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chad

more about chad

chad


  6  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Shad  \Shad\  (sh[a^]d),  n.  sing.  &  pl  [AS.  sceadda  a  kind  of 
  fish,  akin  to  Prov.  G.  schade;  cf  Ir  &  Gael.  sgadan  a 
  herring,  W.  ysgadan  herrings;  all  perhaps  akin  to  E.  skate  a 
  fish.]  (Zo["o]l.) 
  Any  one  of  several  species  of  food  fishes  of  the  Herring 
  family.  The  American  species  ({Clupea  sapidissima}),  which  is 
  abundant  on  the  Atlantic  coast  and  ascends  the  larger  rivers 
  in  spring  to  spawn,  is  an  important  market  fish.  The  European 
  allice  shad,  or  alose  ({C.  alosa}),  and  the  twaite  shad.  ({C. 
  finta}),  are  less  important  species.  [Written  also  {chad}.] 
 
  Note:  The  name  is  loosely  applied,  also  to  several  other 
  fishes,  as  the  gizzard  shad  (see  under  {Gizzard}), 
  called  also  {mud  shad},  {white-eyed  shad},  and  {winter 
  shad}. 
 
  {Hardboaded},  or  {Yellow-tailed},  {shad},  the  menhaden. 
 
  {Hickory},  or  {Tailor},  {shad},  the  mattowacca. 
 
  {Long-boned  shad},  one  of  several  species  of  important  food 
  fishes  of  the  Bermudas  and  the  West  Indies,  of  the  genus 
  {Gerres}. 
 
  {Shad  bush}  (Bot.),  a  name  given  to  the  North  American  shrubs 
  or  small  trees  of  the  rosaceous  genus  {Amelanchier}  ({A. 
  Canadensis},  and  {A.  alnifolia})  Their  white  racemose 
  blossoms  open  in  April  or  May  when  the  shad  appear,  and 
  the  edible  berries  (pomes)  ripen  in  June  or  July,  whence 
  they  are  called  Juneberries.  The  plant  is  also  called 
  {service  tree},  and  {Juneberry}. 
 
  {Shad  frog},  an  American  spotted  frog  ({Rana  halecina});  -- 
  so  called  because  it  usually  appears  at  the  time  when  the 
  shad  begin  to  run  in  the  rivers. 
 
  {Trout  shad},  the  squeteague. 
 
  {White  shad},  the  common  shad. 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Chad  \Chad\,  n. 
  See  {Shad}.  [Obs.] 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Chad 
  adj  :  of  or  relating  to  or  characteristic  of  the  Republic  of  Chad 
  or  its  people  or  language;  "the  Chadian  desert";  "Chad 
  soldiers";  "Chadian  folktales"  [syn:  {Chad},  {Chadian}] 
  n  1:  a  landlocked  desert  republic  in  north-central  Africa;  was 
  under  French  control  until  1960  [syn:  {Chad},  {Tchad}] 
  2:  a  family  of  Afroasiatic  tonal  languages  (mostly  two  tones) 
  spoken  in  the  regions  west  and  south  of  Lake  Chad  in  north 
  central  Africa  [syn:  {Chad},  {Chadic},  {Chadic  language}] 
 
  From  Jargon  File  (4.2.3,  23  NOV  2000)  [jargon]: 
 
  chad  /chad/  n.  1.  [common]  The  perforated  edge  strips  on 
  printer  paper,  after  they  have  been  separated  from  the  printed  portion. 
  Also  called  {selvage},  {perf},  and  {ripoff}.  2.  The  confetti-like 
  paper  bits  punched  out  of  cards  or  paper  tape;  this  has  also  been  called 
  `chaff',  `computer  confetti',  and  `keypunch  droppings'.  It's  reported 
  that  this  was  very  old  Army  slang,  and  has  been  occasionally  sighted 
  since  (in  directions  for  punched-card  vote  tabulators)  long  after  it 
  passed  out  of  live  use  among  computer  programmers  in  the  late  1970s. 
  This  sense  of  `chad'  returned  to  the  mainstream  during  the  finale  of  the 
  hotly  disputed  U.S.  presidential  election  in  2000  via  stories  about  the 
  Florida  vote  recounts. 
 
