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calculus

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calculus


  3  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Mathematics  \Math`e*mat"ics\,  n.  [F.  math['e]matiques,  pl.,  L. 
  mathematica,  sing.,  Gr  ?  (sc.  ?)  science.  See  {Mathematic}, 
  and  {-ics}.] 
  That  science,  or  class  of  sciences,  which  treats  of  the  exact 
  relations  existing  between  quantities  or  magnitudes,  and  of 
  the  methods  by  which  in  accordance  with  these  relations, 
  quantities  sought  are  deducible  from  other  quantities  known 
  or  supposed;  the  science  of  spatial  and  quantitative 
  relations. 
 
  Note:  Mathematics  embraces  three  departments,  namely:  1. 
  {Arithmetic}.  2.  {Geometry},  including  {Trigonometry} 
  and  {Conic  Sections}.  3.  {Analysis},  in  which  letters 
  are  used  including  {Algebra},  {Analytical  Geometry}, 
  and  {Calculus}.  Each  of  these  divisions  is  divided  into 
  pure  or  abstract,  which  considers  magnitude  or  quantity 
  abstractly,  without  relation  to  matter;  and  mixed  or 
  applied,  which  treats  of  magnitude  as  subsisting  in 
  material  bodies,  and  is  consequently  interwoven  with 
  physical  considerations. 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Calculus  \Cal"cu*lus\,  n.;  pl  {Calculi}.  [L,  calculus.  See 
  {Calculate},  and  {Calcule}.] 
  1.  (Med.)  Any  solid  concretion,  formed  in  any  part  of  the 
  body,  but  most  frequent  in  the  organs  that  act  as 
  reservoirs,  and  in  the  passages  connected  with  them  as 
  biliary  calculi;  urinary  calculi,  etc 
 
  2.  (Math.)  A  method  of  computation;  any  process  of  reasoning 
  by  the  use  of  symbols;  any  branch  of  mathematics  that  may 
  involve  calculation. 
 
  {Barycentric  calculus},  a  method  of  treating  geometry  by 
  defining  a  point  as  the  center  of  gravity  of  certain  other 
  points  to  which  co["e]fficients  or  weights  are  ascribed. 
 
 
  {Calculus  of  functions},  that  branch  of  mathematics  which 
  treats  of  the  forms  of  functions  that  shall  satisfy  given 
  conditions. 
 
  {Calculus  of  operations},  that  branch  of  mathematical  logic 
  that  treats  of  all  operations  that  satisfy  given 
  conditions. 
 
  {Calculus  of  probabilities},  the  science  that  treats  of  the 
  computation  of  the  probabilities  of  events,  or  the 
  application  of  numbers  to  chance. 
 
  {Calculus  of  variations},  a  branch  of  mathematics  in  which 
  the  laws  of  dependence  which  bind  the  variable  quantities 
  together  are  themselves  subject  to  change. 
 
  {Differential  calculus},  a  method  of  investigating 
  mathematical  questions  by  using  the  ratio  of  certain 
  indefinitely  small  quantities  called  differentials.  The 
  problems  are  primarily  of  this  form:  to  find  how  the 
  change  in  some  variable  quantity  alters  at  each  instant 
  the  value  of  a  quantity  dependent  upon  it 
 
  {Exponential  calculus},  that  part  of  algebra  which  treats  of 
  exponents. 
 
  {Imaginary  calculus},  a  method  of  investigating  the  relations 
  of  real  or  imaginary  quantities  by  the  use  of  the 
  imaginary  symbols  and  quantities  of  algebra. 
 
  {Integral  calculus},  a  method  which  in  the  reverse  of  the 
  differential,  the  primary  object  of  which  is  to  learn  from 
  the  known  ratio  of  the  indefinitely  small  changes  of  two 
  or  more  magnitudes,  the  relation  of  the  magnitudes 
  themselves,  or  in  other  words  from  having  the 
  differential  of  an  algebraic  expression  to  find  the 
  expression  itself 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  calculus 
  n  1:  a  stone  produced  by  concretion  of  mineral  salts;  found  in 
  hollow  organs  or  ducts  of  the  body 
  2:  an  incrustation  that  forms  on  the  teeth  and  gums  [syn:  {tartar}] 
  3:  the  branch  of  mathematics  that  is  concerned  with  limits  and 
  with  the  differentiation  and  integration  of  functions 
  [syn:  {the  calculus},  {infinitesimal  calculus}] 




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