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darius

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darius


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  Easton's  1897  Bible  Dictionary  [easton]: 
 
  Darius 
  the  holder  or  supporter,  the  name  of  several  Persian  kings.  (1.) 
  Darius  the  Mede  (Dan.  11:1),  "the  son  of  Ahasuerus,  of  the  seed 
  of  the  Medes"  (9:1).  On  the  death  of  Belshazzar  the  Chaldean  he 
  "received  the  kingdom"  of  Babylon  as  viceroy  from  Cyrus.  During 
  his  brief  reign  (B.C.  538-536)  Daniel  was  promoted  to  the 
  highest  dignity  (Dan.  6:1,  2);  but  on  account  of  the  malice  of 
  his  enemies  he  was  cast  into  the  den  of  lions.  After  his 
  miraculous  escape,  a  decree  was  issued  by  Darius  enjoining 
  "reverence  for  the  God  of  Daniel"  (6:26).  This  king  was  probably 
  the  Astyages"  of  the  Greek  historians.  Nothing  can,  however,  be 
  with  certainty  affirmed  regarding  him  Some  are  of  opinion  that 
  the  name  Darius"  is  simply  a  name  of  office,  equivalent  to 
  "governor,"  and  that  the  Gobryas"  of  the  inscriptions  was  the 
  person  intended  by  the  name 
 
  (2.)  Darius,  king  of  Persia,  was  the  son  of  Hystaspes  of  the 
  royal  family  of  the  Achaemenidae  He  did  not  immediately  succeed 
  Cyrus  on  the  throne.  There  were  two  intermediate  kings,  viz., 
  Cambyses  (the  Ahasuerus  of  Ezra),  the  son  of  Cyrus,  who  reigned 
  from  B.C.  529-522,  and  was  succeeded  by  a  usurper  named  Smerdis 
  who  occupied  the  throne  only  ten  months,  and  was  succeeded  by 
  this  Darius  (B.C.  521-486).  Smerdis  was  a  Margian,  and  therefore 
  had  no  sympathy  with  Cyrus  and  Cambyses  in  the  manner  in  which 
  they  had  treated  the  Jews.  He  issued  a  decree  prohibiting  the 
  restoration  of  the  temple  and  of  Jerusalem  (Ezra  4:17-22).  But 
  soon  after  his  death  and  the  accession  of  Darius,  the  Jews 
  resumed  their  work  thinking  that  the  edict  of  Smerdis  would  be 
  now  null  and  void,  as  Darius  was  in  known  harmony  with  the 
  religious  policy  of  Cyrus.  The  enemies  of  the  Jews  lost  no  time 
  in  bringing  the  matter  under  the  notice  of  Darius,  who  caused 
  search  to  be  made  for  the  decree  of  Cyrus  (q.v.).  It  was  not 
  found  at  Babylon,  but  at  Achmetha  (Ezra  6:2);  and  Darius 
  forthwith  issued  a  new  decree,  giving  the  Jews  full  liberty  to 
  prosecute  their  work  at  the  same  time  requiring  the  Syrian 
  satrap  and  his  subordinates  to  give  them  all  needed  help.  It  was 
  with  the  army  of  this  king  that  the  Greeks  fought  the  famous 
  battle  of  Marathon  (B.C.  490).  During  his  reign  the  Jews  enjoyed 
  much  peace  and  prosperity.  He  was  succeeded  by  Ahasuerus,  known 
  to  the  Greeks  as  Xerxes  who  reigned  for  twenty-one  years. 
 
  (3.)  Darius  the  Persian  (Neh.  12:22)  was  probably  the  Darius 
  II  (Ochus  or  Nothus)  of  profane  history,  the  son  of  Artaxerxes 
  Longimanus,  who  was  the  son  and  successor  of  Ahasuerus  (Xerxes). 
  There  are  some  however,  who  think  that  the  king  here  meant  was 
  Darius  III.  (Codomannus),  the  antagonist  of  Alexander  the  Great 
  (B.C.  336-331). 
 
 
  From  Hitchcock's  Bible  Names  Dictionary  (late  1800's)  [hitchcock]: 
 
  Darius,  he  that  informs  himself 
 




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