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cameroon


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Cameroon 
  n  1:  an  inactive  volcano  in  western  Cameroon;  highest  peak  on  the 
  West  African  coast  [syn:  {Cameroon}] 
  2:  a  republic  in  west-central  Africa;  was  under  French  and 
  British  control  until  1960  [syn:  {Cameroon},  {Cameroun}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Cameroon 
 
  Cameroon:Geography 
 
  Location:  Western  Africa,  bordering  the  North  Atlantic  Ocean,  between 
  Equatorial  Guinea  and  Nigeria 
 
  Map  references:  Africa 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  475,440  sq  km 
  land  area:  469,440  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  larger  than  California 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  4,591  km  Central  African  Republic  797  km  Chad 
  1,094  km  Congo  523  km  Equatorial  Guinea  189  km  Gabon  298  km 
  Nigeria  1,690  km 
 
  Coastline:  402  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  territorial  sea:  50  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  demarcation  of  international  boundaries  in 
  Lake  Chad,  the  lack  of  which  led  to  border  incidents  in  the  past,  is 
  completed  and  awaits  ratification  by  Cameroon,  Chad,  Niger,  and 
  Nigeria;  dispute  with  Nigeria  over  land  and  maritime  boundaries  in  the 
  vicinity  of  the  Bakasi  Peninsula  has  been  referred  to  the 
  International  Court  of  Justice 
 
  Climate:  varies  with  terrain,  from  tropical  along  coast  to  semiarid 
  and  hot  in  north 
 
  Terrain:  diverse,  with  coastal  plain  in  southwest,  dissected  plateau 
  in  center,  mountains  in  west,  plains  in  north 
 
  Natural  resources:  petroleum,  bauxite,  iron  ore,  timber,  hydropower 
  potential 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  13% 
  permanent  crops:  2% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  18% 
  forest  and  woodland:  54% 
  other:  13% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  280  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  water-borne  diseases  are  prevalent;  deforestation; 
  overgrazing  desertification  poaching;  overfishing 
  natural  hazards:  recent  volcanic  activity  with  release  of  poisonous 
  gases 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change, 
  Endangered  Species,  Law  of  the  Sea,  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Tropical 
  Timber  83;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Desertification  Nuclear  Test 
  Ban,  Tropical  Timber  94 
 
  Note:  sometimes  referred  to  as  the  hinge  of  Africa 
 
  Cameroon:People 
 
  Population:  13.521  million  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  44%  (female  2,978,216;  male  3,001,487) 
  15-64  years:  52%  (female  3,562,247;  male  3,523,100) 
  65  years  and  over:  4%  (female  248,314;  male  207,636)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  2.92%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  40.42  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  11.19  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  75.4  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  57.48  years 
  male:  55.41  years 
  female:  59.6  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  5.8  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Cameroonian(s) 
  adjective:  Cameroonian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Cameroon  Highlanders  31%,  Equatorial  Bantu  19%, 
  Kirdi  11%,  Fulani  10%,  Northwestern  Bantu  8%,  Eastern  Nigritic  7%, 
  other  African  13%,  non-African  less  than  1% 
 
  Religions:  indigenous  beliefs  51%,  Christian  33%,  Muslim  16% 
 
  Languages:  24  major  African  language  groups,  English  (official), 
  French  (official) 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1987) 
  total  population:  55% 
  male:  66% 
  female:  45% 
 
  Labor  force:  NA 
  by  occupation:  agriculture  74.4%,  industry  and  transport  11.4%,  other 
  services  14.2%  (1983) 
 
  Cameroon:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Cameroon 
  conventional  short  form:  Cameroon 
  former:  French  Cameroon 
 
  Digraph:  CM 
 
  Type:  unitary  republic;  multiparty  presidential  regime  (opposition 
  parties  legalized  1990) 
 
