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exodus

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exodus


  6  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Exodus  \Ex"o*dus\,  n.  [L.,  the  book  of  Exodus,  Gr  ?  a  going  or 
  marching  out  ?  out  +  ?  way  cf  {Skr}.  [=a]-sad  to 
  approach.] 
  1.  A  going  out  particularly  (the  Exodus),  the  going  out  or 
  journey  of  the  Israelites  from  Egypt  under  the  conduct  of 
  Moses;  and  hence  any  large  migration  from  a  place 
 
  2.  The  second  of  the  Old  Testament,  which  contains  the 
  narrative  of  the  departure  of  the  Israelites  from  Egypt. 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  exodus 
  n  1:  a  journey  by  a  large  group  to  escape  from  a  hostile 
  environment  [syn:  {hegira},  {hejira}] 
  2:  the  second  book  of  the  Old  Testament:  tells  of  the  departure 
  of  the  Israelites  out  of  slavery  in  Egypt  led  by  Moses; 
  God  gave  them  the  Ten  Commandments  and  the  rest  of  Mosaic 
  law  on  Mount  Sinai  during  the  Exodus  [syn:  {Exodus}] 
 
  From  The  Free  On-line  Dictionary  of  Computing  (13  Mar  01)  [foldoc]: 
 
  EXODUS 
 
    An  extensible  {database}  project  developed  at  the 
  University  of  Wisconsin. 
 
  (1996-05-13) 
 
 
 
  From  The  Free  On-line  Dictionary  of  Computing  (13  Mar  01)  [foldoc]: 
 
  eXodus 
 
  A  package  from  White  Pines  allowing  the  Macintosh  to  be  used 
  as  an  X  server. 
 
 
 
  From  Easton's  1897  Bible  Dictionary  [easton]: 
 
  Exodus 
  the  great  deliverance  wrought  for  the  children  of  Isreal  when 
  they  were  brought  out  of  the  land  of  Egypt  with  "a  mighty  hand 
  and  with  an  outstretched  arm"  (Ex  12:51;  Deut.  26:8;  Ps  114; 
  136),  about  B.C.  1490,  and  four  hundred  and  eighty  years  (1 
  Kings  6:1)  before  the  building  of  Solomon's  temple. 
 
  The  time  of  their  sojourning  in  Egypt  was  according  to  Ex 
  12:40,  the  space  of  four  hundred  and  thirty  years.  In  the  LXX., 
  the  words  are  "The  sojourning  of  the  children  of  Israel  which 
  they  sojourned  in  Egypt  and  in  the  land  of  Canaan  was  four 
  hundred  and  thirty  years;"  and  the  Samaritan  version  reads,  "The 
  sojourning  of  the  children  of  Israel  and  of  their  fathers  which 
  they  sojourned  in  the  land  of  Canaan  and  in  the  land  of  Egypt 
  was  four  hundred  and  thirty  years."  In  Gen.  15:13-16,  the  period 
  is  prophetically  given  (in  round  numbers)  as  four  hundred  years. 
  This  passage  is  quoted  by  Stephen  in  his  defence  before  the 
  council  (Acts  7:6). 
 
  The  chronology  of  the  sojourning"  is  variously  estimated. 
  Those  who  adopt  the  longer  term  reckon  thus: 
  |  Years 
  | 
  |  From  the  descent  of  Jacob  into  Egypt  to  the 
  |  death  of  Joseph  71 
  | 
  |  From  the  death  of  Joseph  to  the  birth  of 
  |  Moses  278 
  | 
  |  From  the  birth  of  Moses  to  his  flight  into 
  |  Midian  40 
  | 
  |  From  the  flight  of  Moses  to  his  return  into 
  |  Egypt  40 
  | 
  |  From  the  return  of  Moses  to  the  Exodus  1 
  | 
  |  430 
 
