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congo

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congo


  3  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Congou  \Con"gou\,  Congo  \Con"go\,  n.  [Chin.  kung-foo  labor.] 
  Black  tea,  of  higher  grade  (finer  leaf  and  less  dusty)  than 
  the  present  bohea.  See  {Tea}. 
 
  Of  black  teas,  the  great  mass  is  called  Congou,  or  the 
  ``well  worked'',  a  name  which  took  the  place  of  the 
  Bohea  of  150  years  ago,  and  is  now  itself  giving  way  to 
  the  term  ``English  breakfast  tea.''  --S.  W. 
  Williams. 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Congo 
  n  1:  a  republic  in  west-central  Africa;  achieved  independence 
  from  France  in  1960  [syn:  {Congo},  {French  Congo},  {Republic 
  of  Congo},  {People's  Republic  of  the  Congo}] 
  2:  a  major  African  river  (one  of  the  world's  longest);  flows 
  through  Zaire  into  the  South  Atlantic  [syn:  {Congo},  {Congo 
  River}] 
  3:  black  tea  grown  in  China  [syn:  {congou},  {congou  tea},  {English 
  breakfast  tea}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Congo 
 
  Congo:Geography 
 
  Location:  Western  Africa,  bordering  the  South  Atlantic  Ocean,  between 
  Angola  and  Gabon 
 
  Map  references:  Africa 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  342,000  sq  km 
  land  area:  341,500  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  smaller  than  Montana 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  5,504  km  Angola  201  km  Cameroon  523  km 
  Central  African  Republic  467  km  Gabon  1,903  km  Zaire  2,410  km 
 
  Coastline:  169  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  territorial  sea:  200  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  long  segment  of  boundary  with  Zaire  along  the 
  Congo  River  is  indefinite  (no  division  of  the  river  or  its  islands  has 
  been  made) 
 
  Climate:  tropical;  rainy  season  (March  to  June);  dry  season  (June  to 
  October);  constantly  high  temperatures  and  humidity;  particularly 
  enervating  climate  astride  the  Equator 
 
  Terrain:  coastal  plain,  southern  basin,  central  plateau,  northern 
  basin 
 
  Natural  resources:  petroleum,  timber,  potash,  lead,  zinc,  uranium, 
  copper,  phosphates,  natural  gas 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  2% 
  permanent  crops:  0% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  29% 
  forest  and  woodland:  62% 
  other:  7% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  40  sq  km  (1989) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  air  pollution  from  vehicle  emissions;  water  pollution 
  from  the  dumping  of  raw  sewage;  tap  water  is  not  potable; 
  deforestation 
  natural  hazards:  seasonal  flooding 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Endangered  Species,  Ozone  Layer 
  Protection,  Tropical  Timber  83;  signed,  but  not  ratified  - 
  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change,  Desertification  Law  of  the  Sea, 
  Tropical  Timber  94 
 
  Note:  about  70%  of  the  population  lives  in  Brazzaville,  Pointe  Noire, 
  or  along  the  railroad  between  them 
 
  Congo:People 
 
  Population:  2,504,996  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  44%  (female  543,324;  male  548,840) 
  15-64  years:  53%  (female  682,927;  male  645,045) 
  65  years  and  over:  3%  (female  49,879;  male  34,981)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  2.32%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  39.86  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  16.7  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  109.4  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  47.09  years 
  male:  45.23  years 
  female:  49  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  5.23  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Congolese  (singular  and  plural) 
  adjective:  Congolese  or  Congo 
 
  Ethnic  divisions: 
  south:  Kongo  48% 
  north:  Sangha  20%,  M'Bochi  12% 
  center:  Teke  17%,  Europeans  8,500  (mostly  French) 
 
  Religions:  Christian  50%,  animist  48%,  Muslim  2% 
 
  Languages:  French  (official),  African  languages  (Lingala  and  Kikongo 
  are  the  most  widely  used) 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1984) 
  total  population:  60% 
  male:  71% 
  female:  49% 
 
  Labor  force:  79,100  wage  earners 
  by  occupation:  agriculture  75%,  commerce,  industry,  and  government  25% 
 
  Congo:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  the  Congo 
  conventional  short  form:  Congo 
  local  long  form:  Republique  Populaire  du  Congo 
  local  short  form:  Congo 
  former:  Congo/Brazzaville 
 