  Capital:  Yaounde 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  10  provinces;  Adamaoua  Centre,  Est, 
  Extreme-Nord,  Littoral,  Nord,  Nord-Ouest,  Ouest,  Sud,  Sud-Ouest 
 
  Independence:  1  January  1960  (from  UN  trusteeship  under  French 
  administration) 
 
  National  holiday:  National  Day  20  May  (1972) 
 
  Constitution:  20  May  1972 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  French  civil  law  system,  with  common  law 
  influence;  has  not  accepted  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  20  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Paul  BIYA  (since  6  November  1982);  election 
  last  held  11  October  1992;  results  -  President  Paul  BIYA  reelected 
  with  about  40%  of  the  vote  amid  widespread  allegations  of  fraud;  SDF 
  candidate  John  FRU  NDI  got  36%  of  the  vote;  UNDP  candidate  Bello  Bouba 
  MAIGARI  got  19%  of  the  vote 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Simon  ACHIDI  ACHU  (since  9  April 
  1992) 
  cabinet:  Cabinet;  appointed  by  the  president 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  National  Assembly  (Assemblee  Nationale):  elections  last  held  1  March 
  1992  (next  scheduled  for  March  1997);  results  -  (180  seats)  CPDM  88, 
  UNDP  68,  UPC  18,  MDR  6 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Cameroon  People's  Democratic  Movement 
  (CPDM),  Paul  BIYA,  president,  is  government-controlled  and  was 
  formerly  the  only  party,  but  opposition  parties  were  legalized  in  1990 
 
  major  opposition  parties:  National  Union  for  Democracy  and  Progress 
  (UNDP);  Social  Democratic  Front  (SDF);  Cameroonian  Democratic  Union 
  (UDC);  Union  of  Cameroonian  Populations  (UPC);  Movement  for  the 
  Defense  of  the  Republic  (MDR) 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  Alliance  for  Change  (FAC), 
  Cameroon  Anglophone  Movement  (CAM) 
 
  Member  of:  ACCT,  ACP,  AfDB  BDEAC  CCC,  CEEAC  ECA,  FAO,  FZ  G-19, 
  G-77,  GATT,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICC,  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA,  IDB,  IFAD,  IFC, 
  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INMARSAT  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  ITU,  NAM, 
  OAU,  OIC,  PCA,  UDEAC  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNIDO  UPU,  WCL,  WFTU  WHO 
  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Jerome  MENDOUGA 
  chancery:  2349  Massachusetts  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  265-8790  through  8794 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Harriet  W.  ISOM 
  embassy:  Rue  Nachtigal  Yaounde 
  mailing  address:  B.  P.  817,  Yaounde 
  telephone:  [237]  23-40-14 
  FAX:  [237]  23-07-53 
  consulate(s):  none  (Douala  closed  September  1993) 
 
  Flag:  three  equal  vertical  bands  of  green  (hoist  side),  red,  and 
  yellow  with  a  yellow  five-pointed  star  centered  in  the  red  band;  uses 
  the  popular  pan-African  colors  of  Ethiopia 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Because  of  its  offshore  oil  resources  and  favorable 
  agricultural  conditions,  Cameroon  has  one  of  the  best-endowed,  most 
  diversified  primary  commodity  economies  in  sub-Saharan  Africa.  Still 
  it  faces  many  of  the  serious  problems  facing  other  underdeveloped 
  countries,  such  as  political  instability,  a  top-heavy  civil  service, 
  and  a  generally  unfavorable  climate  for  business  enterprise.  The 
  development  of  the  oil  sector  led  rapid  economic  growth  between  1970 
  and  1985.  Growth  came  to  an  abrupt  halt  in  1986,  precipitated  by  steep 
  declines  in  the  prices  of  major  exports:  coffee,  cocoa,  and  petroleum. 
  Export  earnings  were  cut  by  almost  one-third,  and  inefficiencies  in 
  fiscal  management  were  exposed.  In  1990-93,  with  support  from  the  IMF 
  and  World  Bank,  the  government  began  to  introduce  reforms  designed  to 
  spur  business  investment,  increase  efficiency  in  agriculture,  and 
  recapitalize  the  nation's  banks.  Political  instability,  following 
  suspect  elections  in  1992,  brought  IMF/WB  structural  adjustment  to  a 
  halt.  Although  the  50%  devaluation  of  the  currency  in  January  1994 
  improved  the  potential  for  export  growth,  mismanagement  remains  and  is 
  the  main  barrier  to  economic  improvement. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $15.7  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  -2.9%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $1,200  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  -0.8%  (FY91/92) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  25%  (1990  est.) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $1.6  billion 
  expenditures:  $2.3  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $226 
  million  (FY92/93  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $1.6  billion  (f.o.b.,  1993) 
  commodities:  petroleum  products,  lumber,  cocoa  beans,  aluminum, 
  coffee,  cotton 
  partners:  EC  (particularly  France)  about  40%,  African  countries,  US 
 
