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ecuador

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ecuador


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Ecuador 
  n  :  a  republic  in  western  South  America;  the  landscape  is 
  dominated  by  the  Andes  [syn:  {Ecuador}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Ecuador 
 
  Ecuador:Geography 
 
  Location:  Western  South  America,  bordering  the  Pacific  Ocean  at  the 
  Equator,  between  Colombia  and  Peru 
 
  Map  references:  South  America 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  283,560  sq  km 
  land  area:  276,840  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  smaller  than  Nevada 
  note:  includes  Galapagos  Islands 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  2,010  km  Colombia  590  km  Peru  1,420  km 
 
  Coastline:  2,237  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  continental  shelf:  claims  continental  shelf  between  mainland  and 
  Galapagos  Islands 
  territorial  sea:  200  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  three  sections  of  the  boundary  with  Peru  are 
  in  dispute 
 
  Climate:  tropical  along  coast  becoming  cooler  inland 
 
  Terrain:  coastal  plain  (costa),  inter-Andean  central  highlands 
  (sierra),  and  flat  to  rolling  eastern  jungle  (oriente) 
 
  Natural  resources:  petroleum,  fish,  timber 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  6% 
  permanent  crops:  3% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  17% 
  forest  and  woodland:  51% 
  other:  23% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  5,500  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  deforestation;  soil  erosion;  desertification  water 
  pollution 
  natural  hazards:  frequent  earthquakes,  landslides,  volcanic  activity; 
  periodic  droughts 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Antarctic-Environmental  Protocol, 
  Antarctic  Treaty,  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change,  Endangered  Species, 
  Hazardous  Wastes,  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship 
  Pollution,  Tropical  Timber  83,  Wetlands;  signed,  but  not  ratified  - 
  Tropical  Timber  94 
 
  Note:  Cotopaxi  in  Andes  is  highest  active  volcano  in  world 
 
  Ecuador:People 
 
  Population:  10,890,950  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  36%  (female  1,928,977;  male  1,990,036) 
  15-64  years:  60%  (female  3,281,575;  male  3,230,082) 
  65  years  and  over:  4%  (female  244,862;  male  215,418)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  1.95%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  25.08  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  5.55  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  37.7  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  70.35  years 
  male:  67.83  years 
  female:  72.99  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  2.97  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Ecuadorian(s) 
  adjective:  Ecuadorian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  mestizo  (mixed  Indian  and  Spanish)  55%,  Indian  25%, 
  Spanish  10%,  black  10% 
 
  Religions:  Roman  Catholic  95% 
 
  Languages:  Spanish  (official),  Indian  languages  (especially  Quechua) 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1990) 
  total  population:  87% 
  male:  90% 
  female:  84% 
 
  Labor  force:  2.8  million 
  by  occupation:  agriculture  35%,  manufacturing  21%,  commerce  16%, 
  services  and  other  activities  28%  (1982) 
 
  Ecuador:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Ecuador 
  conventional  short  form:  Ecuador 
  local  long  form:  Republica  del  Ecuador 
  local  short  form:  Ecuador 
 
  Digraph:  EC 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  Quito 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  21  provinces  (provincias,  singular  - 
  provincia);  Azuay  Bolivar,  Canar,  Carchi,  Chimborazo,  Cotopaxi,  El 
  Oro,  Esmeraldas,  Galapagos,  Guayas,  Imbabura  Loja,  Los  Rios,  Manabi, 
  Morona-Santiago,  Napo,  Pastaza  Pichincha  Sucumbios  Tungurahua 
  Zamora-Chinchipe 
 
  Independence:  24  May  1822  (from  Spain) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  10  August  (1809)  (independence  of 
  Quito) 
 
