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estonia

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estonia


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Estonia 
  n  :  a  republic  in  northeastern  Europe  on  the  Baltic  Sea  [syn:  {Estonia}, 
  {Esthonia}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Estonia 
 
  Estonia:Geography 
 
  Location:  Eastern  Europe,  bordering  the  Baltic  Sea  and  Gulf  of 
  Finland,  between  Latvia  and  Russia 
 
  Map  references:  Europe 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  45,100  sq  km 
  land  area:  43,200  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  larger  than  New  Hampshire  and  Vermont 
  combined 
  note:  includes  1,520  islands  in  the  Baltic  Sea 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  557  km  Latvia  267  km  Russia  290  km 
 
  Coastline:  1,393  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  exclusive  economic  zone:  limits  to  be  fixed  in  coordination  with 
  neighboring  states 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  claims  over  2,000  sq  km  of  Russian  territory 
  in  the  Narva  and  Pechora  regions  -  based  on  boundary  established  under 
  the  1921  Peace  Treaty  of  Tartu 
 
  Climate:  maritime,  wet,  moderate  winters,  cool  summers 
 
  Terrain:  marshy,  lowlands 
 
  Natural  resources:  shale  oil,  peat,  phosphorite,  amber 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  22% 
  permanent  crops:  0% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  11% 
  forest  and  woodland:  31% 
  other:  36% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  110  sq  km  (1990) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  air  heavily  polluted  with  sulfur  dioxide  from 
  oil-shale  burning  power  plants  in  northeast;  contamination  of  soil  and 
  groundwater  with  petroleum  products,  chemicals  at  military  bases 
  natural  hazards:  flooding  occurs  frequently  in  the  spring 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change, 
  Endangered  Species,  Hazardous  Wastes,  Ship  Pollution,  Wetlands 
 
  Estonia:People 
 
  Population:  1,625,399  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  22%  (female  174,304;  male  181,101) 
  15-64  years:  65%  (female  549,473;  male  515,426) 
  65  years  and  over:  13%  (female  139,722;  male  65,373)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  0.53%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  13.9  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  11.93  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  3.31  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  18.7  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  70.17  years 
  male:  65.2  years 
  female:  75.39  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  1.98  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Estonian(s) 
  adjective:  Estonian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Estonian  61.5%,  Russian  30.3%,  Ukrainian  3.17%, 
  Byelorussian  1.8%,  Finn  1.1%,  other  2.13%  (1989) 
 
  Religions:  Lutheran 
 
  Languages:  Estonian  (official),  Latvian,  Lithuanian,  Russian,  other 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1989) 
  total  population:  100% 
  male:  100% 
  female:  100% 
 
  Labor  force:  750,000  (1992) 
  by  occupation:  industry  and  construction  42%,  agriculture  and  forestry 
  20%,  other  38%  (1990) 
 
  Estonia:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Estonia 
  conventional  short  form:  Estonia 
  local  long  form:  Eesti  Vabariik 
  local  short  form:  Eesti 
  former:  Estonian  Soviet  Socialist  Republic 
 
  Digraph:  EN 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  Tallinn 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  15  counties  (maakonnad,  singular  -  maakond): 
  Harju  maakond  (Tallinn),  Hiiu  maakond  (Kardla),  Ida-Viru  maakond 
  (Johvi),  Jarva  maakond  (Paide),  Jogeva  maakond  (Jogeva),  Laane  maakond 
  (Haapsalu),  Laane-Viru  maakond  (Rakvere),  Parnu  maakond  (Parnu),  Polva 
  maakond  (Polva),  Rapla  maakond  (Rapla),  Saare  maakond  (Kuessaare), 
  Tartu  maakond  (Tartu),  Valga  maakond  (Valga),  Viljandi  maakond 
  (Viljandi),  Voru  maakond  Voru 
  note:  county  centers  are  in  parentheses 
 
  Independence:  6  September  1991  (from  Soviet  Union) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  24  February  (1918) 
 