  Others  contend  for  the  shorter  period  of  two  hundred  and 
  fifteen  years,  holding  that  the  period  of  four  hundred  and 
  thirty  years  comprehends  the  years  from  the  entrance  of  Abraham 
  into  Canaan  (see  LXX.  and  Samaritan)  to  the  descent  of  Jacob 
  into  Egypt.  They  reckon  thus: 
  |  Years 
  | 
  |  From  Abraham's  arrival  in  Canaan  to  Isaac's 
  |  birth  25 
  | 
  |  From  Isaac's  birth  to  that  of  his  twin  sons 
  |  Esau  and  Jacob  60 
  | 
  |  From  Jacob's  birth  to  the  going  down  into 
  |  Egypt  130 
  | 
  |  (215) 
  | 
  |  From  Jacob's  going  down  into  Egypt  to  the 
  |  death  of  Joseph  71 
  | 
  |  From  death  of  Joseph  to  the  birth  of  Moses  64 
  | 
  |  From  birth  of  Moses  to  the  Exodus  80 
  | 
  |  In  all...  430 
 
  During  the  forty  years  of  Moses'  sojourn  in  the  land  of 
  Midian,  the  Hebrews  in  Egypt  were  being  gradually  prepared  for 
  the  great  national  crisis  which  was  approaching.  The  plagues 
  that  successively  fell  upon  the  land  loosened  the  bonds  by  which 
  Pharaoh  held  them  in  slavery,  and  at  length  he  was  eager  that 
  they  should  depart.  But  the  Hebrews  must  now  also  be  ready  to 
  go  They  were  poor;  for  generations  they  had  laboured  for  the 
  Egyptians  without  wages.  They  asked  gifts  from  their  neighbours 
  around  them  (Ex.  12:35),  and  these  were  readily  bestowed.  And 
  then,  as  the  first  step  towards  their  independent  national 
  organization,  they  observed  the  feast  of  the  Passover,  which  was 
  now  instituted  as  a  perpetual  memorial.  The  blood  of  the  paschal 
  lamb  was  duly  sprinkled  on  the  door-posts  and  lintels  of  all 
  their  houses,  and  they  were  all  within,  waiting  the  next 
  movement  in  the  working  out  of  God's  plan  At  length  the  last 
  stroke  fell  on  the  land  of  Egypt.  "It  came  to  pass,  that  at 
  midnight  Jehovah  smote  all  the  firstborn  in  the  land  of  Egypt." 
  Pharaoh  rose  up  in  the  night,  and  called  for  Moses  and  Aaron  by 
  night,  and  said  "Rise  up  and  get  you  forth  from  among  my 
  people,  both  ye  and  the  children  of  Israel;  and  go  serve 
  Jehovah,  as  ye  have  said  Also  take  your  flocks  and  your  herds, 
  as  ye  have  said  and  be  gone;  and  bless  me  also."  Thus  was 
  Pharaoh  (q.v.)  completely  humbled  and  broken  down  These  words 
  he  spoke  to  Moses  and  Aaron  "seem  to  gleam  through  the  tears  of 
  the  humbled  king,  as  he  lamented  his  son  snatched  from  him  by  so 
  sudden  a  death,  and  tremble  with  a  sense  of  the  helplessness 
  which  his  proud  soul  at  last  felt  when  the  avenging  hand  of  God 
  had  visited  even  his  palace." 
 
