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croatia

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croatia


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Croatia 
  n  :  a  Balkan  republic;  formerly  part  of  Yugoslavia  [syn:  {Croatia}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Croatia 
 
  Croatia:Geography 
 
  Location:  Southeastern  Europe,  bordering  the  Adriatic  Sea,  between 
  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina  and  Slovenia 
 
  Map  references:  Ethnic  Groups  in  Eastern  Europe,  Europe 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  56,538  sq  km 
  land  area:  56,410  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  smaller  than  West  Virginia 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  2,028  km  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina  932  km 
  Hungary  329  km  Serbia  and  Montenegro  266  km  (241  km  with  Serbia;  25 
  km  with  Montenego),  Slovenia  501  km 
 
  Coastline:  5,790  km  (mainland  1,778  km  islands  4,012  km) 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  continental  shelf:  200-m  depth  or  to  the  depth  of  exploitation 
 
  International  disputes:  Ethnic  Serbs  have  occupied  UN  protected  areas 
  in  eastern  Croatia  and  along  the  western  Bosnia  and  Herzegovinian 
  border 
 
  Climate:  Mediterranean  and  continental;  continental  climate 
  predominant  with  hot  summers  and  cold  winters;  mild  winters,  dry 
  summers  along  coast 
 
  Terrain:  geographically  diverse;  flat  plains  along  Hungarian  border, 
  low  mountains  and  highlands  near  Adriatic  coast,  coastline,  and 
  islands 
 
  Natural  resources:  oil,  some  coal,  bauxite,  low-grade  iron  ore, 
  calcium,  natural  asphalt,  silica,  mica,  clays,  salt 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  32% 
  permanent  crops:  20% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  18% 
  forest  and  woodland:  15% 
  other:  15% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  NA  sq  km 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  air  pollution  (from  metallurgical  plants)  and 
  resulting  acid  rain  is  damaging  the  forests;  coastal  pollution  from 
  industrial  and  domestic  waste;  widespread  casualties  and  destruction 
  of  infrastructure  in  border  areas  affected  by  civil  strife 
  natural  hazards:  frequent  and  destructive  earthquakes 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Air  Pollution,  Hazardous  Wastes, 
  Marine  Dumping,  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship 
  Pollution,  Wetlands;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Air  Pollution-Sulphur 
  94,  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change,  Desertification 
 
  Note:  controls  most  land  routes  from  Western  Europe  to  Aegean  Sea  and 
  Turkish  Straits 
 
  Croatia:People 
 
  Population:  4,665,821  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  19%  (female  418,272;  male  442,064) 
  15-64  years:  68%  (female  1,592,187;  male  1,588,455) 
  65  years  and  over:  13%  (female  394,650;  male  230,193)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  0.13%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  11.02  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  10.55  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0.77  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  8.4  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  74.02  years 
  male:  70.59  years 
  female:  77.65  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  1.62  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Croat(s) 
  adjective:  Croatian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Croat  78%,  Serb  12%,  Muslim  0.9%,  Hungarian  0.5%, 
  Slovenian  0.5%,  others  8.1%  (1991) 
 
  Religions:  Catholic  76.5%,  Orthodox  11.1%,  Slavic  Muslim  1.2%, 
  Protestant  0.4%,  others  and  unknown  10.8% 
 
  Languages:  Serbo-Croatian  96%,  other  4% 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1991) 
  total  population:  97% 
  male:  99% 
  female:  95% 
 
  Labor  force:  1,509,489 
  by  occupation:  industry  and  mining  37%,  agriculture  16%  (1981  est.), 
  government  NA%,  other 
 
  Croatia:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Croatia 
  conventional  short  form:  Croatia 
  local  long  form:  Republika  Hrvatska 
  local  short  form:  Hrvatska 
 
  Digraph:  HR 
 
  Type:  parliamentary  democracy 
 
  Capital:  Zagreb 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  21  counties  (zupanijas,  zupanija  - 
  singular):  Bjelovar-Bilogora,  City  of  Zagreb,  Dubrovnik-Neretva, 
  Istra,  Karlovac  Koprivnica-Krizevci,  Krapina-Zagorje,  Lika-Senj, 
  Medimurje  Osijek-Baranja,  Pozega-Slavonija,  Primorje-Gorski  Kotar, 
  Sibenik  Sisak-Moslavina,  Slavonski  Brod-Posavina,  Split-Dalmatia, 
  Varazdin  Virovitica-Podravina,  Vukovar-Srijem,  Zadar-Knin,  Zagreb 
 
  Independence:  25  June  1991  (from  Yugoslavia) 
 
  National  holiday:  Statehood  Day  30  May  (1990) 
 