  Imports:  $1.96  billion  (c.i.f.,  1993) 
  commodities:  machines  and  electrical  equipment,  food,  consumer  goods, 
  transport  equipment 
  partners:  EC  about  60%  (France  38%,  Germany  9%),  African  countries, 
  Japan,  US  5% 
 
  External  debt:  $6  billion  (1991) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  -2.1%  (FY90/91);  accounts  for  about 
  20%  of  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  630,000  kW 
  production:  2.7  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  196  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  petroleum  production  and  refining,  food  processing,  light 
  consumer  goods,  textiles,  lumber 
 
  Agriculture:  the  agriculture  and  forestry  sectors  provide  employment 
  for  the  majority  of  the  population,  contributing  about  25%  to  GDP  and 
  providing  a  high  degree  of  self-sufficiency  in  staple  foods; 
  commercial  and  food  crops  include  coffee,  cocoa,  timber,  cotton, 
  rubber,  bananas,  oilseed,  grains,  livestock,  root  starches 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-90),  $479  million; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-90),  $4.75  billion;  OPEC  bilateral  aid  (1979-89),  $29  million; 
  Communist  countries  (1970-89),  $125  million 
 
  Currency:  1  CFA  franc  CFAF  =  100  centimes 
 
  Exchange  rates:  Communaute  Financiere  Africaine  francs  CFAF  per  US$1 
  -  529.43  (January  1995),  555.20  (1994),  283.16  (1993),  264.69  (1992), 
  282.11  (1991),  272.26  (1990) 
  note:  beginning  12  January  1994,  the  CFA  franc  was  devalued  to  CFAF 
  100  per  French  franc  from  CFAF  50  at  which  it  had  been  fixed  since 
  1948 
 
  Fiscal  year:  1  July  -  30  June 
 
  Cameroon:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  1,111  km 
  narrow  gauge:  1,111  km  1.000-m  gauge 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  65,000  km 
  paved:  2,682  km 
  unpaved:  gravel,  improved  earth  32,318  km  unimproved  earth  30,000  km 
 
  Inland  waterways:  2,090  km  of  decreasing  importance 
 
  Ports:  Bonaberi  Douala,  Garoua,  Kribi,  Tiko 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  2  cargo  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  24,122  GRT/33,509 
  DWT 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  60 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  4 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  3 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  1 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  20 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  9 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  21 
 
  Cameroon:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  26,000  telephones;  telephone  density  -  2 
  telephones/1,000  persons;  available  only  to  business  and  government 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  cable,  microwave  radio  relay,  and  troposcatter 
  international:  2  Atlantic  Ocean  INTELSAT  earth  stations 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  11,  FM  11,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  1 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Cameroon:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army,  Navy  (includes  Naval  Infantry),  Air  Force,  National 
  Gendarmerie,  Presidential  Guard 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  3,038,007;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  1,532,303;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually 
  147,293  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $102  million,  NA%  of 
  GDP  (1994) 
 
 
 




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