  Constitution:  10  August  1979 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  civil  law  system;  has  not  accepted  compulsory 
  ICJ  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal,  compulsory  for  literate  persons 
  ages  18-65,  optional  for  other  eligible  voters 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state  and  head  of  government:  President  Sixto  DURAN-BALLEN 
  Cordovez  (since  10  August  1992);  Vice  President  Alberto  DAHIK  Garzoni 
  (since  10  August  1992);  election  runoff  election  held  5  July  1992 
  (next  to  be  held  NA  1996);  results  -  Sixto  DURAN-BALLEN  elected  as 
  president  and  Alberto  DAHIK  elected  as  vice  president 
  cabinet:  Cabinet;  appointed  by  the  president 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  National  Congress  (Congreso  Nacional):  elections  last  held  1  May  1994 
  (next  to  be  held  1  May  1996);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA 
  seats  -  (77  total)  PSC  25,  PRE  11,  MPD  8,  ID  7,  DP  7,  PCE  7,  PUR  2, 
  CFP  2,  APRE  2,  PSE  1,  FRA  1,  PLRE  1,  LN  1,  independents  2 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court  (Corte  Suprema) 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders: 
  Center-Right  parties:  Social  Christian  Party  (PSC),  Jaime  NEBOT  Saadi, 
  president;  Republican  Unity  Party  (PUR),  President  Sixto  DURAN-BALLEN, 
  leader;  Ecuadorian  Conservative  Party  (PCE),  Vice  President  Alberto 
  DAHIK  president 
  Center-Left  parties:  Democratic  Left  (ID),  Andres  VALLEJO  Arcos, 
  Rodrigo  BORJA  Cevallos  leaders;  Popular  Democracy  (DP),  Rodrigo  PAZ, 
  leader;  Ecuadorian  Radical  Liberal  Party  (PLRE),  Medardo  MORA,  leader; 
  Radical  Alfarista  Front  (FRA),  Jaime  ASPIAZU  Seminario  director 
  populist  parties:  Roldista  Party  (PRE),  Abdala  BUCARAM  Ortiz 
  director;  Concentration  of  Popular  Forces  (CFP),  Rodolfo  BAQUERIZO 
  Nazur,  leader;  Popular  Revolutionary  Action  (APRE),  Frank  VARGAS 
  Passos,  leader 
  Far-Left  parties:  Popular  Democratic  Movement  (MPD),  Juan  Jose 
  CASTELLO,  leader;  Ecuadorian  Socialist  Party  (PSE),  Leon  ROLDOS 
  leader;  Broad  Leftist  Front  (FADI),  Rene  Mauge  MOSQUERA,  chairman; 
  Ecuadorian  National  Liberation  (LN),  Alfredo  CASTILLO,  director 
  Communists:  Communist  Party  of  Ecuador  (PCE,  pro-North  Korea),  Rene 
  Mauge  MOSQUERA,  Secretary  General;  Communist  Party  of 
  Ecuador/Marxist-Leninist  (PCMLE,  Maoist) 
 
  Member  of:  AG  ECLAC  FAO,  G-11,  G-77,  IADB,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICC, 
  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL, 
  IOC,  IOM,  ITU,  LAES,  LAIA,  NAM,  OAS,  OPANAL  PCA,  RG  UN  UNCTAD 
  UNESCO,  UNIDO  UPU,  WCL,  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Edgar  TERAN  Teran 
  chancery:  2535  15th  Street  NW  Washington,  DC  20009 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  234-7200 
  consulate(s)  general:  Chicago,  Houston,  Los  Angeles,  Miami,  New 
  Orleans,  New  York,  and  San  Francisco 
  consulate(s):  Newark 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Peter  F.  ROMERO 
  embassy:  Avenida  12  de  Octubre  y  Avenida  Patria,  Quito 
  mailing  address:  APO  AA  34039-3420 
  telephone:  [593]  (2)  562-890,  561-624,  561-749 
  FAX:  [593]  (2)  502-052 
  consulate(s)  general:  Guayaquil 
 
  Flag:  three  horizontal  bands  of  yellow  (top,  double  width),  blue,  and 
  red  with  the  coat  of  arms  superimposed  at  the  center  of  the  flag; 
  similar  to  the  flag  of  Colombia  that  is  shorter  and  does  not  bear  a 
  coat  of  arms 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Ecuador  has  substantial  oil  resources  and  rich  agricultural 
  areas.  Growth  has  been  uneven  in  recent  years  because  of  fluctuations 
  in  prices  for  Ecuador's  primary  exports  -  oil  and  bananas  -  as  well  as 
  because  of  government  policies  designed  to  curb  inflation.  President 
  Sixto  DURAN-BALLEN  launched  a  series  of  macroeconomic  reforms  when  he 
  came  into  office  in  August  1992  which  included  raising  domestic  fuel 
  prices  and  utility  rates,  eliminating  most  subsidies,  and  bringing  the 
  government  budget  into  balance.  These  measures  helped  to  reduce 
  inflation  from  55%  in  1992  to  25%  in  1994.  DURAN-BALLEN  has  a  much 
  more  favorable  attitude  toward  foreign  investment  than  his  predecessor 
  and  has  supported  several  laws  designed  to  encourage  foreign 
  investment.  Ecuador  has  implemented  free  or  complementary  trade 
  agreements  with  Bolivia,  Chile,  Colombia,  Peru,  and  Venezuela,  as  well 
  as  applied  for  World  Trade  Organization  membership.  Ecuador  signed  a 
  standby  agreement  with  the  IMF  and  rescheduled  its  $7.6  billion 
  commercial  debt  in  1994  thereby  regaining  access  to  multilateral 
  lending.  Growth  in  1994  speeded  up  to  3.9%,  based  on  increased  exports 
  of  bananas  and  non-traditional  products,  while  international  reserves 
  increased  to  a  record  $1.6  billion. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $41.1  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  3.9%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $3,840  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  25%  (1994) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  7.1%  (1994) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $2.76  billion 
  expenditures:  $2.76  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA 
  (1994) 
 
