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covenant

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covenant


  5  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Covenant  \Cov"e*nant\  (k?v"?-nant),  n.  [OF.  covenant,  fr  F.  & 
  OF  convenir  to  agree,  L.  convenire  See  {Convene}.] 
  1.  A  mutual  agreement  of  two  or  more  persons  or  parties,  or 
  one  of  the  stipulations  in  such  an  agreement. 
 
  Then  Jonathan  and  David  made  a  covenant.  --1  Sam. 
  xviiii.  3. 
 
  Let  there  be  covenants  drawn  between  us  --Shak. 
 
  If  we  conclude  a  peace,  It  shall  be  with  such  strict 
  and  severe  covenants  As  little  shall  the  Frenchmen 
  gain  thereby.  --Shak. 
 
  2.  (Eccl.  Hist.)  An  agreement  made  by  the  Scottish  Parliament 
  in  1638,  and  by  the  English  Parliament  in  1643,  to 
  preserve  the  reformed  religion  in  Scotland,  and  to 
  extirpate  popery  and  prelacy;  --  usually  called  the 
  ``Solemn  League  and  Covenant.'' 
 
  He  [Wharton]  was  born  in  the  days  of  the  Covenant, 
  and  was  the  heir  of  a  covenanted  house.  --Macaulay. 
 
  3.  (Theol.)  The  promises  of  God  as  revealed  in  the 
  Scriptures,  conditioned  on  certain  terms  on  the  part  of 
  man,  as  obedience,  repentance,  faith,  etc 
 
  I  will  establish  my  covenant  between  me  and  thee  and 
  thy  seed  after  thee  in  their  generations  for  an 
  everlasting  covenant,  to  be  a  God  unto  thee,  and  to 
  thy  seed  after  thee.  --Gen.  xvii. 
  7. 
 
  4.  A  solemn  compact  between  members  of  a  church  to  maintain 
  its  faith,  discipline,  etc 
 
  5.  (Law) 
  a  An  undertaking,  on  sufficient  consideration,  in 
  writing  and  under  seal,  to  do  or  to  refrain  from  some 
  act  or  thing  a  contract;  a  stipulation;  also  the 
  document  or  writing  containing  the  terms  of  agreement. 
  b  A  form  of  action  for  the  violation  of  a  promise  or 
  contract  under  seal. 
 
  Syn:  Agreement;  contract;  compact;  bargain;  arrangement; 
  stipulation. 
 
  Usage:  {Covenant},  {Contract},  {Compact},  {Stipulation}. 
  These  words  all  denote  a  mutual  agreement  between  two 
  parties.  Covenant  is  frequently  used  in  a  religious 
  sense  as  the  covenant  of  works  or  of  grace;  a  church 
  covenant;  the  Solemn  League  and  Covenant.  Contract  is 
  the  word  most  used  in  the  business  of  life.  Crabb  and 
  Taylor  are  wrong  in  saying  that  a  contract  must  always 
  be  in  writing.  There  are  oral  and  implied  contracts  as 
  well  as  written  ones,  and  these  are  equally  enforced 
  by  law.  In  legal  usage,  the  word  covenant  has  an 
  important  place  as  connected  with  contracts.  A  compact 
  is  only  a  stronger  and  more  solemn  contract.  The  term 
  is  chiefly  applied  to  political  alliances.  Thus  the 
  old  Confederation  was  a  compact  between  the  States. 
  Under  the  present  Federal  Constitution,  no  individual 
  State  can,  without  consent  of  Congress,  enter  into  a 
  compact  with  any  other  State  or  foreign  power.  A 
  stipulation  is  one  of  the  articles  or  provisions  of  a 
  contract. 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Covenant  \Cov"e*nant\  (k?v"?-n?nt),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p. 
  {Covenanted};  p.  pr  &  vb  n.  {Covenanting}.] 
  To  agree  (with);  to  enter  into  a  formal  agreement;  to  bind 
  one's  self  by  contract;  to  make  a  stipulation. 
 
  Jupiter  covenanted  with  him  that  it  should  be  hot  or 
  cold,  wet  or  dry,  .  .  .  as  the  tenant  should  direct. 
  --L'Estrange. 
 