  Digraph:  CF 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  Brazzaville 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  9  regions  (regions,  singular  -  region)  and  1 
  commune*;  Bouenza  Brazzaville*,  Cuvette,  Kouilou  Lekoumou  Likouala 
  Niari  Plateaux,  Pool,  Sangha 
 
  Independence:  15  August  1960  (from  France) 
 
  National  holiday:  Congolese  National  Day  15  August  (1960) 
 
  Constitution:  new  constitution  approved  by  referendum  March  1992 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  French  civil  law  system  and  customary  law 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Pascal  LISSOUBA  (since  August  1992); 
  election  last  held  August  1992  (next  to  be  held  August  1997);  results 
  -  President  Pascal  LISSOUBA  won  with  61%  of  the  vote 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Jacques  Joachim  YHOMBI-OPANGO 
  (since  23  June  1993) 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  named  by  the  president 
 
  Legislative  branch:  bicameral 
  National  Assembly  (Assemblee  Nationale):  election  last  held  3  October 
  1993;  results  -  percentage  vote  by  party  NA  seats  -  (125  total)  UPADS 
  64,  URD/PCT  58,  others  3 
  Senate:  election  last  held  26  July  1992  (next  to  be  held  July  1998); 
  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA  seats  -  (60  total)  UPADS  23, 
  MCDDI  14,  RDD  8,  RDPS  5,  PCT  2,  others  8 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court  (Cour  Supreme) 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Congolese  Labor  Party  (PCT),  Denis 
  SASSOU-NGUESSO,  president;  Pan-African  Union  for  Social  Development 
  (UPADS),  Pascal  LISSOUBA  leader;  Association  for  Democracy  and 
  Development  (RDD),  Joachim  Yhombi  OPANGO  president;  Congolese 
  Movement  for  Democracy  and  Integral  Development  (MCDDI),  Bernard 
  KOLELAS  leader;  Association  for  Democracy  and  Social  Progress  (RDPS), 
  Jean-Pierre  Thystere  TCHICAYA  president;  Union  of  Democratic  Forces 
  (UFD),  David  Charles  GANAO,  leader;  Union  for  Development  and  Social 
  Progress  (UDPS),  Jean-Michael  BOKAMBA-YANGOUMA,  leader 
  note:  Congo  has  many  political  parties  of  which  these  are  among  the 
  most  important 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  Union  of  Congolese  Socialist  Youth 
  (UJSC);  Congolese  Trade  Union  Congress  (CSC);  Revolutionary  Union  of 
  Congolese  Women  (URFC);  General  Union  of  Congolese  Pupils  and  Students 
  UGEEC 
 
  Member  of:  ACCT,  ACP,  AfDB  BDEAC  CCC,  CEEAC  ECA,  FAO,  FZ  G-77, 
  GATT,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICRM,  IDA,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO, 
  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  ITU,  NAM,  OAU,  UDEAC  UN  UNAMIR  UNAVEM  II 
  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNIDO  UPU,  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Pierre  Damien  BOUSSOUKOU-BOUMBA 
  chancery:  4891  Colorado  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20011 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  726-0825 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  726-1860 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  William  C.  RAMSEY 
  embassy:  Avenue  Amilcar  Cabral,  Brazzaville 
  mailing  address:  B.  P.  1015,  Brazzaville 
  telephone:  [242]  83  20  70 
  FAX:  [242]  83  63  38 
 
