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belarus

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belarus


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Belarus 
  n  :  a  landlocked  republic  in  eastern  Europe;  formerly  a  European 
  Soviet  [syn:  {Belarus},  {Byelarus},  {Byelorussia},  {Belorussia}, 
  {White  Russia}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Belarus 
 
  Belarus:Geography 
 
  Location:  Eastern  Europe,  east  of  Poland 
 
  Map  references:  Commonwealth  of  Independent  States  -  European  States 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  207,600  sq  km 
  land  area:  207,600  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  smaller  than  Kansas 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  3,098  km  Latvia  141  km  Lithuania  502  km 
  Poland  605  km  Russia  959  km  Ukraine  891  km 
 
  Coastline:  0  km  (landlocked) 
 
  Maritime  claims:  none;  landlocked 
 
  International  disputes:  none 
 
  Climate:  cold  winters,  cool  and  moist  summers;  transitional  between 
  continental  and  maritime 
 
  Terrain:  generally  flat  and  contains  much  marshland 
 
  Natural  resources:  forest  land,  peat  deposits,  small  quantities  of  oil 
  and  natural  gas 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  29% 
  permanent  crops:  1% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  15% 
  forest  and  woodland:  0% 
  other:  55% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  1,490  sq  km  (1990) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  soil  pollution  from  pesticide  use  southern  part  of 
  the  country  contaminated  with  fallout  from  1986  nuclear  reactor 
  accident  at  Chornobyl' 
  natural  hazards:  NA 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Air  Pollution,  Air 
  Pollution-Nitrogen  Oxides,  Air  Pollution-Sulphur  85,  Biodiversity, 
  Environmental  Modification,  Marine  Dumping,  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone 
  Layer  Protection;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Climate  Change,  Law  of 
  the  Sea 
 
  Note:  landlocked 
 
  Belarus:People 
 
  Population:  10,437,418  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  22%  (female  1,126,062;  male  1,166,439) 
  15-64  years:  65%  (female  3,494,891;  male  3,293,196) 
  65  years  and  over:  13%  (female  913,508;  male  443,322)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  0.3%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  12.98  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  11.23  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  1.27  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  18.6  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  71.03  years 
  male:  66.36  years 
  female:  75.93  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  1.87  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Belarusian(s) 
  adjective:  Belarusian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Byelorussian  77.9%,  Russian  13.2%,  Polish  4.1%, 
  Ukrainian  2.9%,  other  1.9% 
 
  Religions:  Eastern  Orthodox,  other 
 
  Languages:  Byelorussian,  Russian,  other 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1989) 
  total  population:  97% 
  male:  99% 
  female:  96% 
 
  Labor  force:  4.887  million 
  by  occupation:  industry  and  construction  40%,  agriculture  and  forestry 
  21%,  other  39%  (1992) 
 
  Belarus:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Belarus 
  conventional  short  form:  Belarus 
  local  long  form:  Respublika  Byelarus' 
  local  short  form:  none 
  former:  Belorussian  (Byelorussian)  Soviet  Socialist  Republic 
 
  Digraph:  BO 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  Minsk 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  6  voblastsi  (singular  -  voblasts')  and  one 
  municipality*  (harady,  singular  -  horad);  Brestskaya  (Brest), 
  Homyel'skaya  (Homyel'),  Horad  Minsk*,  Hrodzyenskaya  (Hrodna), 
  Mahilyowskaya  (Mahilyow),  Minskaya  Vitsyebskaya  Vitsyebsk 
  note:  the  administrative  centers  of  the  voblastsi  are  included  in 
  parentheses 
 
  Independence:  25  August  1991  (from  Soviet  Union) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  27  July  (1990) 
 
