browse words by letter
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
brazil

more about brazil

brazil


  4  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Brazil 
  n  1:  the  largest  Latin  American  country  and  the  largest 
  Portuguese  speaking  country  in  the  world;  located  in 
  eastern  South  America;  world's  leading  coffee  exporter 
  [syn:  {Brazil},  {Brasil}] 
  2:  three-sided  tropical  American  nut  with  white  oily  meat  and 
  hard  brown  shell  [syn:  {brazil  nut}] 
 
  From  U.S.  Gazetteer  (1990)  [gazetteer]: 
 
  Brazil,  IN  (city,  FIPS  7174) 
  Location:  39.52358  N,  87.12336  W 
  Population  (1990):  7640  (3467  housing  units) 
  Area:  7.1  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  47834 
 
  From  The  Free  On-line  Dictionary  of  Computing  (13  Mar  01)  [foldoc]: 
 
  Brazil 
 
  An  {operating  system}  from  {Acorn  Computers}  used  on  an  {ARM} 
  card  which  could  be  fitted  to  an  {IBM  PC}.  There  was  also  an 
  {ARM}  second  processor  for  the  {BBC  Microcomputer}  which  used 
  Brazil.  Never  used  on  the  {Archimedes}(?). 
 
  (1994-12-05) 
 
 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Brazil 
 
  Brazil:Geography 
 
  Location:  Eastern  South  America,  bordering  the  Atlantic  Ocean 
 
  Map  references:  South  America 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  8,511,965  sq  km 
  land  area:  8,456,510  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  smaller  than  the  US 
  note:  includes  Arquipelago  de  Fernando  de  Noronha  Atol  das  Rocas, 
  Ilha  da  Trindade  Ilhas  Martin  Vaz,  and  Penedos  de  Sao  Pedro  e  Sao 
  Paulo 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  14,691  km  Argentina  1,224  km  Bolivia  3,400 
  km  Colombia  1,643  km  French  Guiana  673  km  Guyana  1,119  km  Paraguay 
  1,290  km  Peru  1,560  km  Suriname  597  km  Uruguay  985  km  Venezuela 
  2,200  km 
 
  Coastline:  7,491  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  contiguous  zone:  24  nm 
  continental  shelf:  200  nm 
  exclusive  economic  zone:  200  nm 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  short  section  of  the  boundary  with  Paraguay, 
  just  west  of  Salto  das  Sete  Quedas  (Guaira  Falls)  on  the  Rio  Parana, 
  is  in  dispute;  two  short  sections  of  boundary  with  Uruguay  are  in 
  dispute  -  Arroio  Invernada  (Arroyo  de  la  Invernada)  area  of  the  Rio 
  Quarai  (Rio  Cuareim)  and  the  islands  at  the  confluence  of  the  Rio 
  Quarai  and  the  Uruguay  River 
 
  Climate:  mostly  tropical,  but  temperate  in  south 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  flat  to  rolling  lowlands  in  north;  some  plains,  hills, 
  mountains,  and  narrow  coastal  belt 
 
  Natural  resources:  bauxite,  gold,  iron  ore,  manganese,  nickel, 
  phosphates,  platinum,  tin,  uranium,  petroleum,  hydropower  timber 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  7% 
  permanent  crops:  1% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  19% 
  forest  and  woodland:  67% 
  other:  6% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  27,000  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  deforestation  in  Amazon  Basin  destroys  the  habitat  and 
  endangers  the  existence  of  a  multitude  of  plant  and  animal  species 
  indigenous  to  the  area;  air  and  water  pollution  in  Rio  de  Janeiro  Sao 
  Paulo,  and  several  other  large  cities;  land  degradation  and  water 
  pollution  caused  by  improper  mining  activities 
  natural  hazards:  recurring  droughts  in  northeast;  floods  and 
  occasional  frost  in  south 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Antarctic  Treaty,  Biodiversity, 
  Climate  Change,  Endangered  Species,  Environmental  Modification, 
  Hazardous  Wastes,  Law  of  the  Sea,  Marine  Dumping,  Nuclear  Test  Ban, 
  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship  Pollution,  Tropical  Timber  83,  Wetlands, 
  Whaling;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Antarctic-Environmental  Protocol, 
  Desertification 
 
  Note:  largest  country  in  South  America;  shares  common  boundaries  with 
  every  South  American  country  except  Chile  and  Ecuador 
 