  There  is  an  urban  legend  that  `chad'  (sense  2)  derives  from  the 
  Chadless  keypunch  (named  for  its  inventor),  which  cut  little  u-shaped 
  tabs  in  the  card  to  make  a  hole  when  the  tab  folded  back  rather  than 
  punching  out  a  circle/rectangle;  it  was  clear  that  if  the  Chadless 
  keypunch  didn't  make  them  then  the  stuff  that  other  keypunches  made 
  had  to  be  `chad'.  However,  serious  attempts  to  track  down  Chadless" 
  as  a  personal  name  or  U.S.  trademark  have  failed,  casting  doubt  on  this 
  etymology  -  and  the  U.S.  Patent  Classification  Systenm  uses  chadless" 
  (small  c)  as  an  adjective,  suggesting  that  chadless"  derives  from  chad" 
  and  not  the  other  way  around  There  is  another  legend  that  the  word 
  was  originally  acronymic,  standing  for  "Card  Hole  Aggregate  Debris", 
  but  this  has  all  the  earmarks  of  a  {backronym}.  It  has  also  been  noted 
  that  the  word  chad"  is  Scots  dialect  for  gravel,  but  nobody  has  proposed 
  ant  plausible  reason  that  card  chaff  should  be  thought  of  as  gravels. 
 
 
 
  From  The  Free  On-line  Dictionary  of  Computing  (13  Mar  01)  [foldoc]: 
 
  chad 
 
    /chad/  (Or  selvage"  /sel'v*j/  (sewing  and 
  weaving),  "{perf}",  "perfory",  "snaf").  1.  The  perforated 
  edge  strips  on  paper  for  {sprocket  feed}  printers,  after  they 
  have  been  separated  from  the  printed  portion. 
 
  The  term  {perf}  may  also  refer  to  the  perforations  themselves, 
  rather  than  the  chad  they  produce  when  torn. 
 
  [Why  "snaf"?] 
 
  2.  (Or  "chaff",  "computer  confetti",  "keypunch  droppings")  The 
  confetti-like  bits  punched  out  of  {punched  cards}  or  {paper 
  tape}  which  collected  in  the  {chad  box}. 
 
  One  of  the  {Jargon  File}'s  correspondents  believed  that  chad" 
  derived  from  the  {chadless  keypunch}. 
 
  [{Jargon  File}] 
 
  (1997-07-18) 
 
 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Chad 
 
  Chad:Geography 
 
  Location:  Central  Africa,  south  of  Libya 
 
  Map  references:  Africa 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  1.284  million  sq  km 
  land  area:  1,259,200  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  more  than  three  times  the  size  of 
  California 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  5,968  km  Cameroon  1,094  km  Central  African 
  Republic  1,197  km  Libya  1,055  km  Niger  1,175  km  Nigeria  87  km 
  Sudan  1,360  km 
 
  Coastline:  0  km  (landlocked) 
 
  Maritime  claims:  none;  landlocked 
 
  International  disputes:  the  International  Court  of  Justice  (ICJ)  ruled 
  in  February  1994  that  the  100,000  sq  km  Aozou  Strip  between  Chad  and 
  Libya  belongs  to  Chad;  Libya  has  withdrawn  some  of  its  forces  in 
  response  to  the  ICJ  ruling,  but  still  maintains  an  airfield  in  the 
  disputed  area;  demarcation  of  international  boundaries  in  Lake  Chad, 
  the  lack  of  which  has  led  to  border  incidents  in  the  past,  is 
  completed  and  awaiting  ratification  by  Cameroon,  Chad,  Niger,  and 
  Nigeria 
 
  Climate:  tropical  in  south,  desert  in  north 
 
  Terrain:  broad,  arid  plains  in  center,  desert  in  north,  mountains  in 
  northwest,  lowlands  in  south 
 
  Natural  resources:  petroleum  (unexploited  but  exploration  under  way), 
  uranium,  natron,  kaolin,  fish  (Lake  Chad) 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  2% 
  permanent  crops:  0% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  36% 
  forest  and  woodland:  11% 
  other:  51% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  100  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  inadequate  supplies  of  potable  water;  improper  waste 
  disposal  in  rural  areas  contributes  to  soil  and  water  pollution; 
  desertification 
  natural  hazards:  hot,  dry,  dusty  harmattan  winds  occur  in  north; 
  periodic  droughts;  locust  plagues 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change, 
  Endangered  Species,  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer  Protection, 
  Wetlands;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Law  of  the  Sea,  Marine  Dumping 
 
  Note:  landlocked;  Lake  Chad  is  the  most  significant  water  body  in  the 
  Sahel 
 
  Chad:People 
 
  Population:  5,586,505  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  44%  (female  1,198,619;  male  1,267,470) 
  15-64  years:  54%  (female  1,563,678;  male  1,456,481) 
  65  years  and  over:  2%  (female  71,971;  male  28,286)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  2.18%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  42.05  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  20.26  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  129.7  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  41.19  years 
  male:  40.04  years 
  female:  42.38  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  5.33  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Chadian(s) 
  adjective:  Chadian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions: 
  north  and  center:  Muslims  (Arabs,  Toubou  Hadjerai  Fulbe,  Kotoko, 
  Kanembou  Baguirmi  Boulala  Zaghawa  and  Maba) 
  south:  non-Muslims  (Sara,  Ngambaye  Mbaye  Goulaye  Moundang,  Moussei, 
  Massa)  nonindigenous  150,000,  of  whom  1,000  are  French 
 
