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ethiopia

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ethiopia


  4  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Ethiopia 
  n  :  Ethiopia  is  a  republic  in  northeastern  Africa  formerly 
  called  Abyssinia  [syn:  {Ethiopia},  {Yaltopya},  {Abyssinia}] 
 
  From  Easton's  1897  Bible  Dictionary  [easton]: 
 
  Ethiopia 
  country  of  burnt  faces;  the  Greek  word  by  which  the  Hebrew  Cush 
  is  rendered  (Gen.  2:13;  2  Kings  19:9;  Esther  1:1;  Job  28:19;  Ps 
  68:31;  87:4),  a  country  which  lay  to  the  south  of  Egypt, 
  beginning  at  Syene  on  the  First  Cataract  (Ezek.  29:10;  30:6), 
  and  extending  to  beyond  the  confluence  of  the  White  and  Blue 
  Nile.  It  corresponds  generally  with  what  is  now  known  as  the 
  Soudan  (i.e.,  the  land  of  the  blacks).  This  country  was  known  to 
  the  Hebrews,  and  is  described  in  Isa.  18:1;  Zeph.  3:10.  They 
  carried  on  some  commercial  intercourse  with  it  (Isa.  45:14). 
 
  Its  inhabitants  were  descendants  of  Ham  (Gen.  10:6;  Jer. 
  13:23;  Isa.  18:2,  "scattered  and  peeled,"  A.V.;  but  in  R.V., 
  "tall  and  smooth").  Herodotus,  the  Greek  historian,  describes 
  them  as  "the  tallest  and  handsomest  of  men."  They  are  frequently 
  represented  on  Egyptian  monuments,  and  they  are  all  of  the  type 
  of  the  true  negro.  As  might  be  expected,  the  history  of  this 
  country  is  interwoven  with  that  of  Egypt. 
 
  Ethiopia  is  spoken  of  in  prophecy  (Ps.  68:31;  87:4;  Isa. 
  45:14;  Ezek.  30:4-9;  Dan.  11:43;  Nah.  3:8-10;  Hab.  3:7;  Zeph. 
  2:12). 
 
 
  From  Hitchcock's  Bible  Names  Dictionary  (late  1800's)  [hitchcock]: 
 
  Ethiopia,  blackness;  heat 
 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Ethiopia 
 
  Ethiopia:Geography 
 
  Location:  Eastern  Africa,  west  of  Somalia 
 
  Map  references:  Africa 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  1,127,127  sq  km 
  land  area:  1,119,683  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  less  than  twice  the  size  of  Texas 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  5,311  km  Djibouti  337  km  Eritrea  912  km 
  Kenya  830  km  Somalia  1,626  km  Sudan  1,606  km 
 
  Coastline:  none  -  landlocked 
 
  Maritime  claims:  none;  landlocked 
 
  International  disputes:  southern  half  of  the  boundary  with  Somalia  is 
  a  Provisional  Administrative  Line  territorial  dispute  with  Somalia 
  over  the  Ogaden 
 
  Climate:  tropical  monsoon  with  wide  topographic-induced  variation 
 
  Terrain:  high  plateau  with  central  mountain  range  divided  by  Great 
  Rift  Valley 
 
  Natural  resources:  small  reserves  of  gold,  platinum,  copper,  potash 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  12% 
  permanent  crops:  1% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  41% 
  forest  and  woodland:  24% 
  other:  22% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  1,620  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  deforestation;  overgrazing  soil  erosion; 
  desertification  famine 
  natural  hazards:  geologically  active  Great  Rift  Valley  susceptible  to 
  earthquakes,  volcanic  eruptions;  frequent  droughts 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change, 
  Endangered  Species,  Ozone  Layer  Protection;  signed,  but  not  ratified  - 
  Desertification  Environmental  Modification,  Law  of  the  Sea,  Nuclear 
  Test  Ban 
 