  Constitution:  adopted  28  June  1992 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  civil  law  system;  no  judicial  review  of 
  legislative  acts 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Lennart  MERI  (since  21  October  1992); 
  election  last  held  20  September  1992;  (next  to  be  held  fall  1996); 
  results  -  no  candidate  received  majority;  newly  elected  Parliament 
  elected  Lennart  MERI  (21  October  1992) 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Andres  TARAND  (since  NA  October 
  1994) 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  appointed  by  the  prime  minister, 
  authorized  by  the  legislature 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  Parliament  (Riigikogu):  elections  last  held  5  March  1995  (next  to  be 
  held  NA  1998);  results  -  KMU  32.22%,  RE  16.18%,  K  14.17%,  Pro  Patria 
  and  ERSP  7.85%,  M  5.98%,  Our  Home  is  Estonia  and  Right-Wingers  5.0%; 
  seats  -  (101  total)  KMU  41,  RE  19,  K  16,  Pro  Patria  8,  Our  Home  is 
  Estonia  6,  M  6,  Right-Wingers  5 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Coalition  Party  and  Rural  Union  (KMU) 
  made  up  of  4  parties:  Coalition  Party,  Country  People's  Party, 
  Farmer's  Assembly,  and  Pensioners'  and  Families'  League;  Coalition 
  Party,  Tiit  VAHI,  chairman;  Country  People's  Party,  Arnold  RUUTEL 
  chairman;  Farmer's  Assembly,  Jaak-Hans  KUKS,  chairman;  Pensioners'  and 
  Families'  League;  Reform  Party-Liberals  (RE),  Siim  KALLAS,  chairman; 
  Center  Party  (K),  Edgar  SAVISAAR  chairman;  Union  of  Pro  Patria 
  (Isaama  of  Fatherland),  Mart  LAAR,  chairman;  National  Independence 
  Party  (ERSP),  Kelam  TUNNE,  chairman;  Our  Home  is  Estonia  made  up  of  2 
  parties:  United  Peoples  Party  and  the  Russian  Party  in  Estonia;  United 
  Peoples  Party,  Viktor  ANDREJEV  chairman;  Russian  Party  in  Estonia, 
  Sergei  KUZNETSOV  chairman;  Moderates  M  made  up  of  2  parties:  Social 
  Democratic  Party  and  Rural  Center  Party;  Social  Democratic  Party,  Eiki 
  NESTOR,  chairman;  Rural  Center  Party,  Vambo  KAAL,  chairman; 
  Right-Wingers,  Ulo  NUGIS  chairman 
 
  Member  of:  BIS,  CBSS,  CCC,  CE  EBRD,  ECE,  FAO,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO, 
  ICFTU  ICRM,  IFC,  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  ISO  (correspondent), 
  ITU,  NACC,  OSCE,  PFP,  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UPU,  WEU  (associate 
  partner),  WHO  WIPO,  WMO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Toomas  Hendrik  ILVES 
  chancery:  1030  15th  Street  NW  Washington,  DC  20005,  Suite  1000 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  789-0320 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  789-0471 
  consulate(s)  general:  New  York 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  (vacant);  Charge  d'Affaires  Keith  SMITH 
  embassy:  Kentmanni  20,  Tallinn  EE  0001 
  mailing  address:  use  embassy  street  address 
  telephone:  [372]  (2)  312-021  through  024 
  FAX:  [372]  (2)  312-025 
 
  Flag:  pre-1940  flag  restored  by  Supreme  Soviet  in  May  1990  -  three 
  equal  horizontal  bands  of  blue  (top),  black,  and  white 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Bolstered  by  a  widespread  national  desire  to  reintegrate 
  into  Western  Europe,  the  Estonian  government  has  pursued  an  ambitious 
  program  of  market  reforms  and  stabilization  measures,  which  is  rapidly 
  transforming  the  economy.  Three  years  after  independence  -  and  two 
  years  after  the  introduction  of  the  kroon  -  Estonians  are  beginning  to 
  reap  tangible  benefits;  inflation,  though  still  high,  was  brought  down 
  to  about  2%  per  month  in  second  half  1994;  production  declines  have 
  bottomed  out  with  estimated  growth  of  4%  in  1994;  and  living  standards 
  are  rising.  Economic  restructuring  has  been  dramatic.  By  1994  the 
  service  sector  accounted  for  over  55%  of  GDP,  while  the  once-dominant 
  heavy  industrial  sector  continues  to  shrink.  The  private  sector  is 
  growing  rapidly;  the  share  of  the  state  enterprises  in  the  economy  has 
  steadily  declined  and  by  late  1994  accounted  for  only  about  40%  of 
  GDP.  Estonia's  foreign  trade  has  shifted  rapidly  from  East  to  West; 
  the  Western  industrialized  countries  now  account  for  two-thirds  of 
  foreign  trade 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $10.4  billion  (1994 
  estimate  as  extrapolated  from  World  Bank  estimate  for  1992) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  4%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $6,460  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  3.3%  per  month  (1994  average) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  about  2%  in  1994  (official  estimate  but  large 
  number  of  underemployed  workers) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $643  million 
  expenditures:  $639  million,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA 
  (1993  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $1.65  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994) 
  commodities:  textile  14%,  food  products  11%,  vehicles  11%,  metals  11% 
  (1993) 
  partners:  Russia,  Finland,  Sweden,  Germany 
 