  Constitution:  adopted  on  22  December  1990 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  civil  law  system 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal  (16  years  of  age,  if  employed) 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Franjo  TUDJMAN  (since  30  May  1990);  election 
  last  held  4  August  1992  (next  to  be  held  NA  1997);  results  -  Franjo 
  TUDJMAN  reelected  with  about  56%  of  the  vote;  his  opponent  Dobroslav 
  PARAGA  got  5%  of  the  vote 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Nikica  VALENTIC  (since  3  April 
  1993);  Deputy  Prime  Ministers  Mato  GRANIC  (since  8  September  1992); 
  Ivica  KOSTOVIC  (since  14  October  1993);  Jure  RADIC  (since  NA); 
  Borislav  SKEGRO  (since  3  April  1993) 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  appointed  by  the  president 
 
  Legislative  branch:  bicameral  parliament  Assembly  (Sabor) 
  House  of  Districts  (Zupanije  Dom):  elections  last  held  7  and  21 
  February  1993  (next  to  be  held  NA  February  1997);  results  -  percent  of 
  vote  by  party  NA  seats  -  (68  total;  63  elected,  5  presidentially 
  appointed)  HDZ  37,  HSLS  16,  HSS  5,  Istrian  Democratic  Assembly  3, 
  SPH-SDP  1,  HNS  1 
  House  of  Representatives  (Predstavnicke  Dom):  elections  last  held  2 
  August  1992  (next  to  be  held  NA  August  1996);  results  -  percent  of 
  vote  by  party  NA  seats  -  (138  total)  HDZ  85,  HSLS  14,  SPH-SDP  11,  HNS 
  6,  Dalmatian  Action/Istrian  Democratic  Assembly/  Rijeka  Democratic 
  Alliance  coalition  6,  HSP  5,  HSS  3,  SNS  3,  independents  5 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court,  Constitutional  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Croatian  Democratic  Union  (HDZ),  Zlatko 
  CANJUGA  secretary  general;  Croatian  Democratic  Independents  (HND), 
  Stjepan  MESIC,  president;  Croatian  Social  Liberal  Party  (HSLS),  Drazen 
  BUDISA  president;  Croatian  Democratic  Peasant  Party  (HDSS),  Ante 
  BABIC;  Croatian  Party  of  Rights  (HSP),  Ante  DAPIC;  Croatian  Peasants' 
  Party  (HSS),  Josip  PANKRETIC  Croatian  People's  Party  (HNS),  Radimir 
  CACIC,  president;  Dalmatian  Action  (DA),  Mira  LJUBIC-LORGER;  Serb 
  National  Party  (SNS),  Milan  DJUKIC  Social  Democratic  Action  (SDP), 
  Miko  TRIPALO  other  small  parties  include  the  Istrian  Democratic 
  Assembly  and  the  Rijeka  Democratic  Alliance 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  NA 
 
  Member  of:  CCC,  CE  (guest),  CEI,  EBRD,  ECE,  FAO,  IADB,  IAEA,  IBRD, 
  ICAO,  ICRM,  IDA,  IFAD,  IFC,  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INMARSAT  INTELSAT, 
  INTERPOL,  IOC,  IOM,  ISO,  ITU,  NAM  (observer),  OSCE,  UN  UNCTAD 
  UNESCO,  UNIDO  UPU,  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Petar  A.  SARCEVIC 
  chancery:  2343  Massachusetts  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  588-5899 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  588-8936 
  consulate(s)  general:  New  York 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Peter  W.  GALBRAITH 
  embassy:  Andrije  Hebranga  2,  Zagreb 
  mailing  address:  US  Embassy,  Zagreb,  Unit  1345,  APO  AE  09213-1345 
  telephone:  [385]  (41)  456-000 
  FAX:  [385]  (41)  440-235 
 
  Flag:  red,  white,  and  blue  horizontal  bands  with  Croatian  coat  of  arms 
  (red  and  white  checkered) 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Before  the  dissolution  of  Yugoslavia,  the  republic  of 
  Croatia,  after  Slovenia,  was  the  most  prosperous  and  industrialized 
  area,  with  a  per  capita  output  perhaps  one-third  above  the  Yugoslav 
  average.  At  present,  Croatian  Serb  Separatists  control  approximately 
  one-third  of  the  Croatian  territory,  and  one  of  the  overriding 
  determinants  of  Croatia's  long-term  political  and  economic  prospects 
  will  be  the  resolution  of  this  territorial  dispute.  Croatia  faces 
  serious  economic  problems  stemming  from:  the  legacy  of  longtime 
  Communist  mismanagement  of  the  economy;  large  foreign  debt;  damage 
  during  the  fighting  to  bridges,  factories,  power  lines,  buildings,  and 
  houses;  the  large  refugee  population,  both  Croatian  and  Bosnian;  and 
  the  disruption  of  economic  ties  to  Serbia  and  the  other  former 
  Yugoslav  republics,  as  well  as  within  its  own  territory.  At  the 
  minimum,  extensive  Western  aid  and  investment,  especially  in  the 
  tourist  and  oil  industries,  would  seem  necessary  to  revive  the 
  moribund  economy.  However,  peace  and  political  stability  must  come 
  first  only  then  will  recent  government  moves  toward  a 
  "market-friendly"  economy  restore  old  levels  of  output.  As  of  February 
  1995,  fighting  continues  among  Croats,  Serbs,  and  Muslims,  and 
  national  boundaries  and  final  political  arrangements  are  still  in 
  doubt. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $12.4  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  3.4%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $2,640  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  3%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  17%  (December  1994) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $NA 
  expenditures:  $NA,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA 
 