  Note:  landlocked  -  entire  coastline  along  the  Red  Sea  was  lost  with 
  the  de  jure  independence  of  Eritrea  on  27  April  1993 
 
  Ethiopia:People 
 
  Population:  55,979,018  (July  1995  est.) 
  note:  Ethiopian  demographic  data,  except  population  and  population 
  growth  rate,  include  Eritrea 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  46%  (female  12,782,345;  male  12,802,187) 
  15-64  years:  52%  (female  14,352,059;  male  14,511,342) 
  65  years  and  over:  2%  (female  815,974;  male  715,111)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  3.09%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  46.68  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  15.77  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  NA  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
  note:  repatriation  of  Ethiopian  refugees  from  Sudan,  Kenya  and 
  Somalia,  where  they  had  taken  refuge  from  war  and  famine  in  earlier 
  years,  is  expected  to  continue  in  1995;  additional  influxes  of 
  Sudanese  and  Somalis  fleeing  fighting  in  their  countries  can  be 
  expected  in  1995 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  120.6  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  50  years 
  male:  48.28  years 
  female:  51.78  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  7.07  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Ethiopian(s) 
  adjective:  Ethiopian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Oromo  40%,  Amhara  and  Tigrean  32%,  Sidamo  9%, 
  Shankella  6%,  Somali  6%,  Afar  4%,  Gurage  2%,  other  1% 
 
  Religions:  Muslim  45%-50%,  Ethiopian  Orthodox  35%-40%,  animist  12%, 
  other  5% 
 
  Languages:  Amharic  (official),  Tigrinya  Orominga  Guaraginga  Somali, 
  Arabic,  English  (major  foreign  language  taught  in  schools) 
 
  Literacy:  age  10  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1984) 
  total  population:  24% 
  male:  33% 
  female:  16% 
 
  Labor  force:  18  million 
  by  occupation:  agriculture  and  animal  husbandry  80%,  government  and 
  services  12%,  industry  and  construction  8%  (1985) 
 
  Ethiopia:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  none 
  conventional  short  form:  Ethiopia 
  local  long  form:  none 
  local  short  form:  Ityop'iya 
 
  Digraph:  ET 
 
  Type:  transitional  government 
  note:  on  28  May  1991  the  Ethiopian  People's  Revolutionary  Democratic 
  Front  (EPRDF)  toppled  the  authoritarian  government  of  MENGISTU 
  Haile-Mariam  and  took  control  in  Addis  Ababa;  a  new  constitution  was 
  promulgated  in  December  1994  and  national  and  regional  elections  are 
  scheduled  for  May  1995;  the  administrative  regions  will  elect  regional 
  assemblies  by  popular  vote;  the  National  Assembly  will  have  two 
  chambers  -  one  elected  by  popular  vote  and  the  other  selected  as 
  representatives  by  the  regional  assemblies;  the  lower  house  of  the 
  National  Assembly  will  select  or  confirm  the  president,  the  prime 
  minister  and  the  cabinet  officers  and  judges;  the  prime  minister  will 
  be  the  chief  executive  officer  and  the  duties  of  the  president  will  be 
  mostly  ceremonial 
 
  Capital:  Addis  Ababa 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  14  ethnically-based  administrative  regions 
  (astedader  akababiwach  singular  -  astedader  akababi)  Addis  Ababa, 
  Afar,  Amhara,  Benishangul  Gambela,  Gurage-Hadiya-Kambata,  Hareri 
  Kefa,  Omo,  Oromo,  Sidama  Somali,  Tigray  Wolayta 
  note:  the  following  named  four  administrative  regions  may  have  been 
  abolished  and  their  territories  distributed  among  the  remaining  ten 
  regions:  Kefa,  Omo,  Sidama  and  Wolayta 
 
  Independence:  oldest  independent  country  in  Africa  and  one  of  the 
  oldest  in  the  world  -  at  least  2,000  years 
 
