He  may  be 
  regarded  as  the  founder  of  the  first  Assyrian  empire.  After  this 
  the  Assyrians  gradually  extended  their  power,  subjugating  the 
  states  of  Northern  Syria.  In  the  reign  of  Ahab,  king  of  Israel, 
  Shalmaneser  II  marched  an  army  against  the  Syrian  states,  whose 
  allied  army  he  encountered  and  vanquished  at  Karkar.  This  led  to 
  Ahab's  casting  off  the  yoke  of  Damascus  and  allying  himself  with 
  Judah.  Some  years  after  this  the  Assyrian  king  marched  an  army 
  against  Hazael,  king  of  Damascus.  He  besieged  and  took  that 
  city.  He  also  brought  under  tribute  Jehu,  and  the  cities  of  Tyre 
  and  Sidon. 
 
  About  a  hundred  years  after  this  (B.C.  745)  the  crown  was 
  seized  by  a  military  adventurer  called  Pul,  who  assumed  the  name 
  of  Tiglath-pileser  III.  He  directed  his  armies  into  Syria,  which 
  had  by  this  time  regained  its  independence,  and  took  (B.C.  740) 
  Arpad,  near  Aleppo,  after  a  siege  of  three  years,  and  reduced 
  Hamath.  Azariah  (Uzziah)  was  an  ally  of  the  king  of  Hamath,  and 
  thus  was  compelled  by  Tiglath-pileser  to  do  him  homage  and  pay  a 
  yearly  tribute. 
 
  In  B.C.  738,  in  the  reign  of  Menahem,  king  of  Israel,  Pul 
  invaded  Israel,  and  imposed  on  it  a  heavy  tribute  (2  Kings 
  15:19).  Ahaz,  the  king  of  Judah,  when  engaged  in  a  war  against 
  Israel  and  Syria,  appealed  for  help  to  this  Assyrian  king  by 
  means  of  a  present  of  gold  and  silver  (2  Kings  16:8);  who 
  accordingly  "marched  against  Damascus,  defeated  and  put  Rezin  to 
  death,  and  besieged  the  city  itself."  Leaving  a  portion  of  his 
  army  to  continue  the  siege,  "he  advanced  through  the  province 
  east  of  Jordan,  spreading  fire  and  sword,"  and  became  master  of 
  Philistia,  and  took  Samaria  and  Damascus.  He  died  B.C.  727,  and 
  was  succeeded  by  Shalmanezer  IV.,  who  ruled  till  B.C.  722.  He 
  also  invaded  Syria  (2  Kings  17:5),  but  was  deposed  in  favour  of 
  Sargon  (q.v.)  the  Tartan,  or  commander-in-chief  of  the  army,  who 
  took  Samaria  (q.v.)  after  a  siege  of  three  years,  and  so  put  an 
  end  to  the  kingdom  of  Israel,  carrying  the  people  away  into 
  captivity,  B.C.  722  (2  Kings  17:1-6,  24;  18:7,  9).  He  also 
  overran  the  land  of  Judah,  and  took  the  city  of  Jerusalem  (Isa. 
  10:6,  12,  22,  24,  34).  Mention  is  next  made  of  Sennacherib  (B.C. 
  705),  the  son  and  successor  of  Sargon  (2  Kings  18:13;  19:37; 
  Isa.  7:17,  18);  and  then  of  Esar-haddon,  his  son  and  successor, 
  who  took  Manasseh,  king  of  Judah,  captive,  and  kept  him  for  some 
  time  a  prisoner  at  Babylon,  which  he  alone  of  all  the  Assyrian 
  kings  made  the  seat  of  his  government  (2  Kings  19:37;  Isa. 
  37:38). 
 
  Assur-bani-pal,  the  son  of  Esarhaddon,  became  king,  and  in 
  Ezra  4:10  is  referred  to  as  Asnapper.  From  an  early  period 
  Assyria  had  entered  on  a  conquering  career,  and  having  absorbed 
  Babylon,  the  kingdoms  of  Hamath,  Damascus,  and  Samaria,  it 
  conquered  Phoenicia,  and  made  Judea  feudatory,  and  subjected 
  Philistia  and  Idumea.  At  length,  however,  its  power  declined.  In 
  B.C.  727  the  Babylonians  threw  off  the  rule  of  the  Assyrians, 
  under  the  leadership  of  the  powerful  Chaldean  prince 
  Merodach-baladan  (2  Kings  20:12),  who  after  twelve  years,  was 
  subdued  by  Sargon,  who  now  reunited  the  kingdom,  and  ruled  over 
  a  vast  empire.  But  on  his  death  the  smouldering  flames  of 
  rebellion  again  burst  forth,  and  the  Babylonians  and  Medes 
  successfully  asserted  their  independence  (B.C.  625),  and  Assyria 
  fell  according  to  the  prophecies  of  Isaiah  (10:5-19),  Nahum 
  (3:19),  and  Zephaniah  (3:13),  and  the  many  separate  kingdoms  of 
  which  it  was  composed  ceased  to  recognize  the  "great  king"  (2 
  Kings  18:19;  Isa.  36:4).  Ezekiel  (31)  attests  (about  B.C.  586) 
  how  completely  Assyria  was  overthrown.  It  ceases  to  be  a  nation. 
  (See  {NINEVEH};  {BABYLON}.) 
 
 
  From  Hitchcock's  Bible  Names  Dictionary  (late  1800's)  [hitchcock]: 
 
  Assyria,  country  of  Assur  or  Ashur 
 




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