  Brazil:People 
 
  Population:  160,737,489  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  31%  (female  24,641,868;  male  25,515,775) 
  15-64  years:  64%  (female  51,966,272;  male  51,254,165) 
  65  years  and  over:  5%  (female  4,393,530;  male  2,965,879)  (July  1995 
  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  1.22%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  21.16  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  8.98  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  57.2  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  61.82  years 
  male:  56.57  years 
  female:  67.32  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  2.39  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Brazilian(s) 
  adjective:  Brazilian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Caucasion  (includes  Portuguese,  German,  Italian, 
  Spanish,  Polish)  55%,  mixed  Caucasion  and  African  38%,  African  6%, 
  other  (includes  Japanese,  Arab,  Amerindian)  1% 
 
  Religions:  Roman  Catholic  (nominal)  70% 
 
  Languages:  Portuguese  (official),  Spanish,  English,  French 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1991) 
  total  population:  80% 
  male:  80% 
  female:  80% 
 
  Labor  force:  57  million  (1989  est.) 
  by  occupation:  services  42%,  agriculture  31%,  industry  27% 
 
  Brazil:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Federative  Republic  of  Brazil 
  conventional  short  form:  Brazil 
  local  long  form:  Republica  Federativa  do  Brasil 
  local  short  form:  Brasil 
 
  Digraph:  BR 
 
  Type:  federal  republic 
 
  Capital:  Brasilia 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  26  states  (estados,  singular  -  estado)  and  1 
  federal  district*  (distrito  federal);  Acre,  Alagoas  Amapa,  Amazonas, 
  Bahia,  Ceara,  Distrito  Federal*,  Espirito  Santo,  Goias,  Maranhao  Mato 
  Grosso,  Mato  Grosso  do  Sul,  Minas  Gerais,  Para,  Paraiba  Parana, 
  Pernambuco,  Piaui,  Rio  de  Janeiro  Rio  Grande  do  Norte,  Rio  Grande  do 
  Sul,  Rondonia  Roraima  Santa  Catarina,  Sao  Paulo,  Sergipe  Tocantins 
 
  Independence:  7  September  1822  (from  Portugal) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  7  September  (1822) 
 
  Constitution:  5  October  1988 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  Roman  codes;  has  not  accepted  compulsory  ICJ 
  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  voluntary  between  16  and  18  years  of  age  and  over  70; 
  compulsory  over  18  and  under  70  years  of  age 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state  and  head  of  government:  President  Fernando  Henrique 
  CARDOSO  (since  1  January  1995)  election  last  held  3  October  1994;  next 
  to  be  held  October  1998);  results  -  Fernando  Henrique  CARDOSO  53%, 
  Luis  Inacio  LULA  da  Silva  26%,  Eneas  CARNEIRO  7%,  Orestes  QUERCIA  4%, 
  Leonel  BRIZOLA  3%,  Espiridiao  AMIN  3%;  note  -  second  free  direct 
  presidential  election  since  1960 
  cabinet:  Cabinet;  appointed  by  the  president 
 
  Legislative  branch:  bicameral  National  Congress  (Congresso  Nacional) 
  Federal  Senate  (Senado  Federal):  election  last  held  3  October  1994  for 
  two-thirds  of  Senate  (next  to  be  held  October  1996  for  one-third  of 
  the  Senate);  results  -  PMBD  28%,  PFL  22%,  PSDB  12%,  PPR  7%,  PDT  7%,  PT 
  6%,  PTB  6%,  other  12% 
  Chamber  of  Deputies  (Camara  dos  Deputados):  election  last  held  3 
  October  1994  (next  to  be  held  October  1998);  results  -  PMDB  21%,  PFL 
  18%,  PDT  7%,  PSDB  12%,  PPR  10%,  PTB  6%,  PT  10%,  other  16% 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Federal  Tribunal 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  National  Reconstruction  Party  (PRN), 
  Daniel  TOURINHO  president;  Brazilian  Democratic  Movement  Party 
  (PMDB),  Luiz  HENRIQUE  da  Silveira  president;  Liberal  Front  Party 
  (PFL),  Jorge  BORNHAUSEN  president;  Workers'  Party  (PT),  Rui  Goethe  da 
  Costa  FALCAO,  president;  Brazilian  Workers'  Party  (PTB),  Jose  Eduardo 
  ANDRADE  VIEIRA  president;  Democratic  Workers'  Party  (PDT),  Anthony 
  GAROTINHO  president;  Progressive  Renewal  Party  (PPR),  Espiridiao 
  AMIN,  president;  Brazilian  Social  Democracy  Party  (PSDB),  Artur  DA 
  TAVOLA  president;  Popular  Socialist  Party  (PPS),  Roberto  FREIRE, 
  president;  Communist  Party  of  Brazil  (PCdoB),  Joao  AMAZONAS,  secretary 
  general;  Liberal  Party  (PL),  Alvero  VALLE,  president 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  left  wing  of  the  Catholic  Church 
  and  labor  unions  allied  to  leftist  Workers'  Party  are  critical  of 
  government's  social  and  economic  policies 
 
