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colombia

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colombia


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Colombia 
  n  :  a  republic  in  northwestern  South  America;  the  major  legal 
  crop  is  coffee  but  cocaine  is  also  a  major  export  [syn:  {Colombia}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Colombia 
 
  Colombia:Geography 
 
  Location:  Northern  South  America,  bordering  the  Caribbean  Sea,  between 
  Panama  and  Venezuela,  and  bordering  the  North  Pacific  Ocean,  between 
  Ecuador  and  Panama 
 
  Map  references:  South  America 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  1,138,910  sq  km 
  land  area:  1,038,700  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  less  than  three  times  the  size  of  Montana 
  note:  includes  Isla  de  Malpelo  Roncador  Cay,  Serrana  Bank,  and 
  Serranilla  Bank 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  7,408  km  Brazil  1,643  km  Ecuador  590  km 
  Panama  225  km  Peru  2,900  km  Venezuela  2,050  km 
 
  Coastline:  3,208  km  (Caribbean  Sea  1,760  km  North  Pacific  Ocean  1,448 
  km) 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  continental  shelf:  200-m  depth  or  to  the  depth  of  exploitation 
  exclusive  economic  zone:  200  nm 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  maritime  boundary  dispute  with  Venezuela  in 
  the  Gulf  of  Venezuela;  territorial  dispute  with  Nicaragua  over 
  Archipelago  de  San  Andres  y  Providencia  and  Quita  Sueno  Bank 
 
  Climate:  tropical  along  coast  and  eastern  plains;  cooler  in  highlands 
 
  Terrain:  flat  coastal  lowlands,  central  highlands,  high  Andes 
  Mountains,  eastern  lowland  plains 
 
  Natural  resources:  petroleum,  natural  gas,  coal,  iron  ore,  nickel, 
  gold,  copper,  emeralds 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  4% 
  permanent  crops:  2% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  29% 
  forest  and  woodland:  49% 
  other:  16% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  5,150  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  deforestation;  soil  damage  from  overuse  of  pesticides; 
  air  pollution,  especially  in  Bogota,  from  vehicle  emissions 
  natural  hazards:  highlands  subject  to  volcanic  eruptions;  occasional 
  earthquakes;  periodic  droughts 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Antarctic  Treaty,  Biodiversity, 
  Endangered  Species,  Marine  Life  Conservation,  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone 
  Layer  Protection,  Ship  Pollution,  Tropical  Timber  83;  signed,  but  not 
  ratified  -  Antarctic-Environmental  Protocol,  Climate  Change, 
  Desertification  Hazardous  Wastes,  Law  of  the  Sea,  Marine  Dumping 
 
  Note:  only  South  American  country  with  coastlines  on  both  North 
  Pacific  Ocean  and  Caribbean  Sea 
 
  Colombia:People 
 
  Population:  36,200,251  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  32%  (female  5,784,010;  male  5,925,600) 
  15-64  years:  63%  (female  11,642,870;  male  11,245,235) 
  65  years  and  over:  5%  (female  888,358;  male  714,178)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  1.7%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  21.89  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  4.69  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  -0.17  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  26.9  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  72.48  years 
  male:  69.68  years 
  female:  75.38  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  2.4  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Colombian(s) 
  adjective:  Colombian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  mestizo  58%,  white  20%,  mulatto  14%,  black  4%,  mixed 
  black-Indian  3%,  Indian  1% 
 
  Religions:  Roman  Catholic  95% 
 
  Languages:  Spanish 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1985) 
  total  population:  88% 
  male:  88% 
  female:  88% 
 
  Labor  force:  12  million  (1990) 
  by  occupation:  services  46%,  agriculture  30%,  industry  24%  (1990) 
 
  Colombia:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Colombia 
  conventional  short  form:  Colombia 
  local  long  form:  Republica  de  Colombia 
  local  short  form:  Colombia 
 
  Digraph:  CO 
 
  Type:  republic;  executive  branch  dominates  government  structure 
 
  Capital:  Bogota 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  32  departments  (departamentos,  singular  - 
  departamento)  and  1  capital  district*  (distrito  capital);  Amazonas, 
  Antioquia  Arauca,  Atlantico,  Bogota*,  Bolivar,  Boyaca  Caldas 
  Caqueta  Casanare  Cauca,  Cesar,  Choco,  Cordoba,  Cundinamarca 
  Guainia  Guaviare  Huila  La  Guajira,  Magdalena,  Meta,  Narino,  Norte 
  de  Santander  Putumayo  Quindio  Risaralda  San  Andres  y  Providencia 
  Santander  Sucre,  Tolima,  Valle  del  Cauca,  Vaupes  Vichada 
 
  Independence:  20  July  1810  (from  Spain) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  20  July  (1810) 
 