  Flag:  red,  divided  diagonally  from  the  lower  hoist  side  by  a  yellow 
  band;  the  upper  triangle  (hoist  side)  is  green  and  the  lower  triangle 
  is  red;  uses  the  popular  pan-African  colors  of  Ethiopia 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Congo's  economy  is  a  mixture  of  village  agriculture  and 
  handicrafts,  an  industrial  sector  based  largely  on  oil,  support 
  services,  and  a  government  characterized  by  budget  problems  and 
  overstaffing  A  reform  program,  supported  by  the  IMF  and  World  Bank, 
  ran  into  difficulties  in  1990-91  because  of  problems  in  changing  to  a 
  democratic  political  regime  and  a  heavy  debt-servicing  burden.  Oil  has 
  supplanted  forestry  as  the  mainstay  of  the  economy,  providing  about 
  two-thirds  of  government  revenues  and  exports.  In  the  early  1980s 
  rapidly  rising  oil  revenues  enabled  Congo  to  finance  large-scale 
  development  projects  with  growth  averaging  5%  annually,  one  of  the 
  highest  rates  in  Africa.  Subsequently,  growth  has  slowed  to  an  average 
  of  roughly  1.5%  annually,  only  two-thirds  of  the  population  growth 
  rate.  Political  turmoil  and  misguided  government  investment  have 
  derailed  economic  reform  programs  sponsored  by  the  IMF  and  World  Bank. 
  Even  with  these  difficulties  Congo  enjoys  one  of  the  highest  incomes 
  per  capita  in  sub-Saharan  Africa 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $6.7  billion  (1993 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  -2.1%  (1993  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $2,820  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  2.2%  (1992  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  NA% 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $765  million 
  expenditures:  $952  million,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $65 
  million  (1990) 
 
  Exports:  $1.1  billion  (f.o.b.,  1993) 
  commodities:  crude  oil  83%,  lumber,  plywood,  sugar,  cocoa,  coffee, 
  diamonds 
  partners:  US  Italy,  France,  Spain,  other  EC  countries 
 
  Imports:  $472  million  (c.i.f.,  1991) 
  commodities:  intermediate  manufactures,  capital  equipment, 
  construction  materials,  foodstuffs 
  partners:  France,  US  Italy,  Japan,  other  EC  countries 
 
  External  debt:  $4  billion  (1993) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  8%  (1993  est.);  accounts  for  35%  of 
  GDP;  includes  petroleum 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  120,000  kW 
  production:  400  million  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  201  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  petroleum,  cement,  lumbering,  brewing,  sugar  milling,  palm 
  oil,  soap,  cigarette 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  12%  of  GDP  (including  fishing  and  forestry); 
  cassava  accounts  for  90%  of  food  output;  other  crops  -  rice,  corn, 
  peanuts,  vegetables;  cash  crops  include  coffee  and  cocoa;  forest 
  products  important  export  earner;  imports  over  90%  of  food  needs 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-90),  $63  million; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-90),  $2.5  billion;  OPEC  bilateral  aid  (1979-89),  $15  million; 
  Communist  countries  (1970-89),  $338  million 
 
  Currency:  1  CFA  franc  CFAF  =  100  centimes 
 
  Exchange  rates:  Communaute  Financiere  Africaine  francs  CFAF  per  US$1 
  -  529.43  (January  1994),  555.20  (1994),  283.16  (1993),  264.69  (1992), 
  282.11  (1991),  272.26  (1990) 
  note:  beginning  12  January  1994,  the  CFA  franc  was  devalued  to  CFAF 
  100  per  French  franc  from  CFAF  50  at  which  it  had  been  fixed  since 
  1948 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Congo:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  797  km  (includes  285  km  that  are  privately  owned) 
  narrow  gauge:  797  km  1.067-m  gauge 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  11,960  km 
  paved:  560  km 
  unpaved:  gravel  or  crushed  stone  850  km  improved  earth  5,350  km 
  unimproved  earth  5,200  km 
 
  Inland  waterways:  the  Congo  and  Ubangi  Oubangui  Rivers  provide  1,120 
  km  of  commercially  navigable  water  transport;  the  rest  are  used  for 
  local  traffic  only 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  25  km 
 
  Ports:  Brazzaville,  Impfondo  Ouesso  Oyo,  Pointe-Noire 
 
  Merchant  marine:  none 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  41 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  1 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  3 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  11 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  8 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  18 
 
  Congo:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  18,100  telephones;  7  telephones/1,000  persons; 
  services  adequate  for  government  use  key  centers  are  Brazzaville, 
  Pointe-Noire,  and  Loubomo 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  primary  network  consists  of  microwave  radio  relay  and 
  coaxial  cable 
  international:  1  Atlantic  Ocean  INTELSAT  earth  station 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  4,  FM  1,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  4 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Congo:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army,  Navy  (includes  Marines),  Air  Force,  National  Police 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  568,663;  males  fit  for  military 
  service  289,335;  males  reach  military  age  (20)  annually  24,749  (1995 
  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $110  million,  3.8%  of 
  GDP  (1993) 
 
 
 




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