  Constitution:  adopted  15  March  1994;  replaces  constitution  of  April 
  1978 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  civil  law  system 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Aleksandr  LUKASHENKO  (since  20  July  1994); 
  election  held  June  24  and  10  July  1994  (next  to  be  held  NA  1999); 
  Aleksandr  LUKASHENKO  80%,  Vyacheslav  KEBICH  14% 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Mikhail  CHIGIR  (since  July  1994); 
  Deputy  Prime  Ministers  Vladimir  GARKUN  Viktor  GONCHAR  Sergey  LING, 
  Mikhail  MYASNIKOVICH  Valeriy  KOKAREV  (since  NA) 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers 
  note:  first  presidential  elections  took  place  in  June-July  1994 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  Supreme  Soviet:  elections  last  held  4  April  1990  (next  to  be  held  14 
  May  1995);  results  -  Communists  87%;  seats  -  (360  total)  number  of 
  seats  by  party  NA  note  -  50  seats  are  for  public  bodies;  the 
  Communist  Party  obtained  an  overwhelming  majority 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Belarusian  Popular  Front  (BPF),  Zenon 
  POZNYAK  chairman;  Party  of  Popular  Accord,  Gennadiy  KARPENKO  Union 
  of  Belarusian  Entreprenuers  V.  N.  KARYAGIN  Belarusian  Party  of 
  Communists,  Vasiliy  NOVIKOV  Viktor  CHIKIN,  chairmen;  Belarus  Peasant 
  Party,  Yevgeniy  LUGIN,  chairman;  Belarusian  Socialist  Party, 
  Vyacheslav  KUZNETSOV  chairman;  Belarusian  Social  Democrat  Party 
  (SDBP),  Oleg  TRUSOV  Stanislav  SHUSHKEVICH  chairmen;  Agrarian  Party 
  of  Belarus,  Aleksandr  DUBKO  United  Democratic  Party  of  Belarus 
  (UDPB),  Aleksandr  DOBROVOLSKIY  chairman;  Independent  Trade  Unions, 
  Sergey  ANTONCHIK  chairman 
 
  Member  of:  CCC,  CE  (guest),  CEI  (associate  members),  CIS,  EBRD,  ECE, 
  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  IFC,  ILO,  IMF,  INMARSAT  INTELSAT  (nonsignatory 
  user),  INTERPOL,  IOC,  ISO,  ITU,  NACC,  OSCE,  PCA,  PFP,  UN  UNCTAD 
  UNESCO,  UNIDO  UPU,  WHO  WIPO,  WMO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Sergey  Nikolayevich  MARTYNOV 
  chancery:  1619  New  Hampshire  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20009 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  986-1604 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  986-1805 
  consulate(s)  general:  New  York 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Kenneth  Spencer  YALOWITZ 
  embassy:  Starovilenskaya  #46,  Minsk 
  mailing  address:  use  embassy  street  address 
  telephone:  [7]  (0172)  34-65-37 
 
  Flag:  three  horizontal  bands  of  white  (top),  red,  and  white 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Belarus  ranks  among  the  most  developed  of  the  former  Soviet 
  states,  with  a  relatively  modern  -  by  Soviet  standards  -  and  diverse 
  machine  building  sector  and  a  robust  agriculture  sector.  It  also 
  serves  as  a  transport  link  for  Russian  oil  exports  to  the  Baltic 
  states  and  Eastern  and  Western  Europe.  The  breakup  of  the  Soviet  Union 
  and  its  command  economy  has  resulted  in  a  sharp  economic  contraction 
  as  traditional  trade  ties  have  collapsed.  The  Belarusian  government 
  has  lagged  behind  the  governments  of  most  other  former  Soviet  states 
  in  economic  reform,  with  privatization  almost  nonexistent.  The  system 
  of  state  orders  and  distribution  persists.  In  mid-1994,  the  Belarusian 
  government  embarked  on  an  austerity  program  with  IMF  support  to  slash 
  state  credits  and  consumer  subsidies  in  order  to  bring  down  the  budget 
  deficit  and  reduce  inflation.  However,  despite  its  promising  start 
  the  regime's  drive  to  reinvigorate  the  economy  has  fallen  short,  and 
  the  IMF  has  criticized  its  failure  to  implement  the  reforms  that  the 
  Fund  had  negotiated.  As  a  result,  the  IMF  has  suspended  talks  on 
  introducing  a  stand-by  arrangement.  Economic  relations  with  Russia, 
  which  will  have  an  important  bearing  on  the  future  course  of  the 
  economy,  will  be  strengthened  if  Minsk  adopts  the  necessary 
  legislation  to  implement  a  customs  union  agreed  to  in  January  1995. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $53.4  billion  (1994 
  estimate  as  extrapolated  from  World  Bank  estimate  for  1992) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  -20%  (1994) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $5,130  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  29%  per  month  (1994) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  1.4%  officially  registered  unemployed  (December 
  1993);  large  numbers  of  underemployed  workers 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $NA 
  expenditures:  $NA,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA 
 
  Exports:  $968  million  to  outside  of  the  FSU  countries  (f.o.b.,  1994) 
  commodities:  machinery  and  transport  equipment,  chemicals,  foodstuffs 
  partners:  Russia,  Ukraine,  Poland,  Bulgaria 
 