  Exports:  $3.9  billion  (f.o.b.,  1993) 
  commodities:  machinery  and  transport  equipment  30%,  other 
  manufacturers  37%,  chemicals  11%,  food  and  live  animals  9%,  raw 
  materials  6.5%,  fuels  and  lubricants  5%  (1990) 
  partners:  EC  countries,  Slovenia 
 
  Imports:  $4.7  billion  (c.i.f.,  1993) 
  commodities:  machinery  and  transport  equipment  21%,  fuels  and 
  lubricants  19%,  food  and  live  animals  16%,  chemicals  14%,  manufactured 
  goods  13%,  miscellaneous  manufactured  articles  9%,  raw  materials  6.5%, 
  beverages  and  tobacco  1%  (1990) 
  partners:  EC  countries,  Slovenia,  FSU  countries 
 
  External  debt:  $2.9  billion  (September  1994) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  -4%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  3,570,000  kW 
  production:  NA  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  NA  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  chemicals  and  plastics,  machine  tools,  fabricated  metal, 
  electronics,  pig  iron  and  rolled  steel  products,  aluminum  reduction, 
  paper,  wood  products  (including  furniture),  building  materials 
  (including  cement),  textiles,  shipbuilding,  petroleum  and  petroleum 
  refining,  food  processing  and  beverages 
 
  Agriculture:  Croatia  normally  produces  a  food  surplus;  most 
  agricultural  land  in  private  hands  and  concentrated  in  Croat-majority 
  districts  in  Slavonia  and  Istria;  much  of  Slavonia's  land  has  been  put 
  out  of  production  by  fighting;  wheat,  corn,  sugar  beets,  sunflowers, 
  alfalfa,  and  clover  are  main  crops  in  Slavonia;  central  Croatian 
  highlands  are  less  fertile  but  support  cereal  production,  orchards, 
  vineyards,  livestock  breeding,  and  dairy  farming;  coastal  areas  and 
  offshore  islands  grow  olives,  citrus  fruits,  and  vegetables 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  IMF,  $192  million 
 
  Currency:  1  Croatian  kuna  (HRK)  =  100  paras 
 
  Exchange  rates:  Croatian  kuna  per  US  $1  -  5.6144  (November  1994) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Croatia:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  2,699  km 
  standard  gauge:  2,699  km  1.435-m  gauge  (963  km  electrified) 
  note:  disrupted  by  territorial  dispute  (1994) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  27,368  km 
  paved:  22,176  km  (302  km  of  expressways) 
  unpaved:  5,192  km  (1991) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  785  km  perennially  navigable 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  670  km  petroleum  products  20  km  natural  gas  310 
  km  (1992);  note  -  now  disrupted  because  of  territorial  dispute 
 
  Ports:  Dubrovnik,  Omis,  Ploce,  Pula,  Rijeka  Sibenik  Split,  Zadar 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  35  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  181,565  GRT/225,533  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  1,  cargo  20,  chemical  tanker  1,  container  2,  oil 
  tanker  2,  passenger  2,  refrigerated  cargo  1,  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  2, 
  short-sea  passenger  4 
  note:  also  controlled  by  Croatian  shipowners  are  134  ships  (1,000  GRT 
  or  over)  totaling  3,286,231  DWT  that  operate  under  Maltese  and  Saint 
  Vincent  and  the  Grenadines  registry 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  76 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  6 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  1 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  55 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  2 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  8 
 
  Croatia:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  350,000  telephones 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  NA 
  international:  no  satellite  links 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  14,  FM  8,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  1.1  million 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  12  (repeaters  2) 
  televisions:  1.027  million 
 
  Croatia:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Ground  Forces,  Naval  Forces,  Air  and  Air  Defense  Forces, 
  Frontier  Guard,  Home  Guard 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  1,183,184;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  943,749;  males  reach  military  age  (19)  annually 
  32,831  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  337  billion  to  393  billion  dinars,  NA%  of  GDP 
  (1993  est.);  note  -  conversion  of  defense  expenditures  into  US  dollars 
  using  the  current  exchange  rate  could  produce  misleading  results 
 
 
 




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