  Constitution:  5  July  1991 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  Spanish  law;  a  new  criminal  code  modeled  after 
  US  procedures  was  enacted  in  1992-93;  judicial  review  of  executive  and 
  legislative  acts  accepts  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction,  with 
  reservations 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal  and  compulsory 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state  and  head  of  government:  President  Ernesto  SAMPER  Pizano 
  (since  7  August  1994);  election  last  held  29  May  1994  (next  to  be  held 
  May  1998)  and  resulted  in  no  candidate  receiving  more  than  50%  of  the 
  total  vote;  a  run-off  election  to  select  a  president  from  the  two 
  leading  candidates  was  held  on  19  June  1994;  results  -  Ernesto  SAMPER 
  Pizano  (Liberal  Party)  50.4%,  Andres  PASTRANA  Arango  (Conservative 
  Party)  48.6%,  blank  votes  1%;  Humberto  de  la  CALLE  was  elected  vice 
  president  in  a  new  proceedure  that  replaces  the  traditional 
  designation  of  vice  presidents  by  newly  elected  presidents. 
  cabinet:  Cabinet 
 
  Legislative  branch:  bicameral  Congress  (Congreso) 
  Senate  (Senado):  elections  last  held  13  March  1994  (next  to  be  held  NA 
  March  1998);  preliminary  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA  seats 
  -  (102  total)  Liberal  Party  59,  conservatives  (includes  PC  MSN,  and 
  NDF)  31,  other  12 
  House  of  Representatives  (Camara  de  Representantes):  elections  last 
  held  13  March  1994  (next  to  be  held  NA  March  1998);  preliminary 
  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA  seats  -  (161  total)  Liberal 
  Party  89,  conservatives  (includes  PC  MSN,  and  NDF)  53,  AD/M-19  2, 
  other  17 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court  of  Justice  (Corte  Suprema  de  Justical), 
  Constitutional  Court,  Council  of  State 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Liberal  Party  (PL),  Juan  Guillermo 
  ANGEL;  Conservative  Party  (PC),  Fabio  VALENCIA  Cossio;  National 
  Salvation  Movement  (MSN),  Alvaro  GOMEZ  Hurtado  New  Democratic  Force 
  (NDF),  Andres  PASTRANA  Arango;  Democratic  Alliance  M-19  (AD/M-19)  is  a 
  coalition  of  small  leftist  parties  and  dissident  liberals  and 
  conservatives;  Patriotic  Union  UP  is  a  legal  political  party  formed 
  by  Revolutionary  Armed  Forces  of  Colombia  (FARC)  and  Colombian 
  Communist  Party  (PCC),  Carlos  ROMERO 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  three  insurgent  groups  are  active 
  in  Colombia  -  Revolutionary  Armed  Forces  of  Colombia  (FARC),  Manuel 
  MARULANDA  and  Alfonso  CANO;  National  Liberation  Army  (ELN),  Manuel 
  PEREZ;  and  dissidents  of  the  recently  demobilized  People's  Liberation 
  Army  (EPL),  Francisco  CARABALLO  Francisco  CARABALLO  was  captured  by 
  the  government  in  June  1994 
 
  Member  of:  AG  CCC,  CDB,  CG  ECLAC  FAO,  G-11,  G-24,  G-77,  GATT,  IADB, 
  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICC,  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF, 
  IMO,  INMARSAT  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  IOM,  ISO,  ITU,  LAES,  LAIA, 
  NAM,  OAS,  ONUSAL  OPANAL  PCA,  RG  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNHCR  UNIDO 
  UNPROFOR  UNU,  UPU,  WCL,  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Carlos  LLERAS  de  la  Fuente 
  chancery:  2118  Leroy  Place  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  387-8338 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  232-8643 
  consulate(s)  general:  Boston,  Chicago,  Houston,  Los  Angeles,  Miami, 
  New  Orleans,  New  York,  San  Francisco,  San  Juan  (Puerto  Rico),  and 
  Washington,  DC 
  consulate(s):  Atlanta  and  Tampa 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Myles  R.  R.  FRECHETTE 
  embassy:  Calle  38,  No  8-61,  Bogota 
  mailing  address:  Apartado  Aereo  3831,  Bogota;  APO  AA  34038 
  telephone:  [57]  (1)  320-1300 
  FAX:  [57]  (1)  288-5687 
  consulate(s):  Barranquilla 
 