  National  holiday:  National  Day  28  May  (1991)  (defeat  of  Mengistu 
  regime) 
 
  Constitution:  new  constitution  promulgated  in  December  1994 
 
  Legal  system:  NA 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  MELES  Zenawi  (since  1  June  1991);  appointed 
  by  the  Council  of  Representatives  following  the  military  defeat  of  the 
  MENGISTU  government;  following  the  elections  to  the  National  Assembly 
  scheduled  for  May  1995  the  lower  house  of  the  National  Assembly  will 
  nominate  a  new  president 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  TAMIRAT  Layne  (since  6  June  1991); 
  a  new  prime  minister  will  be  designated  by  the  party  in  power 
  following  the  elections  to  the  General  Assembly  in  May  1995 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  presently  designated  by  the  chairman  of 
  the  Council  of  Representatives;  under  the  new  constitution  and 
  following  the  elections  in  May  1995  the  cabinet  officers  will  be 
  selected  by  the  prime  minister 
 
  Legislative  branch: 
  Constituent  Assembly:  elections  were  held  on  5  June  1994;  results  - 
  government  parties  swept  almost  all  seats;  in  December  1994  the 
  Constituent  Assembly  ratified  the  new  constitution  with  few  changes; 
  the  new  constitution  prescribes  two  chambers  for  the  new  National 
  Assembly  -  one  which  is  elected  by  popular  vote  and  one  which 
  represents  the  ethnic  interests  of  the  regional  governments 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Ethiopian  People's  Revolutionary 
  Democratic  Front  (EPRDF),  MELES  Zenawi 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  Oromo  Liberation  Front  (OLF);  All 
  Amhara  People's  Organization;  Southern  Ethiopia  People's  Democratic 
  Coalition;  numerous  small  ethnic-based  groups  have  formed  since 
  Mengistu's  resignation,  including  several  Islamic  militant  groups 
 
  Member  of:  ACP,  AfDB  CCC,  ECA,  FAO,  G-24,  G-77,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO, 
  ICRM,  IDA,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  IGADD,  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL, 
  IOC,  ISO,  ITU,  NAM,  OAU,  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNHCR  UNIDO  UNU,  UPU, 
  WFTU  WHO  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  BERHANE  Gebre-Christos 
  chancery:  2134  Kalorama  Road  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  234-2281,  2282 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  328-7950 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Irvin  HICKS 
  embassy:  Entoto  Street,  Addis  Ababa 
  mailing  address:  P.  O.  Box  1014,  Addis  Ababa 
  telephone:  [251]  (1)  550666 
  FAX:  [251]  (1)  552191 
 
  Flag:  three  equal  horizontal  bands  of  green  (top),  yellow,  and  red; 
  Ethiopia  is  the  oldest  independent  country  in  Africa,  and  the  colors 
  of  her  flag  were  so  often  adopted  by  other  African  countries  upon 
  independence  that  they  became  known  as  the  pan-African  colors 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  With  the  independence  of  Eritrea  on  27  April  1993,  Ethiopia 
  continues  to  face  difficult  economic  problems  as  one  of  the  poorest 
  and  least  developed  countries  in  Africa.  Its  economy  is  based  on 
  agriculture,  which  accounts  for  about  45%  of  GDP,  90%  of  exports,  and 
  80%  of  total  employment;  coffee  generates  60%  of  export  earnings.  The 
  agricultural  sector  suffers  from  frequent  periods  of  drought,  poor 
  cultivation  practices,  and  deterioration  of  internal  security 
  conditions.  The  manufacturing  sector  is  heavily  dependent  on  inputs 
  from  the  agricultural  sector.  Over  90%  of  large-scale  industry,  but 
  less  than  10%  of  agriculture,  is  state  run.  The  government  is 
  considering  selling  off  a  portion  of  state-owned  plants,  and  is 
  implementing  reform  measures  that  are  gradually  liberalizing  the 
  economy.  A  major  medium-term  problem  is  the  improvement  of  roads, 
  water  supply,  and  other  parts  of  an  infrastructure  badly  neglected 
  during  years  of  civil  strife. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $20.3  billion  (1993 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  3%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $380  (1993  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  10%  (FY93/94) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  NA% 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $1.2  billion 
  expenditures:  $1.7  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $707 
  million  (FY93/94) 
 
