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chronology

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chronology


  3  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Chronology  \Chro*nol"o*gy\,  n.;  pl  {Chronologies}.  [Gr.  ?;  ? 
  time  +  ?  discourse:  cf  F.  chronologie.] 
  The  science  which  treats  of  measuring  time  by  regular 
  divisions  or  periods,  and  which  assigns  to  events  or 
  transactions  their  proper  dates. 
 
  If  history  without  chronology  is  dark  and  confused, 
  chronology  without  history  is  dry  and  insipid.  --A. 
  Holmes. 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  chronology 
  n  1:  arrangement  of  events  in  time 
  2:  a  record  of  events  in  the  order  of  their  occurrence 
  3:  the  determination  of  the  actual  temporal  sequence  of  past 
  events 
 
  From  Easton's  1897  Bible  Dictionary  [easton]: 
 
  Chronology 
  is  the  arrangement  of  facts  and  events  in  the  order  of  time.  The 
  writers  of  the  Bible  themselves  do  not  adopt  any  standard  era 
  according  to  which  they  date  events.  Sometimes  the  years  are 
  reckoned,  e.g.,  from  the  time  of  the  Exodus  (Num.  1:1;  33:38;  1 
  Kings  6:1),  and  sometimes  from  the  accession  of  kings  (1  Kings 
  15:1,  9,  25,  33,  etc.),  and  sometimes  again  from  the  return  from 
  Exile  (Ezra  3:8). 
 
  Hence  in  constructing  a  system  of  Biblecal  chronology,  the 
  plan  has  been  adopted  of  reckoning  the  years  from  the  ages  of 
  the  patriarchs  before  the  birth  of  their  first-born  sons  for  the 
  period  from  the  Creation  to  Abraham.  After  this  period  other 
  data  are  to  be  taken  into  account  in  determining  the  relative 
  sequence  of  events. 
 
  As  to  the  patriarchal  period,  there  are  three  principal 
  systems  of  chronology:  (1)  that  of  the  Hebrew  text,  (2)  that  of 
  the  Septuagint  version,  and  (3)  that  of  the  Samaritan 
  Pentateuch,  as  seen  in  the  scheme  on  the  opposite  page. 
 
  The  Samaritan  and  the  Septuagint  have  considerably  modified 
  the  Hebrew  chronology.  This  modification  some  regard  as  having 
  been  wilfully  made  and  to  be  rejected.  The  same  system  of 
  variations  is  observed  in  the  chronology  of  the  period  between 
  the  Flood  and  Abraham.  Thus: 
 
  |  Hebrew  Septuigant  Samaritan 
 
  |  From  the  birth  of 
 
  |  Arphaxad,  2  years 
 
  |  after  the  Flood,  to 
 
  |  the  birth  of  Terah.  220  1000  870 
 
  |  From  the  birth  of 
 
  |  Terah  to  the  birth 
 
  |  of  Abraham.  130  70  72 
 
  The  Septuagint  fixes  on  seventy  years  as  the  age  of  Terah  at 
  the  birth  of  Abraham,  from  Gen.  11:26;  but  a  comparison  of  Gen. 
  11:32  and  Acts  7:4  with  Gen.  12:4  shows  that  when  Terah  died,  at 
  the  age  of  two  hundred  and  five  years,  Abraham  was  seventy-five 
  years,  and  hence  Terah  must  have  been  one  hundred  and  thirty 
  years  when  Abraham  was  born.  Thus  including  the  two  years  from 
  the  Flood  to  the  birth  of  Arphaxad,  the  period  from  the  Flood  to 
  the  birth  of  Abraham  was  three  hundred  and  fifty-two  years. 
 
  The  next  period  is  from  the  birth  of  Abraham  to  the  Exodus. 
  This  according  to  the  Hebrew,  extends  to  five  hundred  and  five 
  years.  The  difficulty  here  is  as  to  the  four  hundred  and  thirty 
  years  mentioned  Ex  12:40,  41;  Gal.  3:17.  These  years  are 
  regarded  by  some  as  dating  from  the  covenant  with  Abraham  (Gen. 
  15),  which  was  entered  into  soon  after  his  sojourn  in  Egypt; 
  others  with  more  probability,  reckon  these  years  from  Jacob's 
  going  down  into  Egypt.  (See  {EXODUS}.) 
 
  In  modern  times  the  systems  of  Biblical  chronology  that  have 
  been  adopted  are  chiefly  those  of  Ussher  and  Hales.  The  former 
  follows  the  Hebrew,  and  the  latter  the  Septuagint  mainly. 
  Archbishop  Ussher's  (died  1656)  system  is  called  the  short 
  chronology.  It  is  that  given  on  the  margin  of  the  Authorized 
  Version,  but  is  really  of  no  authority,  and  is  quite  uncertain. 
 
  |  Ussher  Hales 
 
  |  B.C.  B.C. 
 
  |  Creation  4004  5411 
 
  |  Flood  2348  3155 
 
  |  Abram  leaves  Haran  1921  2078 
 
  |  Exodus  1491  1648 
 
  |  Destruction  of  the 
 
  |  Temple  588  586 
 
  To  show  at  a  glance  the  different  ideas  of  the  date  of  the 
  creation,  it  may  be  interesting  to  note  the  following:  From 
  Creation  to  1894. 
 
  According  to  Ussher,  5,898;  Hales,  7,305;  Zunz  (Hebrew 
  reckoning),  5,882;  Septuagint  (Perowne),  7,305;  Rabbinical, 
  5,654;  Panodorus  7,387;  Anianus  7,395;  Constantinopolitan 
  7,403;  Eusebius,  7,093;  Scaliger  5,844;  Dionysius  (from  whom  we 
  take  our  Christian  era),  7,388;  Maximus,  7,395;  Syncellus  and 
  Theophanes  7,395;  Julius  Africanus,  7,395;  Jackson,  7,320. 
 




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