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bhutan

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bhutan


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Bhutan 
  n  :  a  principality  in  the  Himalayas  northeast  of  India  [syn:  {Bhutan}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Bhutan 
 
  Bhutan:Geography 
 
  Location:  Southern  Asia,  between  China  and  India 
 
  Map  references:  Asia 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  47,000  sq  km 
  land  area:  47,000  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  more  than  half  the  size  of  Indiana 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  1,075  km  China  470  km  India  605  km 
 
  Coastline:  0  km  (landlocked) 
 
  Maritime  claims:  none;  landlocked 
 
  International  disputes:  none 
 
  Climate:  varies;  tropical  in  southern  plains;  cool  winters  and  hot 
  summers  in  central  valleys;  severe  winters  and  cool  summers  in 
  Himalayas 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  mountainous  with  some  fertile  valleys  and  savanna 
 
  Natural  resources:  timber,  hydropower  gypsum,  calcium  carbide 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  2% 
  permanent  crops:  0% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  5% 
  forest  and  woodland:  70% 
  other:  23% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  340  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  soil  erosion;  limited  access  to  potable  water 
  natural  hazards:  violent  storms  coming  down  from  the  Himalayas  are  the 
  source  of  the  country's  name  which  translates  as  Land  of  the  Thunder 
  Dragon;  frequent  landslides  during  the  rainy  season 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Nuclear  Test  Ban;  signed,  but  not 
  ratified  -  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change,  Law  of  the  Sea 
 
  Note:  landlocked;  strategic  location  between  China  and  India;  controls 
  several  key  Himalayan  mountain  passes 
 
  Bhutan:People 
 
  Population:  1,780,638  (July  1995  est.) 
  note:  other  estimates  range  as  low  as  600,000 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  40%  (female  342,276;  male  368,916) 
  15-64  years:  56%  (female  486,258;  male  513,560) 
  65  years  and  over:  4%  (female  34,215;  male  35,413)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  2.34%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  39.02  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  15.61  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  118.6  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  51.03  years 
  male:  51.56  years 
  female:  50.48  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  5.39  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Bhutanese  (singular  and  plural) 
  adjective:  Bhutanese 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Bhote  50%,  ethnic  Nepalese  35%,  indigenous  or 
  migrant  tribes  15% 
 
  Religions:  Lamaistic  Buddhism  75%,  Indian-  and  Nepalese-influenced 
  Hinduism  25% 
 
  Languages:  Dzongkha  (official),  Bhotes  speak  various  Tibetan  dialects; 
  Nepalese  speak  various  Nepalese  dialects 
 
  Literacy:  NA% 
 
  Labor  force:  NA 
  by  occupation:  agriculture  93%,  services  5%,  industry  and  commerce  2% 
  note:  massive  lack  of  skilled  labor 
 
  Bhutan:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Kingdom  of  Bhutan 
  conventional  short  form:  Bhutan 
 
  Digraph:  BT 
 
  Type:  monarchy;  special  treaty  relationship  with  India 
 
  Capital:  Thimphu 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  18  districts  (dzongkhag,  singular  and 
  plural);  Bumthang  Chhukha  Chirang  Daga,  Geylegphug  Ha  Lhuntshi 
  Mongar  Paro,  Pemagatsel  Punakha  Samchi  Samdrup  Jongkhar  Shemgang 
  Tashigang  Thimphu  Tongsa,  Wangdi  Phodrang 
 
  Independence:  8  August  1949  (from  India) 
 
  National  holiday:  National  Day  17  December  (1907)  (Ugyen  Wangchuck 
  became  first  hereditary  king) 
 
  Constitution:  no  written  constitution  or  bill  of  rights 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  Indian  law  and  English  common  law;  has  not 
  accepted  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  each  family  has  one  vote  in  village-level  elections 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  Chief  of  State  and  Head  of  Government:  King  Jigme  Singye  WANGCHUCK 
  (since  24  July  1972) 
  Royal  Advisory  Council  (Lodoi  Tsokde):  nominated  by  the  king 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers  (Lhengye  Shungtsog);  appointed  by  the 
  king 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral  National  Assembly  (Tshogdu);  no 
  national  elections 
 
  Judicial  branch:  High  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  no  legal  parties 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  Buddhist  clergy;  Indian  merchant 
  community;  ethnic  Nepalese  organizations  leading  militant 
  antigovernment  campaign 
 
  Member  of:  AsDB  CP  ESCAP,  FAO,  G-77,  IBRD,  ICAO,  IDA,  IFAD,  IMF, 
  INTELSAT,  IOC,  ITU,  NAM,  SAARC  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNIDO  UPU,  WHO 
  WIPO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US:  Bhutan  has  no  embassy  in  the  US  but 
  does  have  a  Permanent  Mission  to  the  UN  headed  by  Ugyen  TSERING 
  located  at  2  United  Nations  Plaza,  27th  Floor,  New  York,  NY  10017, 
  telephone  [1]  (212)  826-1919;  note  -  the  Bhutanese  mission  to  the  UN 
  has  consular  jurisdiction  in  the  US 
  consulate(s)  general:  New  York 
  honorary  consulate(s):  San  Francisco;  Washington,  DC 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation:  no  formal  diplomatic  relations,  although 
  informal  contact  is  maintained  between  the  Bhutanese  and  US  Embassy  in 
  New  Delhi  (India) 
 
