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burma

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burma


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Burma 
  n  :  a  mountainous  republic  in  southeastern  Asia  on  the  Bay  of 
  Bengal;  "much  opium  is  grown  in  Myanmar"  [syn:  {Myanmar}, 
  {Burma}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Burma 
 
  Burma:Geography 
 
  Location:  Southeastern  Asia,  bordering  the  Andaman  Sea  and  the  Bay  of 
  Bengal,  between  Bangladesh  and  Thailand 
 
  Map  references:  Southeast  Asia 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  678,500  sq  km 
  land  area:  657,740  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  smaller  than  Texas 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  5,876  km  Bangladesh  193  km  China  2,185  km 
  India  1,463  km  Laos  235  km  Thailand  1,800  km 
 
  Coastline:  1,930  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  contiguous  zone:  24  nm 
  continental  shelf:  200  nm  or  to  the  edge  of  the  continental  margin 
  exclusive  economic  zone:  200  nm 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  none 
 
  Climate:  tropical  monsoon;  cloudy,  rainy,  hot,  humid  summers 
  (southwest  monsoon,  June  to  September);  less  cloudy,  scant  rainfall, 
  mild  temperatures,  lower  humidity  during  winter  (northeast  monsoon, 
  December  to  April) 
 
  Terrain:  central  lowlands  ringed  by  steep,  rugged  highlands 
 
  Natural  resources:  petroleum,  timber,  tin,  antimony,  zinc,  copper, 
  tungsten,  lead,  coal,  some  marble,  limestone,  precious  stones,  natural 
  gas 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  15% 
  permanent  crops:  1% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  1% 
  forest  and  woodland:  49% 
  other:  34% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  10,180  sq  km  (1989) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  deforestation;  industrial  pollution  of  air,  soil,  and 
  water;  inadequate  sanitation  and  water  treatment  contribute  to  disease 
 
  natural  hazards:  destructive  earthquakes  and  cyclones;  flooding  and 
  landslides  common  during  rainy  season  (June  to  September);  periodic 
  droughts 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change, 
  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship  Pollution,  Tropical 
  Timber  83;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Law  of  the  Sea 
 
  Note:  strategic  location  near  major  Indian  Ocean  shipping  lanes 
 
  Burma:People 
 
  Population:  45,103,809  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  36%  (female  7,963,544;  male  8,285,459) 
  15-64  years:  60%  (female  13,478,211;  male  13,404,987) 
  65  years  and  over:  4%  (female  1,080,922;  male  890,686)  (July  1995 
  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  1.84%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  28.02  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  9.63  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  61.6  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  60.47  years 
  male:  58.38  years 
  female:  62.69  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  3.58  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Burmese  (singular  and  plural) 
  adjective:  Burmese 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Burman  68%,  Shan  9%,  Karen  7%,  Rakhine  4%,  Chinese 
  3%,  Mon  2%,  Indian  2%,  other  5% 
 
  Religions:  Buddhist  89%,  Christian  4%  (Baptist  3%,  Roman  Catholic  1%), 
  Muslim  4%,  animist  beliefs  1%,  other  2% 
 
  Languages:  Burmese;  minority  ethnic  groups  have  their  own  languages 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1990  est.) 
  total  population:  81% 
  male:  89% 
  female:  72% 
 
  Labor  force:  16.007  million  (1992) 
  by  occupation:  agriculture  65.2%,  industry  14.3%,  trade  10.1%, 
  government  6.3%,  other  4.1%  (FY88/89  est.) 
 
  Burma:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Union  of  Burma 
  conventional  short  form:  Burma 
  local  long  form:  Pyidaungzu  Myanma  Naingngandaw  (translated  by  the  US 
  Government  as  Union  of  Myanma  and  by  the  Burmese  as  Union  of  Myanmar) 
  local  short  form:  Myanma  Naingngandaw 
  former:  Socialist  Republic  of  the  Union  of  Burma 
 
  Digraph:  BM 
 
  Type:  military  regime 
 
  Capital:  Rangoon  (regime  refers  to  the  capital  as  Yangon) 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  7  divisions*  (yin-mya,  singular  -  yin)  and  7 
  states  (pyine-mya,  singular  -  pyine);  Chin  State,  Ayeyarwady*,  Bago*, 
  Kachin  State,  Kayin  State,  Kayah  State,  Magway*,  Mandalay*,  Mon  State, 
  Rakhine  State,  Sagaing*,  Shan  State,  Tanintharyi*,  Yangon* 
 