  Exports:  $3.3  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  petroleum  39%,  bananas  17%,  shrimp  16%,  cocoa  3%,  coffee 
  6% 
  partners:  US  42%,  Latin  America  29%,  Caribbean,  EU  countries  17% 
 
  Imports:  $3  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  transport  equipment,  consumer  goods,  vehicles,  machinery, 
  chemicals 
  partners:  US  28%,  EU  17%,  Latin  America  31%,  Caribbean,  Japan 
 
  External  debt:  $13.2  billion  (yearend  1993  est.) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  6.4%  (1993);  accounts  for  almost 
  35%  of  GDP,  including  petroleum 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  2,230,000  kW 
  production:  6.9  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  612  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  petroleum,  food  processing,  textiles,  metal  work  paper 
  products,  wood  products,  chemicals,  plastics,  fishing,  lumber 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  14%  of  GDP  (including  fishing  and  forestry); 
  leading  producer  and  exporter  of  bananas  and  balsawood  other 
  agricultural  exports  -  coffee,  cocoa,  fish,  shrimp;  other  crops  - 
  rice,  potatoes,  manioc,  plantains,  sugarcane;  livestock  products  - 
  cattle,  sheep,  hogs,  beef,  pork,  dairy  products;  net  importer  of 
  foodgrains  dairy  products,  and  sugar 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  significant  transit  country  for  derivatives  of  coca 
  originating  in  Colombia,  Bolivia,  and  Peru;  minor  illicit  producer  of 
  coca;  importer  of  precursor  chemicals  used  in  production  of  illicit 
  narcotics;  important  money-laundering  hub 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-89),  $498  million; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-91),  $2.39  billion;  Communist  countries  (1970-89),  $64  million 
 
  Currency:  1  sucre  (S/)  =  100  centavos 
 
  Exchange  rates:  sucres  (S/)  per  US$1  -  1,198.1  (December  1994), 
  2,196.7  (1994),  1,919.1  (1993),  1,534.0  (1992),  1,046.25  (1991),  767.8 
  (1990),  767.78  (1990),  526.35  (1989) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Ecuador:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  965  km  (single  track) 
  narrow  gauge:  965  km  1.067-m  gauge 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  43,709  km 
  paved:  5,245  km 
  unpaved:  38,464  km 
 
  Inland  waterways:  1,500  km 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  800  km  petroleum  products  1,358  km 
 
  Ports:  Esmeraldas,  Guayaquil,  La  Libertad  Manta,  Puerto  Bolivar,  San 
  Lorenzo 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  33  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  222,822  GRT/326,447  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  1,  cargo  2,  container  2,  liquefied  gas  tanker  2, 
  oil  tanker  13,  passenger  3,  refrigerated  cargo  10 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  175 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  7 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  8 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  15 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  107 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  5 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  31 
 
  Ecuador:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  318,000  telephones;  30  telephones/1,000  persons; 
  domestic  facilities  generally  inadequate  and  unreliable 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  NA 
  international:  1  INTELSAT  (Atlantic  Ocean)  earth  station 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  272,  FM  0,  shortwave  39 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  33 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Ecuador:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army  (Ejercito  Ecuatoriano),  Navy  (Armada  Ecuatoriana 
  includes  Marines),  Air  Force  (Fuerza  Aerea  Ecuatoriana),  National 
  Police 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  2,814,867;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  1,903,979;  males  reach  military  age  (20)  annually 
  113,985  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  $NA,  NA%  of  GDP 
 
 
 




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