  Member  of:  AfDB  AG  (observer),  CCC,  ECLAC  FAO,  G-11,  G-15,  G-19, 
  G-24,  G-77,  GATT,  IADB,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICC,  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA,  IFAD, 
  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INMARSAT  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  IOM 
  (observer),  ISO,  ITU,  LAES,  LAIA,  MERCOSUR  NAM  (observer),  OAS, 
  ONUSAL  OPANAL  PCA,  RG  UN  UNAVEM  II  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNHCR  UNIDO 
  UNOMOZ  UNOMUR  UNPROFOR  UNU,  UPU,  WCL,  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Paulo  Tarso  FLECHA  de  LIMA 
  chancery:  3006  Massachusetts  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  745-2700 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  745-2827 
  consulate(s)  general:  Boston,  Chicago,  Los  Angeles,  Miami,  New  York, 
  San  Juan  (Puerto  Rico),  and  San  Francisco 
  consulate(s):  Houston 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Melvyn  LEVITSKY 
  embassy:  Avenida  das  Nacoes,  Lote  3,  Brasilia,  Distrito  Federal 
  mailing  address:  Unit  3500;  APO  AA  34030 
  telephone:  [55]  (61)  321-7272 
  FAX:  [55]  (61)  225-9136 
  consulate(s)  general:  Rio  de  Janeiro  Sao  Paulo 
  consulate(s):  Porto  Alegre,  Recife 
 
  Flag:  green  with  a  large  yellow  diamond  in  the  center  bearing  a  blue 
  celestial  globe  with  27  white  five-pointed  stars  (one  for  each  state 
  and  the  Federal  District)  arranged  in  the  same  pattern  as  the  night 
  sky  over  Brazil;  the  globe  has  a  white  equatorial  band  with  the  motto 
  ORDEM  E  PROGRESSO  (Order  and  Progress) 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  The  economy,  with  large  agrarian,  mining,  and  manufacturing 
  sectors,  entered  the  1990s  with  declining  real  growth,  runaway 
  inflation,  an  unserviceable  foreign  debt  of  $122  billion,  and  a  lack 
  of  policy  direction.  In  addition,  the  economy  remained  highly 
  regulated,  inward-looking,  and  protected  by  substantial  trade  and 
  investment  barriers.  Ownership  of  major  industrial  and  mining 
  facilities  is  divided  among  private  interests  -  including  several 
  multinationals  -  and  the  government.  Most  large  agricultural  holdings 
  are  private,  with  the  government  channeling  financing  to  this  sector. 
  Conflicts  between  large  landholders  and  landless  peasants  have 
  produced  intermittent  violence.  The  COLLOR  government,  which  assumed 
  office  in  March  1990,  launched  an  ambitious  reform  program  that  sought 
  to  modernize  and  reinvigorate  the  economy  by  stabilizing  prices, 
  deregulating  the  economy,  and  opening  it  to  increased  foreign 
  competition.  Itamar  FRANCO,  who  assumed  the  presidency  following 
  President  COLLOR's  resignation  in  December  1992,  was  out  of  step  with 
  COLLOR's  reform  agenda;  initiatives  to  redress  fiscal  problems, 
  privatize  state  enterprises,  and  liberalize  trade  and  investment 
  policies  lost  momentum.  Galloping  inflation  -  by  June  1994  the  monthly 
  rate  had  risen  to  nearly  50%  -  had  undermined  economic  stability.  In 
  response,  the  then  finance  minister,  Fernando  Henrique  CARDOSO 
  launched  the  third  phase  of  his  stabilization  plan  known  as  Plano 
  Real,  that  called  for  a  new  currency,  the  real,  which  was  introduced 
  on  1  July  1994.  Inflation  subsequently  dropped  to  under  3%  per  month 
  through  the  end  of  1994.  The  newly  elected  President  CARDOSO  has 
  called  for  the  implementation  of  sweeping  market-oriented  reform, 
  including  public  sector  and  fiscal  reform,  privatization 
  deregulation,  and  elimination  of  barriers  to  increased  foreign 
  investment.  Brazil's  natural  resources  remain  a  major,  long-term 
  economic  strength. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $886.3  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  5.3%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $5,580  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  1,094%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  4.9%  (1993) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $113  billion 
  expenditures:  $109  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $23 
  billion  (1992) 
 