  Religions:  Muslim  50%,  Christian  25%,  indigenous  beliefs,  animism  25% 
 
  Languages:  French  (official),  Arabic  (official),  Sara  (in  south), 
  Sango  (in  south),  more  than  100  different  languages  and  dialects  are 
  spoken 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  has  the  ability  to  read  and  write  in  French 
  and  Arabic  (1990  est.) 
  total  population:  30% 
  male:  42% 
  female:  18% 
 
  Labor  force:  NA 
  by  occupation:  agriculture  85%  (engaged  in  unpaid  subsistence  farming, 
  herding,  and  fishing) 
 
  Chad:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Chad 
  conventional  short  form:  Chad 
  local  long  form:  Republique  du  Tchad 
  local  short  form:  Tchad 
 
  Digraph:  CD 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  N'Djamena 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  14  prefectures  (prefectures,  singular  - 
  prefecture);  Batha,  Biltine  Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti,  Chari-Baguirmi, 
  Guera,  Kanem,  Lac,  Logone  Occidental,  Logone  Oriental,  Mayo-Kebbi, 
  Moyen-Chari,  Ouaddai  Salamat  Tandjile 
 
  Independence:  11  August  1960  (from  France) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  11  August  (1960) 
 
  Constitution:  22  December  1989  (suspended  3  December  1990); 
  Provisional  National  Charter  1  March  1991  is  in  effect  (note  -  the 
  constitutional  commission,  which  was  drafting  a  new  constitution  to 
  submit  to  transitional  parliament  for  ratification  in  April  1994, 
  failed  to  do  so  but  expects  to  submit  a  new  draft  to  the  parliament 
  before  the  end  of  April  1995) 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  French  civil  law  system  and  Chadian  customary 
  law;  has  not  accepted  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  universal  at  age  NA 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Lt  Gen.  Idriss  DEBY,  since  4  December  1990 
  (after  seizing  power  on  3  December  1990  -  transitional  government's 
  mandate  expires  April  1996) 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Djimasta  KOIBLA  (since  9  April 
  1995) 
  cabinet:  Council  of  State;  appointed  by  the  president  on 
  recommendation  of  the  prime  minister 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  National  Consultative  Council  (Conceil  National  Consultatif): 
  elections,  formerly  scheduled  for  April  1995,  were  postponed  by  mutual 
  agreement  of  the  parties  concerned  until  some  time  prior  to  April 
  1996;  elections  last  held  8  July  1990;  the  National  Consultative 
  Council  was  disbanded  3  December  1990  and  replaced  by  the  Provisional 
  Council  of  the  Republic  having  30  members  appointed  by  President  DEBY 
  on  8  March  1991;  this  in  turn,  was  replaced  by  a  57-member  Higher 
  Transitional  Council  (Conseil  Superieur  de  Transition)  elected  by  a 
  specially  convened  Sovereign  National  Conference  on  6  April  1993 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Court  of  Appeal 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Patriotic  Salvation  Movement  (MPS), 
  former  dissident  group  Idriss  DEBY,  chairman 
  note:  President  DEBY,  who  promised  political  pluralism,  a  new 
  constitution,  and  free  elections  by  April  1994,  subsequently  twice 
  postponed  these  initiatives,  first  until  April  1995  and  again  until 
  sometime  before  April  1996;  there  are  numerous  dissident  groups  and  at 
  least  45  opposition  political  parties 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  NA 
 
  Member  of:  ACCT,  ACP,  AfDB  BDEAC  CEEAC  ECA,  FAO,  FZ  G-77,  GATT, 
  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA,  IDB,  IFAD,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  INTELSAT, 
  INTERPOL,  IOC,  ITU,  NAM,  OAU,  OIC,  UDEAC  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNIDO 
  UPU,  WCL,  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Mahamat  Saleh  AHMAT 
  chancery:  2002  R  Street  NW  Washington,  DC  20009 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  462-4009 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  265-1937 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Laurence  E.  POPE  II 
  embassy:  Avenue  Felix  Eboue,  N'Djamena 
  mailing  address:  B.  P.  413,  N'Djamena 
  telephone:  [235]  (51)  62  18,  (51)  40  09,  (51)  47  59 
  FAX:  [235]  (51)  33  72 
 
