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austria

more about austria

austria


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Austria 
  n  :  a  mountainous  republic  in  central  Europe;  under  the 
  Hapsburgs  (1278-1918)  Austria  maintained  control  of  the 
  Holy  Roman  Empire  and  was  a  leader  in  European  politics 
  until  the  19th  century  [syn:  {Austria},  {Oesterreich}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Austria 
 
  Austria:Geography 
 
  Location:  Central  Europe,  north  of  Italy 
 
  Map  references:  Europe 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  83,850  sq  km 
  land  area:  82,730  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  smaller  than  Maine 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  2,496  km  Czech  Republic  362  km  Germany  784 
  km  Hungary  366  km  Italy  430  km  Liechtenstein  37  km  Slovakia  91  km 
  Slovenia  262  km  Switzerland  164  km 
 
  Coastline:  0  km  (landlocked) 
 
  Maritime  claims:  none;  landlocked 
 
  International  disputes:  none 
 
  Climate:  temperate;  continental,  cloudy;  cold  winters  with  frequent 
  rain  in  lowlands  and  snow  in  mountains;  cool  summers  with  occasional 
  showers 
 
  Terrain:  in  the  west  and  south  mostly  mountains  (Alps);  along  the 
  eastern  and  northern  margins  mostly  flat  or  gently  sloping 
 
  Natural  resources:  iron  ore,  petroleum,  timber,  magnesite,  aluminum, 
  lead,  coal,  lignite,  copper,  hydropower 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  17% 
  permanent  crops:  1% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  24% 
  forest  and  woodland:  39% 
  other:  19% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  40  sq  km  (1989) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  some  forest  degradation  caused  by  air  and  soil 
  pollution;  soil  pollution  results  from  the  use  of  agricultural 
  chemicals;  air  pollution  results  from  emissions  by  coal-  and  oil-fired 
  power  stations  and  industrial  plants  and  from  trucks  transiting 
  Austria  between  northern  and  southern  Europe 
  natural  hazards:  NA 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Air  Pollution,  Air 
  Pollution-Nitrogen  Oxides,  Air  Pollution-Sulphur  85,  Air 
  Pollution-Volatile  Organic  Compounds,  Antarctic  Treaty,  Biodiversity, 
  Climate  Change,  Endangered  Species,  Environmental  Modification, 
  Hazardous  Wastes,  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship 
  Pollution,  Tropical  Timber  83,  Wetlands;  signed,  but  not  ratified  - 
  Air  Pollution-Sulpher  94,  Antarctic-Environmental  Protocol,  Law  of  the 
  Sea,  Whaling 
 
  Note:  landlocked;  strategic  location  at  the  crossroads  of  central 
  Europe  with  many  easily  traversable  Alpine  passes  and  valleys;  major 
  river  is  the  Danube;  population  is  concentrated  on  eastern  lowlands 
  because  of  steep  slopes,  poor  soils,  and  low  temperatures  elsewhere 
 
  Austria:People 
 
  Population:  7,986,664  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  17%  (female  681,087;  male  711,127) 
  15-64  years:  67%  (female  2,672,554;  male  2,677,100) 
  65  years  and  over:  16%  (female  791,762;  male  453,034)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  0.35%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  11.21  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  10.27  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  2.5  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  6.9  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  76.9  years 
  male:  73.7  years 
  female:  80.27  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  1.48  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Austrian(s) 
  adjective:  Austrian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  German  99.4%,  Croatian  0.3%,  Slovene  0.2%,  other 
  0.1% 
 
  Religions:  Roman  Catholic  85%,  Protestant  6%,  other  9% 
 
  Languages:  German 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1974  est.) 
  total  population:  99% 
 
  Labor  force:  3.47  million  (1989) 
  by  occupation:  services  56.4%,  industry  and  crafts  35.4%,  agriculture 
  and  forestry  8.1% 
  note:  an  estimated  200,000  Austrians  are  employed  in  other  European 
  countries;  foreign  laborers  in  Austria  number  177,840,  about  5%  of 
  labor  force  (1988) 
 
  Austria:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Austria 
  conventional  short  form:  Austria 
  local  long  form:  Republik  Oesterreich 
  local  short  form:  Oesterreich 
 
  Digraph:  AU 
 
  Type:  federal  republic 
 
  Capital:  Vienna 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  9  states  (bundeslaender,  singular  - 
  bundesland);  Burgenland  Kaernten  Niederoesterreich  Oberoesterreich 
  Salzburg  Steiermark  Tirol,  Vorarlberg  Wien 
 
  Independence:  12  November  1918  (from  Austro-Hungarian  Empire) 
 