  And  they  covenanted  with  him  for  thyrty  pieces  of 
  silver.  --Matt.  xxvi. 
  15. 
 
  Syn:  To  agree;  contract;  bargain;  stipulate. 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Covenant  \Cov"e*nant\,  v.  t. 
  To  grant  or  promise  by  covenant. 
 
  My  covenant  of  peace  that  I  covenanted  with  you 
  --Wyclif. 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  covenant 
  n  1:  a  signed  written  agreement  between  two  or  more  parties 
  (nations)  to  perform  some  action  [syn:  {compact},  {concordat}] 
  2:  (Bible)  an  agreement  between  God  and  his  people  in  which  God 
  makes  certain  promises  and  requires  certain  behavior  from 
  them  in  return 
  v  1:  agree  to  a  covenant 
  2:  enter  into  a  covenant 
 
  From  Easton's  1897  Bible  Dictionary  [easton]: 
 
  Covenant 
  a  contract  or  agreement  between  two  parties.  In  the  Old 
  Testament  the  Hebrew  word  _berith_  is  always  thus  translated. 
  _Berith_  is  derived  from  a  root  which  means  "to  cut,"  and  hence 
  a  covenant  is  a  "cutting,"  with  reference  to  the  cutting  or 
  dividing  of  animals  into  two  parts  and  the  contracting  parties 
  passing  between  them  in  making  a  covenant  (Gen.  15;  Jer.  34:18, 
  19). 
 
  The  corresponding  word  in  the  New  Testament  Greek  is 
  _diatheke_,  which  is  however,  rendered  testament"  generally  in 
  the  Authorized  Version.  It  ought  to  be  rendered,  just  as  the 
  word  _berith_  of  the  Old  Testament,  "covenant." 
 
  This  word  is  used  (1)  of  a  covenant  or  compact  between  man  and 
  man  (Gen.  21:32),  or  between  tribes  or  nations  (1  Sam.  11:1; 
  Josh.  9:6,  15).  In  entering  into  a  convenant,  Jehovah  was 
  solemnly  called  on  to  witness  the  transaction  (Gen.  31:50),  and 
  hence  it  was  called  a  "covenant  of  the  Lord"  (1  Sam.  20:8).  The 
  marriage  compact  is  called  "the  covenant  of  God"  (Prov.  2:17), 
  because  the  marriage  was  made  in  God's  name  Wicked  men  are 
  spoken  of  as  acting  as  if  they  had  made  a  "covenant  with  death" 
  not  to  destroy  them  or  with  hell  not  to  devour  them  (Isa. 
  28:15,  18). 
 
  (2.)  The  word  is  used  with  reference  to  God's  revelation  of 
  himself  in  the  way  of  promise  or  of  favour  to  men.  Thus  God's 
  promise  to  Noah  after  the  Flood  is  called  a  covenant  (Gen.  9; 
  Jer.  33:20,  "my  covenant").  We  have  an  account  of  God's 
  covernant  with  Abraham  (Gen.  17,  comp.  Lev.  26:42),  of  the 
  covenant  of  the  priesthood  (Num.  25:12,  13;  Deut.  33:9;  Neh. 
  13:29),  and  of  the  covenant  of  Sinai  (Ex.  34:27,  28;  Lev. 
  26:15),  which  was  afterwards  renewed  at  different  times  in  the 
  history  of  Israel  (Deut.  29;  Josh.  1:24;  2  Chr.  15;  23;  29;  34; 
  Ezra  10;  Neh.  9).  In  conformity  with  human  custom,  God's 
  covenant  is  said  to  be  confirmed  with  an  oath  (Deut.  4:31;  Ps 
  89:3),  and  to  be  accompanied  by  a  sign  (Gen.  9;  17).  Hence  the 
  covenant  is  called  God's  "counsel,"  "oath,"  promise"  (Ps.  89:3, 
  4;  105:8-11;  Heb.  6:13-20;  Luke  1:68-75).  God's  covenant 
  consists  wholly  in  the  bestowal  of  blessing  (Isa.  59:21;  Jer. 
  31:33,  34). 
 
  The  term  covenant  is  also  used  to  designate  the  regular 
  succession  of  day  and  night  (Jer.  33:20),  the  Sabbath  (Ex. 
  31:16),  circumcision  (Gen.  17:9,  10),  and  in  general  any 
  ordinance  of  God  (Jer.  34:13,  14). 
 