  Flag:  divided  diagonally  from  the  lower  hoist  side  corner;  the  upper 
  triangle  is  orange  and  the  lower  triangle  is  red;  centered  along  the 
  dividing  line  is  a  large  black  and  white  dragon  facing  away  from  the 
  hoist  side 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  The  economy,  one  of  the  world's  least  developed,  is  based  on 
  agriculture  and  forestry,  which  provide  the  main  livelihood  for  90%  of 
  the  population  and  account  for  about  half  of  GDP.  Agriculture  consists 
  largely  of  subsistence  farming  and  animal  husbandry.  Rugged  mountains 
  dominate  the  terrain  and  make  the  building  of  roads  and  other 
  infrastructure  difficult  and  expensive.  The  economy  is  closely  aligned 
  with  India's  through  strong  trade  and  monetary  links.  The  industrial 
  sector  is  small  and  technologically  backward,  with  most  production  of 
  the  cottage  industry  type  Most  development  projects,  such  as  road 
  construction,  rely  on  Indian  migrant  labor.  Bhutan's  hydropower 
  potential  and  its  attraction  for  tourists  are  key  resources;  however, 
  the  government  limits  the  number  of  tourists  to  4,000  per  year  to 
  minimize  foreign  influence.  Much  of  the  impetus  for  growth  has  come 
  from  large  public-sector  companies.  Nevertheless,  in  recent  years, 
  Bhutan  has  shifted  toward  decentralized  development  planning  and 
  greater  private  initiative.  The  government  privatized  several  large 
  public-sector  firms,  is  revamping  its  trade  regime  and  liberalizing 
  administerial  procedures  over  industrial  licensing.  The  government's 
  industrial  contribution  to  GDP  decreased  from  13%  in  1988  to  about  11% 
  in  1993. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $1.2  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  5%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $700  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  10%  (October  1994) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  NA% 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $52  million 
  expenditures:  $150  million,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $95 
  million  (FY93/94  est.) 
  note:  the  government  of  India  finances  nearly  three-fifths  of  Bhutan's 
  budget  expenditures 
 
  Exports:  $66.8  million  (f.o.b.,  FY93/94) 
  commodities:  cardamon,  gypsum,  timber,  handicrafts,  cement,  fruit, 
  electricity  (to  India),  precious  stones,  spices 
  partners:  India  87%,  Bangladesh 
 
  Imports:  $97.6  million  (c.i.f.,  FY93/94  est.) 
  commodities:  fuel  and  lubricants,  grain,  machinery  and  parts 
  vehicles,  fabrics,  rice 
  partners:  India  79%,  Japan,  UK  Germany,  US 
 
  External  debt:  $141  million  (October  1994) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  7.6%  (1992  est.);  accounts  for  18% 
  of  GDP;  primarily  cottage  industry  and  home  based  handicrafts 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  360,000  kW 
  production:  1.7  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  143  kWh  (1993) 
  note:  Bhutan  exports  electricity  to  India 
 
  Industries:  cement,  wood  products,  processed  fruits,  alcoholic 
  beverages,  calcium  carbide 
 
  Agriculture:  rice,  corn,  root  crops,  citrus  fruit,  dairy  products, 
  foodgrains  eggs 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral 
  commitments  (1970-89),  $115  million;  OPEC  bilateral  aid  (1979-89),  $11 
  million 
 
  Currency:  1  ngultrum  Nu  =  100  chetrum;  note  -  Indian  currency  is 
  also  legal  tender 
 
  Exchange  rates:  ngultrum  Nu  per  US$1  -  31.374  (January  1995),  31.374 
  (1994),  30.493  (1993),  25.918  (1992),  22.742  (1991),  17.504  (1990); 
  note  -  the  Bhutanese  ngultrum  is  at  par  with  the  Indian  rupee 
 
  Fiscal  year:  1  July  -  30  June 
 
  Bhutan:Transportation 
 
  Railroads:  0  km 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  2,165  km 
  paved:  NA 
  unpaved:  gravel  1,703  km 
  undifferentiated:  462  km 
 
  Ports:  none 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  2 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  1 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  1 
 
  Bhutan:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  NA  telephones;  domestic  telephone  service  is  very 
  poor  with  very  few  telephones  in  use 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  NA 
  international:  international  telephone  and  telegraph  service  is  by 
  land  line  through  India;  an  earth  station  was  planned  (1990) 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  1,  FM  1,  shortwave  0  (1990) 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  0  (1990) 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Bhutan:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Royal  Bhutan  Army,  Palace  Guard,  Militia,  Royal  Bhutan 
  Police 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  434,586;  males  fit  for  military 
  service  232,121;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually  17,365  (1995 
  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  $NA,  NA%  of  GDP 
 
 
 




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