  Imports:  $1  billion  (c.i.f.,  1994) 
  commodities:  machinery  18%,  fuels  15%,  vehicles  14%,  textiles  10% 
  (1993) 
  partners:  Finland,  Russia,  Germany,  Sweden 
 
  External  debt:  $650  million  (end  of  1991) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  -27%  (1993) 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  3,420,000  kW 
  production:  11.3  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  6,528  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  oil  shale,  shipbuilding,  phosphates,  electric  motors, 
  excavators,  cement,  furniture,  clothing,  textiles,  paper,  shoes, 
  apparel 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  10%  of  GDP;  employs  20%  of  work  force;  very 
  efficient  by  Soviet  standards;  net  exports  of  meat,  fish,  dairy 
  products,  and  potatoes;  imports  of  feedgrains  for  livestock;  fruits 
  and  vegetables 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  transshipment  point  for  illicit  drugs  from  Central  and 
  Southwest  Asia  and  Latin  America  to  Western  Europe;  very  limited 
  illicit  opium  producer;  mostly  for  domestic  consumption 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (1992),  $10  million 
 
  Currency:  1  Estonian  kroon  (EEK)  =  100  cents  (introduced  in  August 
  1992) 
 
  Exchange  rates:  kroons  (EEK)  per  US$1  -  12.25  (January  1995);  note  - 
  kroons  are  tied  to  the  German  Deutschmark  at  a  fixed  rate  of  8  to  1 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Estonia:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  1,030  km  common  carrier  lines  only;  does  not  include  dedicated 
  industrial  lines 
  broad  gauge:  1,030  km  1.520-m  gauge  (1990) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  30,300  km 
  paved  or  graveled:  29,200  km 
  unpaved:  earth  1,100  km  (1990) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  500  km  perennially  navigable 
 
  Pipelines:  natural  gas  420  km  (1992) 
 
  Ports:  Haapsalu  Narva,  Novotallin  Paldiski  Parnu  Tallinn 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  65  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  415,332  GRT/532,749  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  6,  cargo  44,  container  2,  oil  tanker  2, 
  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  7,  short-sea  passenger  4 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  22 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  7 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  3 
  with  unpaved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  1 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  2 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  4 
  with  unpaved  runways  under  914  m:  5 
 
  Estonia:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  about  400,000  telephones;  246  telephones/1,000 
  persons;  telephone  system  is  antiquated;  improvements  are  being  made 
  piecemeal,  with  emphasis  on  business  needs  and  international 
  connections;  there  are  still  about  150,000  unfulfilled  requests  for 
  telephone  service 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  NA 
  international:  international  traffic  is  carried  to  the  other  former 
  USSR  republics  by  land  line  or  microwave  and  to  other  countries  partly 
  by  leased  connection  to  the  Moscow  international  gateway  switch,  and 
  partly  by  a  new  Tallinn-Helsinki  fiber  optic  submarine  cable  which 
  gives  Estonia  access  to  international  circuits  everywhere;  substantial 
  investment  has  been  made  in  cellular  systems  which  are  operational 
  throughout  Estonia  and  also  Latvia  and  which  have  access  to  the 
  international  packet  switched  digital  network  via  Helsinki 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  NA  FM  NA  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  3;  note  -  provide  Estonian  programs  as  well  as 
  Moscow  Ostenkino's  first  and  second  programs 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Estonia:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Ground  Forces,  Navy,  Air  and  Air  Defense  Force  (not 
  officially  sanctioned),  Maritime  Border  Guard,  Volunteer  Defense 
  League  (Kaitseliit),  Security  Forces  (internal  and  border  troops), 
  Coast  Guard 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  396,588;  males  fit  for  military 
  service  311,838;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually  11,915  (1995 
  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $34.1  million,  almost 
  5%  of  the  overall  State  budget  and  1.5%  of  GDP  (1995) 
 
 
 




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