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cations

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cations


  1  definition  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Ion  \I"on\,  n. 
  1.  One  of  the  electrified  particles  into  which  according  to 
  the  electrolytic  dissociation  theory,  the  molecules  of 
  electrolytes  are  divided  by  water  and  other  solvents.  An 
  ion  consists  of  one  or  more  atoms  and  carries  a  unit 
  charge  of  electricity,  3.4  x  10^{-10}  electrostatic  units, 
  or  a  multiple  of  this  Those  which  are  positively 
  electrified  (hydrogen  and  the  metals)  are  called 
  {cations};  negative  ions  (hydroxyl  and  acidic  atoms  or 
  groups)  are  called  {anions}. 
 
  Note:  Thus  hydrochloric  acid  ({HCl})  dissociates,  in  aqueous 
  solution,  into  the  hydrogen  ion,  H^{+},  and  the 
  chlorine  ion,  Cl^{-};  ferric  nitrate,  {Fe(NO3)3}, 
  yields  the  ferric  ion,  Fe^{+++},  and  nitrate  ions, 
  NO3^{-},  NO3^{-},  NO3^{-}.  When  a  solution  containing 
  ions  is  made  part  of  an  electric  circuit,  the  cations 
  move  toward  the  cathode,  the  anions  toward  the  anode. 
  This  movement  is  called  migration,  and  the  velocity  of 
  it  differs  for  different  kinds  of  ions.  If  the 
  electromotive  force  is  sufficient,  electrolysis  ensues: 
  cations  give  up  their  charge  at  the  cathode  and 
  separate  in  metallic  form  or  decompose  water,  forming 
  hydrogen  and  alkali;  similarly,  at  the  anode  the 
  element  of  the  anion  separates,  or  the  metal  of  the 
  anode  is  dissolved,  or  decomposition  occurs. 
 
  2.  One  of  the  small  electrified  particles  into  which  the 
  molecules  of  a  gas  are  broken  up  under  the  action  of  the 
  electric  current,  of  ultraviolet  and  certain  other  rays, 
  and  of  high  temperatures.  To  the  properties  and  behavior 
  of  ions  the  phenomena  of  the  electric  discharge  through 
  rarefied  gases  and  many  other  important  effects  are 
  ascribed.  At  low  pressures  the  negative  ions  appear  to  be 
  electrons;  the  positive  ions,  atoms  minus  an  electron.  At 
  ordinary  pressures  each  ion  seems  to  include  also  a  number 
  of  attached  molecules.  Ions  may  be  formed  in  a  gas  in 
  various  ways. 




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