  Exports:  $43.6  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  iron  ore,  soybean  bran,  orange  juice,  footwear,  coffee, 
  motor  vehicle  parts 
  partners:  EC  27.6%,  Latin  America  21.8%,  US  17.4%,  Japan  6.3%  (1993) 
 
  Imports:  $33.2  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  crude  oil,  capital  goods,  chemical  products,  foodstuffs, 
  coal 
  partners:  US  23.3%,  EC  22.5%,  Middle  East  13.0%,  Latin  America  11.8%, 
  Japan  6.5%  (1993) 
 
  External  debt:  $134  billion  (1994) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  9.5%  (1993);  accounts  for  39%  of 
  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  55,130,000  kW 
  production:  241.4  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  1,589  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  textiles,  shoes,  chemicals,  cement,  lumber,  mining  (iron 
  ore,  tin),  steel  making,  machine  building  -  including  aircraft,  motor 
  vehicles,  motor  vehicle  parts  and  assemblies,  and  other  machinery  and 
  equipment 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  11%  of  GDP;  world's  largest  producer  and 
  exporter  of  coffee  and  orange  juice  concentrate  and  second-largest 
  exporter  of  soybeans;  other  products  -  rice,  corn,  sugarcane,  cocoa, 
  beef;  self-sufficient  in  food,  except  for  wheat 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  illicit  producer  of  cannabis  and  coca,  mostly  for 
  domestic  consumption;  government  has  a  small-scale  eradication  program 
  to  control  cannabis  and  coca  cultivation;  important  transshipment 
  country  for  Bolivian  and  Colombian  cocaine  headed  for  the  US  and 
  Europe 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-89),  $2.5  billion; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-89),  $10.2  million;  OPEC  bilateral  aid  (1979-89),  $284  million; 
  former  Communist  countries  (1970-89),  $1.3  billion 
 
  Currency:  1  real  (R$)  =  100  centavos 
 
  Exchange  rates:  R$  per  US$1  -  0.85  (January  1995);  CR$  per  US$1  - 
  390.845  (January  1994),  88.449  (1993),  4.513  (1992),  0.407  (1991), 
  0.068  (1990) 
  note:  on  1  August  1993  the  cruzeiro  real  (CR$),  equal  to  1,000 
  cruzeiros,  was  introduced;  another  new  currency,  the  real,  was 
  introduced  on  1  July  1994,  equal  to  2,750  cruzeiro  reals 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Brazil:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  30,612  km  (1992) 
  broad  gauge:  5,369  km  1.600-m  gauge  (1,108  km  electrified) 
  standard  gauge:  194  km  1.440-m  gauge 
  narrow  gauge:  24,739  km  1.000-m  gauge  (112  km  electrified);  13  km 
  0.760-m  gauge 
  dual  gauge:  310  km  1.600-m/1.000-m  gauge  (78  km  electrified) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  1,670,148  km 
  paved:  161,503  km 
  unpaved:  gravel/earth  1,508,645  km  (1990) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  50,000  km  navigable 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  2,000  km  petroleum  products  3,804  km  natural 
  gas  1,095  km 
 
  Ports:  Belem,  Fortaleza  Ilheus,  Imbituba  Manaus,  Paranagua  Porto 
  Alegre,  Recife,  Rio  de  Janeiro  Rio  Grande,  Salvador,  Santos  Vitoria 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  215  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  5,128,654  GRT/8,664,776 
  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  52,  cargo  34,  chemical  tanker  13,  combination 
  ore/oil  12,  container  12,  liquefied  gas  tanker  11,  oil  tanker  64, 
  passenger-cargo  5,  refrigerated  cargo  1,  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  11 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  3,467 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  5 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  19 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  126 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  286 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  1,652 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  76 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  1,303 
 
  Brazil:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  9.86  million  telephones;  telephone  density  - 
  61/1,000  persons;  good  working  system 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  extensive  microwave  radio  relay  systems  and  64  domestic 
  satellite  earth  stations 
  international:  3  coaxial  submarine  cables;  3  Atlantic  Ocean  INTELSAT 
  earth  stations 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  1,223,  FM  0,  shortwave  151 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  112  (Brazil  has  the  world's  fourth  largest 
  television  broadcasting  system) 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Brazil:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Brazilian  Army,  Brazilian  Navy  (includes  Marines),  Brazilian 
  Air  Force,  Federal  Police  (paramilitary) 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  44,301,765;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  29,815,576;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually 
  1,703,438  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $5.0  billion,  0.9%  of 
  GDP  (1994) 
 
 
 




more about brazil