  Flag:  three  equal  vertical  bands  of  blue  (hoist  side),  yellow,  and 
  red;  similar  to  the  flag  of  Romania;  also  similar  to  the  flag  of 
  Andorra,  which  has  a  national  coat  of  arms  featuring  a  quartered 
  shield  centered  in  the  yellow  band;  design  was  based  on  the  flag  of 
  France 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Climate,  geographic  remoteness,  poor  resource  endowment,  and 
  lack  of  infrastructure  make  Chad  one  of  the  most  underdeveloped 
  countries  in  the  world.  Its  economy  is  hobbled  by  political  turmoil, 
  conflict  with  Libya,  drought,  and  food  shortages.  Consequently  the 
  economy  has  shown  little  progress  in  recent  years  in  overcoming  a 
  severe  setback  brought  on  by  civil  war  in  the  late  1980s.  More  than 
  80%  of  the  work  force  is  involved  in  subsistence  farming  and  fishing. 
  Cotton  is  the  major  cash  crop,  accounting  for  at  least  half  of 
  exports.  Chad  is  highly  dependent  on  foreign  aid,  especially  food 
  credits,  given  chronic  shortages  in  several  regions.  Of  all  the 
  Francophone  countries  in  Africa,  Chad  has  benefited  the  least  from  the 
  50%  devaluation  of  their  currencies  on  12  January  1994.  Despite  an 
  increase  in  external  financial  aid  and  favorable  price  increases  for 
  cotton  -  the  primary  source  of  foreign  exchange  -  the  corrupt  and 
  enfeebled  government  bureaucracy  continues  to  dampen  economic 
  enterprise  by  neglecting  payments  to  domestic  suppliers  and  public 
  sector  salaries.  Oil  production  in  the  Lake  Chad  area  remains  a 
  distant  prospect  and  the  subsistence-driven  economy  probably  will 
  continue  to  limp  along  in  the  near  term. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $2.8  billion  (1993 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  3.5%  (1993  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $530  (1993  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  -4.1%  (1992) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  NA% 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $120  million 
  expenditures:  $363  million,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $104 
  million  (1992  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $190  million  (f.o.b.,  1992) 
  commodities:  cotton  48%,  cattle  35%,  textiles  5%,  fish 
  partners:  France,  Nigeria,  Cameroon 
 
  Imports:  $261  million  (f.o.b.,  1992) 
  commodities:  machinery  and  transportation  equipment  39%,  industrial 
  goods  20%,  petroleum  products  13%,  foodstuffs  9%;  note  -  excludes 
  military  equipment 
  partners:  US  France,  Nigeria,  Cameroon 
 
  External  debt:  $492  million  (December  1990  est.) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  2.7%  (1992  est.);  accounts  for 
  nearly  15%  of  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  40,000  kW 
  production:  80  million  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  13  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  cotton  textile  mills,  slaughterhouses,  brewery,  natron 
  (sodium  carbonate),  soap,  cigarettes 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  about  45%  of  GDP;  largely  subsistence 
  farming;  cotton  most  important  cash  crop;  food  crops  include  sorghum, 
  millet,  peanuts,  rice,  potatoes,  manioc;  livestock  -  cattle,  sheep, 
  goats,  camels;  self-sufficient  in  food  in  years  of  adequate  rainfall 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-89),  $198  million; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-89),  $1.5  billion;  OPEC  bilateral  aid  (1979-89),  $28  million; 
  Communist  countries  (1970-89),  $80  million 
 
  Currency:  1  CFA  franc  CFAF  =  100  centimes 
 
  Exchange  rates:  Communaute  Financiere  Africaine  Francs  CFAF  per  US$1 
  -  529.43  (January  1995),  555.20  (1994),  283.16  (1993),  264.69  (1992), 
  282.11  (1991),  272.26  (1990) 
  note:  beginning  12  January  1994  the  CFA  franc  was  devalued  to  CFAF  100 
  per  French  franc  from  CFAF  50  at  which  it  had  been  fixed  since  1948 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Chad:Transportation 
 
  Railroads:  0  km 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  31,322  km 
  paved:  bituminous  263  km 
  unpaved:  gravel,  crushed  stone  7,069  km  earth  23,990  km 
 
  Inland  waterways:  2,000  km  navigable 
 
  Ports:  none 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  66 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  3 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  1 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  23 
  with  unpaved  runways  over  3,047  m:  1 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  17 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  21 
 
  Chad:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  NA  telephones;  primitive  system 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  fair  system  of  radio  communication  stations  for  intercity 
  links 
  international:  1  INTELSAT  (Atlantic  Ocean)  earth  station 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  6,  FM  1,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  NA  note  -  limited  TV  service;  many  facilties  are 
  inoperative 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Chad:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Armed  Forces  (includes  Ground  Force,  Air  Force,  and 
  Gendarmerie),  Republican  Guard,  Police 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  1,307,210;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  679,640;  males  reach  military  age  (20)  annually 
  54,945  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $74  million,  11.1%  of 
  GDP  (1994) 
 
 
 




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