  Independence:  4  January  1948  (from  UK) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  4  January  (1948) 
 
  Constitution:  3  January  1974  (suspended  since  18  September  1988); 
  National  Convention  started  on  9  January  1993  to  draft  a  new 
  constitution;  chapter  headings  and  three  of  15  sections  have  been 
  approved 
 
  Legal  system:  has  not  accepted  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state  and  head  of  government:  Chairman  of  the  State  Law  and 
  Order  Restoration  Council  Gen.  THAN  SHWE  (since  23  April  1992) 
  State  Law  and  Order  Restoration  Council:  military  junta  which  assumed 
  power  18  September  1988 
 
  Legislative  branch: 
  People's  Assembly  (Pyithu  Hluttaw):  election  last  held  27  May  1990, 
  but  Assembly  never  convened;  results  -  NLD  80%;  seats  -  (485  total) 
  NLD  396,  the  regime-favored  NUP  10,  other  79;  was  dissolved  after  the 
  coup  of  18  September  1988 
 
  Judicial  branch:  limited;  remnants  of  the  British-era  legal  system  in 
  place  but  there  is  no  guarantee  of  a  fair  public  trial;  the  judiciary 
  is  not  independent  of  the  executive 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Union  Solidarity  and  Development 
  Association  (USDA),  THAN  AUNG,  Secretary;  National  Unity  Party  (NUP; 
  proregime),  THA  KYAW;  National  League  for  Democracy  (NLD),  U  AUNG 
  SHWE;  and  eight  other  minor  legal  parties 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  National  Coalition  Government  of 
  the  Union  of  Burma  (NCGUB),  headed  by  the  elected  prime  minister  SEIN 
  WIN  (consists  of  individuals  legitimately  elected  to  Parliament  but 
  not  recognized  by  the  military  regime;  the  group  fled  to  a  border  area 
  and  joined  with  insurgents  in  December  1990  to  form  a  parallel 
  government;  Kachin  Independence  Army  (KIA);  United  Wa  State  Army 
  (UWSA);  Karen  National  Union  (KNU);  several  Shan  factions,  including 
  the  Mong  Tai  Army  (MTA);  All  Burma  Student  Democratic  Front  ABSDF 
 
  Member  of:  AsDB  CCC,  CP  ESCAP,  FAO,  G-77,  GATT,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO, 
  ICRM,  IDA,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INTELSAT  (nonsignatory 
  user),  INTERPOL,  IOC,  ITU,  NAM,  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNIDO  UPU,  WHO 
  WMO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  U  THAUNG 
  chancery:  2300  S  Street  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  332-9044,  9045 
  consulate(s)  general:  New  York 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  (vacant);  Charge  d'Affaires  Marilyn  A.  MEYERS 
  embassy:  581  Merchant  Street,  Rangoon  (GPO  521) 
  mailing  address:  American  Embassy,  Box  B,  APO  AP  96546 
  telephone:  [95]  (1)  82055,  82182  (operator  assistance  required) 
  FAX:  [95]  (1)  80409 
 
  Flag:  red  with  a  blue  rectangle  in  the  upper  hoist-side  corner 
  bearing,  all  in  white,  14  five-pointed  stars  encircling  a  cogwheel 
  containing  a  stalk  of  rice;  the  14  stars  represent  the  14 
  administrative  divisions 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Burma  has  a  mixed  economy  with  about  75%  private  activity, 
  mainly  in  agriculture,  light  industry,  and  transport,  and  with  about 
  25%  state-controlled  activity,  mainly  in  energy,  heavy  industry,  and 
  foreign  trade  Government  policy  in  the  last  six  years,  1989-94,  has 
  aimed  at  revitalizing  the  economy  after  four  decades  of  tight  central 
  planning.  Thus  private  activity  has  markedly  increased;  foreign 
  investment  has  been  encouraged,  so  far  with  moderate  success;  and 
  efforts  continue  to  increase  the  efficiency  of  state  enterprises. 
  Published  estimates  of  Burma's  foreign  trade  are  greatly  understated 
  because  of  the  volume  of  black  market  trade  A  major  ongoing  problem 
  is  the  failure  to  achieve  monetary  and  fiscal  stability.  Although 
  Burma  remains  a  poor  Asian  country,  its  rich  resources  furnish  the 
  potential  for  substantial  long-term  increases  in  income,  exports,  and 
  living  standards. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $41.4  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  6.4%  (1994) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $930  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  38%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  NA% 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $4.4  billion 
  expenditures:  $6.7  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA 
  (FY93/94  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $674  million  (FY93/94  est.) 
  commodities:  pulses  and  beans,  teak,  rice,  hardwood 
  partners:  Singapore,  China,  Thailand,  India,  Hong  Kong 
 