  Flag:  three  horizontal  bands  of  yellow  (top,  double-width),  blue,  and 
  red;  similar  to  the  flag  of  Ecuador,  which  is  longer  and  bears  the 
  Ecuadorian  coat  of  arms  superimposed  in  the  center 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Colombia's  economy  has  grown  steadily  since  1991,  when  the 
  government  implemented  sweeping  economic  reform  measures.  President 
  SAMPER,  who  took  office  in  August  1994,  has  pledged  to  maintain  those 
  reforms  while  expanding  government  assistance  for  poor  Colombians,  who 
  continue  to  make  up  about  40%  of  the  population.  In  an  effort  to  bring 
  down  inflation,  SAMPER  has  arranged  a  "social  pact"  with  business  and 
  labor  to  curtail  price  hikes  and  trim  inflation  to  18%.  The  rapid 
  development  of  oil,  coal,  and  other  nontraditional  industries,  along 
  with  copious  inflows  of  capital  and  strengthening  of  prices  for 
  coffee,  have  helped  keep  growth  at  5%-6%.  Development  of  the  massive 
  Cusiana  oilfield  provides  the  means  to  sustain  this  level  over  the 
  next  several  years.  Exporters  say  however,  that  their  sales  have  been 
  hampered  by  the  appreciation  of  the  Colombian  peso,  and  farmers  have 
  sought  government  help  in  adjusting  to  greater  foreign  competition. 
  Moreover,  increased  foreign  investment  and  even  greater  domestic 
  growth  have  been  hindered  by  an  inadequate  energy  and  transportation 
  infrastructure  and  by  violence  stemming  from  drug  trafficking  and 
  persistent  rural  insurgency. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $172.4  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  5.7%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $4,850  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  22.6%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  7.9%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $16  billion  (1995  est.) 
  expenditures:  $21  billion  (1995  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $8.3  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  petroleum,  coffee,  coal,  bananas,  fresh  cut  flowers 
  partners:  US  39%,  EC  25.7%,  Japan  2.9%,  Venezuela  8.5%  (1992) 
 
  Imports:  $10.6  billion  (c.i.f.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  industrial  equipment,  transportation  equipment,  consumer 
  goods,  chemicals,  paper  products 
  partners:  US  36%,  EC  18%,  Brazil  4%,  Venezuela  6.5%,  Japan  8.7%  (1992) 
 
  External  debt:  $12.6  billion  (1994  est.) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  5%  (1994  est.);  accounts  for  about 
  20%  of  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  10,220,000  kW 
  production:  33  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  890  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  textiles,  food  processing,  oil,  clothing  and  footwear, 
  beverages,  chemicals,  metal  products,  cement;  mining  -  gold,  coal, 
  emeralds,  iron,  nickel,  silver,  salt 
 
  Agriculture:  growth  rate  3.8%  (1994  est.);  accounts  for  about  15%  of 
  GDP;  crops  make  up  two-thirds  and  livestock  one-third  of  agricultural 
  output;  climate  and  soils  permit  a  wide  variety  of  crops,  such  as 
  coffee,  rice,  tobacco,  corn,  sugarcane,  cocoa  beans,  oilseeds, 
  vegetables;  forest  products  and  shrimp  farming  are  becoming  more 
  important 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  illicit  producer  of  coca,  opium  poppies,  and  cannabis; 
  about  45,000  hectares  of  coca  under  cultivation;  the  world's  largest 
  processor  of  coca  derivatives  into  cocaine;  supplier  of  cocaine  to  the 
  US  and  other  international  drug  markets;  active  eradication  program 
  against  narcotics  crop 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-89),  $1.6  billion; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-89),  $3.3  billion;  Communist  countries  (1970-89),  $399  million 
 
  Currency:  1  Colombian  peso  (Col$)  =  100  centavos 
 
  Exchange  rates:  Colombian  pesos  (Col$)  per  US$1  -  846.67  (January 
  1995),  844.84  (1994),  863.06  (1993),  759.28  (1992),  633.05  (1991), 
  502.26  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Colombia:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  3,386  km 
  standard  gauge:  150  km  1.435-m  gauge 
  narrow  gauge:  3,236  km  0.914-m  gauge  (2,611  km  in  use) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  107,377  km  (1991) 
  paved:  12,778  km 
  unpaved:  gravel/earth  94,599  km 
 
  Inland  waterways:  14,300  km  navigable  by  river  boats 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  3,585  km  petroleum  products  1,350  km  natural 
  gas  830  km  natural  gas  liquids  125  km 
 
  Ports:  Barranquilla  Buenaventura  Cartagena,  Leticia  Puerto  Bolivar, 
  San  Andres,  Santa  Marta,  Tumaco,  Turbo 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  22  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  104,577  GRT/142,617  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  6,  cargo  9,  container  4,  oil  tanker  3 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  1,307 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  7 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  34 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  31 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  734 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  80 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  419 
 
  Colombia:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  1,890,000  telephones;  modern  system  in  many  respects 
 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  nationwide  microwave  radio  relay  system;  11  domestic  earth 
  stations 
  international:  2  INTELSAT  (Atlantic  Ocean)  earth  stations 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  413,  FM  0,  shortwave  28 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  33 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Colombia:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army  (Ejercito  Nacional),  Navy  (Armada  Nacional,  includes 
  Marines  and  Coast  Guard),  Air  Force  (Fuerza  Aerea  Colombiana), 
  National  Police  (Policia  Nacional) 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  9,851,980;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  6,640,348;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually 
  349,599  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $1.2  billion  (1992 
  est.) 
 
 
 




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