  National  holiday:  National  Day  26  October  (1955) 
 
  Constitution:  1920;  revised  1929  (reinstated  1  May  1945) 
 
  Legal  system:  civil  law  system  with  Roman  law  origin;  judicial  review 
  of  legislative  acts  by  a  Constitutional  Court;  separate  administrative 
  and  civil/penal  supreme  courts;  has  not  accepted  compulsory  ICJ 
  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal;  compulsory  for  presidential 
  elections 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Thomas  KLESTIL  (since  8  July  1992);  election 
  last  held  24  May  1992  (next  to  be  held  1996);  results  of  second  ballot 
  -  Thomas  KLESTIL  57%,  Rudolf  STREICHER  43% 
  head  of  government:  Chancellor  Franz  VRANITZKY  (since  16  June  1986); 
  Vice  Chancellor  Erhard  BUSEK  (since  2  July  1991) 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  chosen  by  the  president  on  the  advice 
  of  the  chancellor 
 
  Legislative  branch:  bicameral  Federal  Assembly  (Bundesversammlung) 
  Federal  Council  (Bundesrat):  consists  of  63  members  representing  each 
  of  the  provinces  on  the  basis  of  population,  but  with  each  province 
  having  at  least  3  representatives 
  National  Council  (Nationalrat):  elections  last  held  9  October  1994 
  (next  to  be  held  October  1998);  results  -  SPOE  34.9%,  OEVP  27.7%,  FPOE 
  22.5%,  Greens  7.3%,  LF  6.0%  other  1.6%;  seats  -  (183  total)  SPOE  65, 
  OEVP  52,  FPOE  42,  Greens  13,  LF  11 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Judicial  Court  (Oberster  Gerichtshof)  for 
  civil  and  criminal  cases,  Administrative  Court 
  (Verwaltungsgerichtshof)  for  bureaucratic  cases,  Constitutional  Court 
  (Verfassungsgerichtshof)  for  constitutional  cases 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Social  Democratic  Party  of  Austria 
  (SPOE),  Franz  VRANITZKY  chairman;  Austrian  People's  Party  (OEVP), 
  Erhard  BUSEK  chairman;  Freedom  Movement  F  (was  the  Freedom  Party  of 
  Austria,  FPOE),  Joerg  HAIDER,  chairman;  Communist  Party  (KPOE),  Walter 
  SILBERMAYER  chairman;  The  Greens,  Madeleine  PETROVIC  Liberal  Forum 
  (LF),  Heide  SCHMIDT 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  Federal  Chamber  of  Commerce  and 
  Industry;  Austrian  Trade  Union  Federation  (primarily  Socialist);  three 
  composite  leagues  of  the  Austrian  People's  Party  OEVP  representing 
  business,  labor,  and  farmers;  OEVP-oriented  League  of  Austrian 
  Industrialists;  Roman  Catholic  Church,  including  its  chief  lay 
  organization,  Catholic  Action 
 
  Member  of:  AfDB  AG  (observer),  AsDB  Australia  Group  BIS,  CCC,  CE 
  CEI,  CERN,  EBRD,  ECE,  EFTA,  ESA,  EU  FAO,  G-  9,  GATT,  IADB,  IAEA, 
  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICC,  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA,  IEA,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF, 
  IMO,  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  IOM,  ISO,  ITU,  MINURSO  MTCR,  NAM 
  (guest),  NEA,  NSG,  OAS  (observer),  OECD  ONUSAL  OSCE,  PCA,  UN 
  UNAMIR  UNCTAD  UNDOF  UNESCO,  UNFICYP  UNHCR  UNIDO  UNIKOM  UNMIH 
  UNOMIL  UNOMOZ  UNTSO  UPU,  WCL,  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO,  ZC 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Helmut  TUERK 
  chancery:  3524  International  Court  NW  Washington,  DC  20008-3035 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  895-6700 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  895-6750 
  consulate(s)  general:  Chicago,  Los  Angeles,  and  New  York 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Swanee  G.  HUNT 
  chancery:  Boltzmanngasse  16,  A-1091,  Vienna 
  mailing  address:  use  embassy  street  address 
  telephone:  [43]  (1)  313-39 
  FAX:  [43]  (1)  310-0682 
  consulate(s)  general:  none  (Salzburg  closed  September  1993) 
 