  Exports:  $219.8  million  (f.o.b.,  1993  est.) 
  commodities:  coffee,  leather  products,  gold 
  partners:  Germany,  Japan,  Saudi  Arabia,  France,  Italy 
 
  Imports:  $1.04  billion  (c.i.f.,  1993  est.) 
  commodities:  capital  goods,  consumer  goods,  fuel 
  partners:  US  Germany,  Italy,  Saudi  Arabia,  Japan 
 
  External  debt:  $3.7  billion  (1993  est.) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  -3.3%  (FY91/92);  accounts  for  12% 
  of  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  460,000  kW 
  production:  1.3  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  23  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  food  processing,  beverages,  textiles,  chemicals,  metals 
  processing,  cement 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  45%  of  GDP;  export  crops  of  coffee  and 
  oilseeds  are  grown  partly  on  state  farms;  estimated  50%  of 
  agricultural  production  is  at  subsistence  level;  principal  crops  and 
  livestock  -  cereals,  pulses,  coffee,  oilseeds,  sugarcane,  potatoes  and 
  other  vegetables,  hides  and  skins,  cattle,  sheep,  goats 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  transit  hub  for  heroin  originating  in  Southwest  and 
  Southeast  Asia  and  destined  for  Europe  and  North  America  as  well  as 
  cocaine  destined  for  southern  African  markets;  cultivates  qat  (chat) 
  for  local  use  and  regional  export 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-89),  $504  million; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-89),  $3.4  billion;  OPEC  bilateral  aid  (1979-89),  $8  million; 
  Communist  countries  (1970-89),  $2  billion 
 
  Currency:  1  birr  Br  =  100  cents 
 
  Exchange  rates:  birr  Br  per  US$1  -  5.9500  (January  1995),  5.9500 
  (1994),  5.0000  (fixed  rate  1992-93);  fixed  at  2.070  before  1992;  note 
  -  official  rate  pegged  to  the  US$ 
 
  Fiscal  year:  8  July  -  7  July 
 
  Ethiopia:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  681  km  (Ethiopian  segment  of  the  Addis  Ababa-Djibouti  railroad) 
 
  narrow  gauge:  681  km  1.000-m  gauge 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  24,127  km 
  paved:  3,289  km 
  unpaved:  gravel  6,664  km  improved  earth  1,652  km  unimproved  earth 
  12,522  km  (1993) 
 
  Ports:  none 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  12  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  62,627  GRT/88,909  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  cargo  8,  livestock  carrier  1,  oil  tanker  2, 
  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  1 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  98 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  3 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  1 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  24 
  with  unpaved  runways  over  3,047  m:  4 
  with  unpaved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  6 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  14 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  42 
 
  Ethiopia:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  NA  telephones;  open-wire  and  radio  relay  system 
  adequate  for  government  use 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  open  wire  and  microwave  radio  relay  links 
  international:  open-wire  to  Sudan  and  Djibouti;  microwave  radio  relay 
  to  Kenya  and  Djibouti;  3  INTELSAT  (1  Atlantic  Ocean  and  2  Pacific 
  Ocean)  earth  stations 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  4,  FM  0,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  9  million 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  1 
  televisions:  100,000 
 
  Ethiopia:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Transitional  Government  of  Ethiopia  Forces,  Air  Force, 
  Police 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  12,658,084;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  6,569,759;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually 
  565,976  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $140  million,  4.1%  of 
  GDP  (FY94/95) 
 
 
 




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