  Imports:  $1.2  billion  (FY93/94  est.) 
  commodities:  machinery,  transport  equipment,  chemicals,  food  products 
  partners:  Japan,  China,  Thailand,  Singapore,  Malaysia 
 
  External  debt:  $5.4  billion  (FY93/94  est.) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  4.9%  (FY92/93  est.);  accounts  for 
  10%  of  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  1,100,000  kW 
  production:  2.6  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  55  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  agricultural  processing;  textiles  and  footwear;  wood  and 
  wood  products;  petroleum  refining;  mining  of  copper,  tin,  tungsten, 
  iron;  construction  materials;  pharmaceuticals;  fertilizer 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  65%  of  GDP  and  65%  of  employment  (including 
  fishing,  animal  husbandry,  and  forestry);  self-sufficient  in  food; 
  principal  crops  -  paddy  rice,  corn,  oilseed,  sugarcane,  pulses; 
  world's  largest  stand  of  hardwood  trees;  rice  and  timber  account  for 
  55%  of  export  revenues 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  world's  largest  illicit  producer  of  opium  (2,030  metric 
  tons  in  1994  -  dropped  21%  due  to  regional  drought  in  1994)  and  minor 
  producer  of  cannabis  for  the  international  drug  trade  opium 
  production  continues  to  be  almost  double  since  the  collapse  of 
  Rangoon's  antinarcotic  programs;  growing  role  in  amphetamine 
  production  for  regional  consumption 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-89),  $158  million; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-89),  $3.9  billion;  Communist  countries  (1970-89),  $424  million 
 
  Currency:  1  kyat  K  =  100  pyas 
 
  Exchange  rates:  kyats  K  per  US$1  -  5.8640  (January  1995),  5.9749 
  (1994),  6.1570  (1993),  6.1045  (1992),  6.2837  (1991),  6.3386  (1990); 
  unofficial  -  120 
 
  Fiscal  year:  1  April  -  31  March 
 
  Burma:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  3,991  km  (3,878  km  common  carrier  lines,  113  km  industrial 
  lines) 
  standard  gauge:  3,878  km  1.435-m  gauge 
  other:  113  km  NA-m  gauge 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  27,000  km 
  paved:  bituminous  3,200  km 
  unpaved:  gravel,  improved  earth  17,700  km  unimproved  earth  6,100  km 
 
  Inland  waterways:  12,800  km  3,200  km  navigable  by  large  commercial 
  vessels 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  1,343  km  natural  gas  330  km 
 
  Ports:  Bassein  Bhamo  Chauk,  Mandalay,  Moulmein  Myitkyina  Rangoon, 
  Sittwe  Tavoy 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  49  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  638,297  GRT/884,492  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  19,  cargo  15,  chemical  tanker  1,  container  2,  oil 
  tanker  3,  passenger-cargo  3,  refrigerated  cargo  4,  vehicle  carrier  2 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  80 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  10 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  11 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  33 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  5 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  17 
 
  Burma:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  53,000  telephones  (1986);  meets  minimum  requirements 
  for  local  and  intercity  service  for  business  and  government; 
  international  service  is  good 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  NA 
  international:  1  INTELSAT  (Indian  Ocean)  earth  station 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  2,  FM  1,  shortwave  0  (1985) 
  radios:  NA 
  note:  radiobroadcast  coverage  is  limited  to  the  most  populous  areas 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  1  (1985) 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Burma:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army,  Navy,  Air  Force 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  11,553,094;  females  age  15-49 
  11,463,189;  males  fit  for  military  service  6,180,091;  females  fit  for 
  military  service  6,116,421;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually 
  457,445  (1995  est.);  females  reach  military  age  (18)  annually  441,628 
  (1995  est.) 
  note:  both  sexes  liable  for  military  service 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  $NA,  NA%  of  GDP 
 
 
 




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