  Flag:  three  equal  horizontal  bands  of  red  (top),  white,  and  red 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Austria  boasts  a  prosperous  and  stable  market  economy  with  a 
  sizable  but  falling  proportion  of  nationalized  industry  and  with 
  extensive  welfare  benefits.  Thanks  to  its  raw  material  endowment,  a 
  technically  skilled  labor  force,  and  strong  links  to  German  industrial 
  firms,  Austria  occupies  specialized  niches  in  European  industry  and 
  services  (tourism,  banking)  and  produces  almost  enough  food  to  feed 
  itself  with  only  8%  of  the  labor  force  in  agriculture.  After  11 
  consecutive  years  of  growth,  the  Austrian  economy  experienced  a  mild 
  recession  in  1993,  but  growth  resumed  in  1994.  Unemployment  is  4.3% 
  and  will  likely  stay  at  that  level  as  companies  adjust  to  the 
  competition  of  EU  membership  beginning  1  January  1995.  To  prepare  for 
  EU  membership,  Austria's  government  has  taken  measures  to  open  the 
  economy  by  introducing  a  major  tax  reform,  privatizing  state-owned 
  firms,  and  liberalizing  cross-border  capital  movements.  Problems  for 
  the  1990s  include  an  aging  population,  the  high  level  of  industrial 
  subsidies,  and  the  struggle  to  keep  welfare  benefits  within  budgetary 
  capabilities  -  the  deficit  climbed  to  over  4%  of  GDP  in  1994. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $139.3  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  2.5%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $17,500  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  3%  (1994) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  4.3%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $52.2  billion 
  expenditures:  $60.3  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA 
  (1993  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $44.1  billion  (1994  est.) 
  commodities:  machinery  and  equipment,  iron  and  steel,  lumber, 
  textiles,  paper  products,  chemicals 
  partners:  EC  63.5%  (Germany  38.9%),  EFTA  9.0%,  Eastern  Europe/FSU 
  12.3%,  Japan  1.5%,  US  3.4%  (1993) 
 
  Imports:  $53.8  billion  (1994  est.) 
  commodities:  petroleum,  foodstuffs,  machinery  and  equipment,  vehicles, 
  chemicals,  textiles  and  clothing,  pharmaceuticals 
  partners:  EC  66.8%  (Germany  41.3%),  EFTA  6.7%,  Eastern  Europe/FSU 
  7.5%,  Japan  4.4%,  US  4.4%  (1993) 
 
  External  debt:  $21.5  billion  (1994  est.) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  2.5%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  17,230,000  kW 
  production:  50.2  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  5,824  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  foods,  iron  and  steel,  machines,  textiles,  chemicals, 
  electrical,  paper  and  pulp,  tourism,  mining,  motor  vehicles 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  3.2%  of  GDP  (including  forestry);  principal 
  crops  and  animals  -  grains,  fruit,  potatoes,  sugar  beets,  sawn  wood, 
  cattle,  pigs,  poultry;  80%-90%  self-sufficient  in  food 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  transshipment  point  for  Southwest  Asian  heroin 
  transiting  the  Balkan  route  and  Eastern  Europe 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  donor:  ODA  and  OOF  commitments  (1970-89),  $2.4  billion 
 
  Currency:  1  Austrian  schilling  S  =  100  groschen 
 
  Exchange  rates:  Austrian  schillings  S  per  US$1  -  10.774  (January 
  1995),  11.422  (1994),  11.632  (1993),  10.989  (1992),  11.676  (1991), 
  11.370  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Austria:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  5,624  km 
  standard  gauge:  5,269  km  1.435-m  gauge  (3,162  km  electrified) 
  narrow  gauge:  355  km  1.000-m  and  0.760-m  gauge  (84  km  electrified) 
  (1994) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  110,000  km 
  paved:  35,000  km  (including  1,554  km  of  autobahn) 
  unpaved:  mostly  gravel  and  earth  75,000  km  (1992) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  446  km 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  554  km  petroleum  products  171  km  natural  gas 
  2,611  km 
 
  Ports:  Linz,  Vienna 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  32  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  152,885  GRT/235,719  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  3,  cargo  25,  oil  tanker  1,  refrigerated  cargo  2, 
  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  1 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  55 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  1 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  5 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  1 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  3 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  41 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  4 
 
  Austria:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  4,014,000  telephones;  highly  developed  and  efficient 
 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  NA 
  international:  2  INTELSAT  (1  Atlantic  Ocean  and  1  Indian  Ocean),  and 
  EUTELSAT  earth  stations 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  6,  FM  21  (repeaters  545),  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  47  (repeaters  870) 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Austria:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army  (includes  Flying  Division) 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  2,026,567;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  1,695,879;  males  reach  military  age  (19)  annually 
  46,821  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  about  $1.8  billion, 
  0.9%  of  GDP  (1994) 
 
 
 




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