  A  "covenant  of  salt"  signifies  an  everlasting  covenant,  in  the 
  sealing  or  ratifying  of  which  salt,  as  an  emblem  of  perpetuity, 
  is  used  (Num.  18:19;  Lev.  2:13;  2  Chr.  13:5). 
 
  COVENANT  OF  WORKS  the  constitution  under  which  Adam  was 
  placed  at  his  creation.  In  this  covenant,  (1.)  The  contracting 
  parties  were  a  God  the  moral  Governor,  and  b  Adam,  a  free 
  moral  agent,  and  representative  of  all  his  natural  posterity 
  (Rom.  5:12-19).  (2.)  The  promise  was  life"  (Matt.  19:16,  17; 
  Gal.  3:12).  (3.)  The  condition  was  perfect  obedience  to  the  law, 
  the  test  in  this  case  being  abstaining  from  eating  the  fruit  of 
  the  "tree  of  knowledge,"  etc  (4.)  The  penalty  was  death  (Gen. 
  2:16,  17). 
 
  This  covenant  is  also  called  a  covenant  of  nature,  as  made 
  with  man  in  his  natural  or  unfallen  state;  a  covenant  of  life, 
  because  life"  was  the  promise  attached  to  obedience;  and  a 
  legal  covenant,  because  it  demanded  perfect  obedience  to  the 
  law. 
 
  The  "tree  of  life"  was  the  outward  sign  and  seal  of  that  life 
  which  was  promised  in  the  covenant,  and  hence  it  is  usually 
  called  the  seal  of  that  covenant. 
 
  This  covenant  is  abrogated  under  the  gospel,  inasmuch  as 
  Christ  has  fulfilled  all  its  conditions  in  behalf  of  his  people, 
  and  now  offers  salvation  on  the  condition  of  faith.  It  is  still 
  in  force,  however,  as  it  rests  on  the  immutable  justice  of  God, 
  and  is  binding  on  all  who  have  not  fled  to  Christ  and  accepted 
  his  righteousness. 
 
  CONVENANT  OF  GRACE,  the  eternal  plan  of  redemption  entered 
  into  by  the  three  persons  of  the  Godhead,  and  carried  out  by 
  them  in  its  several  parts  In  it  the  Father  represented  the 
  Godhead  in  its  indivisible  sovereignty,  and  the  Son  his  people 
  as  their  surety  (John  17:4,  6,  9;  Isa.  42:6;  Ps  89:3). 
 
  The  conditions  of  this  covenant  were  (1.)  On  the  part  of  the 
  Father  a  all  needful  preparation  to  the  Son  for  the 
  accomplishment  of  his  work  (Heb.  10:5;  Isa.  42:1-7);  b  support 
  in  the  work  (Luke  22:43);  and  c  a  glorious  reward  in  the 
  exaltation  of  Christ  when  his  work  was  done  (Phil.  2:6-11),  his 
  investiture  with  universal  dominion  (John  5:22;  Ps  110:1),  his 
  having  the  administration  of  the  covenant  committed  into  his 
  hands  (Matt.  28:18;  John  1:12;  17:2;  Acts  2:33),  and  in  the 
  final  salvation  of  all  his  people  (Isa.  35:10;  53:10,  11;  Jer. 
  31:33;  Titus  1:2).  (2.)  On  the  part  of  the  Son  the  conditions 
  were  a  his  becoming  incarnate  (Gal.  4:4,  5);  and  b  as  the 
  second  Adam  his  representing  all  his  people,  assuming  their 
  place  and  undertaking  all  their  obligations  under  the  violated 
  covenant  of  works  c  obeying  the  law  (Ps.  40:8;  Isa.  42:21; 
  John  9:4,  5),  and  d  suffering  its  penalty  (Isa.  53;  2  Cor. 
  5:21;  Gal.  3:13),  in  their  stead. 
 
  Christ,  the  mediator  of  fulfils  all  its  conditions  in  behalf 
  of  his  people,  and  dispenses  to  them  all  its  blessings.  In  Heb. 
  8:6;  9:15;  12:24,  this  title  is  given  to  Christ.  (See  {DISPENSATION}.) 
 




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