  Imports:  $534  million  from  outside  the  FSU  countries  (c.i.f.,  1994) 
  commodities:  fuel,  natural  gas,  industrial  raw  materials,  textiles, 
  sugar 
  partners:  Russia,  Ukraine,  Poland 
 
  External  debt:  $1.5  billion  (July  1994  est.) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  -19%  (1994);  accounts  for  about  40% 
  of  GDP  (1992) 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  7,010,000  kW 
  production:  31.4  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  3,010  kWh  (1994) 
 
  Industries:  employ  about  40%  of  labor  force  and  produced  a  wide 
  variety  of  products  including  (in  percent  share  of  total  output  of 
  former  Soviet  Union):  tractors  (12%);  metal-cutting  machine  tools 
  (11%);  off-highway  dump  trucks  up  to  110-metric-ton  load  capacity 
  (100%);  wheel-type  earthmovers  for  construction  and  mining  (100%); 
  eight-wheel-drive,  high-flotation  trucks  with  cargo  capacity  of  25 
  metric  tons  for  use  in  tundra  and  roadless  areas  (100%);  equipment  for 
  animal  husbandry  and  livestock  feeding  (25%);  motorcycles  (21.3%); 
  television  sets  (11%);  chemical  fibers  (28%);  fertilizer  (18%);  linen 
  fabric  (11%);  wool  fabric  (7%);  radios;  refrigerators;  and  other 
  consumer  goods 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  almost  25%  of  GDP  and  5.7%  of  total 
  agricultural  output  of  former  Soviet  Union;  employs  21%  of  the  labor 
  force;  in  1988  produced  the  following  (in  percent  of  total  Soviet 
  production):  grain  (3.6%),  potatoes  (12.2%),  vegetables  (3.0%),  meat 
  (6.0%),  milk  (7.0%);  net  exporter  of  meat,  milk,  eggs,  flour,  potatoes 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  illicit  cultivator  of  opium  poppy  and  cannabis;  mostly 
  for  the  domestic  market;  transshipment  point  for  illicit  drugs  to 
  Western  Europe 
 
  Economic  aid:  $NA 
 
  Currency:  Belarusian  rubel  BR 
 
  Exchange  rates:  Belarusian  rubels  per  US$1  -  10,600  (end  December 
  1994) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Belarus:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  5,570  km  in  common  carrier  service;  does  not  include  industrial 
  lines 
  broad  gauge:  5,570  km  1.520-m  gauge  (1990) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  98,200  km 
  paved:  66,100  km 
  unpaved:  earth  32,100  km  (1990) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  NA  km 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  1,470  km  refined  products  1,100  km  natural  gas 
  1,980  km  (1992) 
 
  Ports:  Mazyr 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  note:  claims  5%  of  former  Soviet  fleet 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  118 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  18 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  5 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  11 
  with  unpaved  runways  over  3,047  m:  1 
  with  unpaved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  6 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  4 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  9 
  with  unpaved  runways  under  914  m:  62 
 
  Belarus:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  1,849,000  telephones  (December  1991);  18 
  telephones/100  persons;  telephone  service  inadequate  for  the  purposes 
  of  either  business  or  the  population;  about  70%  of  the  telephones  are 
  in  homes;  over  750,000  applications  from  households  for  telephones 
  remain  unsatisfied  (1992);  new  investment  centers  on  international 
  connections  and  business  needs  the  new  BelCel  NMT  450  cellular  system 
  (a  joint  venture)  is  now  operating  in  Minsk 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  NA 
  international:  international  traffic  is  carried  by  the  Moscow 
  international  gateway  switch  and  also  by  2  satellite  earth  stations 
  near  Minsk  -  INTELSAT  (through  Canada)  and  EUTELSAT  (through  the  UK) 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  NA  FM  NA  shortwave  0 
  radios:  3.14  million  (5,615,000  with  multiple  speaker  systems  for 
  program  diffusion) 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  NA 
  televisions:  3.538  million 
 
  Belarus:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army,  Air  Force,  Air  Defense  Force,  Republic  Security  Forces 
  (internal  and  border  troops) 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  2,550,500;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  1,999,138;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually 
  71,808  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  56.5  billion  rubles,  NA%  of  GDP  (1993  est.); 
  note  -  conversion  of  the  military  budget  into  US  dollars  using  the 
  current  exchange  rate  could  produce  misleading  results 
 
 
 




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