  The  terror-stricken  Egyptians  now  urged  the  instant  departure 
  of  the  Hebrews.  In  the  midst  of  the  Passover  feast,  before  the 
  dawn  of  the  15th  day  of  the  month  Abib  (our  April  nearly),  which 
  was  to  be  to  them  henceforth  the  beginning  of  the  year,  as  it 
  was  the  commencement  of  a  new  epoch  in  their  history,  every 
  family,  with  all  that  appertained  to  it  was  ready  for  the 
  march,  which  instantly  began  under  the  leadership  of  the  heads 
  of  tribes  with  their  various  sub-divisions.  They  moved  onward, 
  increasing  as  they  went  forward  from  all  the  districts  of 
  Goshen,  over  the  whole  of  which  they  were  scattered,  to  the 
  common  centre.  Three  or  four  days  perhaps  elapsed  before  the 
  whole  body  of  the  people  were  assembled  at  Rameses,  and  ready  to 
  set  out  under  their  leader  Moses  (Ex.  12:37;  Num.  33:3).  This 
  city  was  at  that  time  the  residence  of  the  Egyptian  court,  and 
  here  the  interviews  between  Moses  and  Pharaoh  had  taken  place 
 
  From  Rameses  they  journeyed  to  Succoth  (Ex.  12:37),  identified 
  with  Tel-el-Maskhuta,  about  12  miles  west  of  Ismailia  (See  {PITHOM}.)  Their  third  station  was  Etham  (q.v.),  13:20, 
  "in  the  edge  of  the  wilderness,"  and  was  probably  a  little  to 
  the  west  of  the  modern  town  of  Ismailia  on  the  Suez  Canal.  Here 
  they  were  commanded  "to  turn  and  encamp  before  Pi-hahiroth, 
  between  Migdol  and  the  sea",  i.e.,  to  change  their  route  from 
  east  to  due  south.  The  Lord  now  assumed  the  direction  of  their 
  march  in  the  pillar  of  cloud  by  day  and  of  fire  by  night.  They 
  were  then  led  along  the  west  shore  of  the  Red  Sea  till  they  came 
  to  an  extensive  camping-ground  "before  Pi-hahiroth,"  about  40 
  miles  from  Etham.  This  distance  from  Etham  may  have  taken  three 
  days  to  traverse,  for  the  number  of  camping-places  by  no  means 
  indicates  the  number  of  days  spent  on  the  journey:  e.g.,  it  took 
  fully  a  month  to  travel  from  Rameses  to  the  wilderness  of  Sin 
  (Ex.  16:1),  yet  reference  is  made  to  only  six  camping-places 
  during  all  that  time.  The  exact  spot  of  their  encampment  before 
  they  crossed  the  Red  Sea  cannot  be  determined.  It  was  probably 
  somewhere  near  the  present  site  of  Suez. 
 
  Under  the  direction  of  God  the  children  of  Israel  went 
  forward"  from  the  camp  "before  Pi-hahiroth,"  and  the  sea  opened 
  a  pathway  for  them  so  that  they  crossed  to  the  farther  shore  in 
  safety.  The  Egyptian  host  pursued  after  them  and  attempting  to 
  follow  through  the  sea,  were  overwhelmed  in  its  returning 
  waters,  and  thus  the  whole  military  force  of  the  Egyptians 
  perished.  They  "sank  as  lead  in  the  mighty  waters"  (Ex.  15:1-9; 
  comp.  Ps  77:16-19). 
 
  Having  reached  the  eastern  shore  of  the  sea,  perhaps  a  little 
  way  to  the  north  of  'Ayun  Musa  ("the  springs  of  Moses"),  there 
  they  encamped  and  rested  probably  for  a  day  Here  Miriam  and  the 
  other  women  sang  the  triumphal  song  recorded  in  Ex  15:1-21. 
 
  From  'Ayun  Musa  they  went  on  for  three  days  through  a  part  of 
  the  barren  "wilderness  of  Shur"  (22),  called  also  the 
  "wilderness  of  Etham"  (Num.  33:8;  comp.  Ex  13:20),  without 
  finding  water.  On  the  last  of  these  days  they  came  to  Marah 
  (q.v.),  where  the  bitter"  water  was  by  a  miracle  made 
  drinkable. 
 
  Their  next  camping-place  was  Elim  (q.v.),  where  were  twelve 
  springs  of  water  and  a  grove  of  "threescore  and  ten"  palm  trees 
  (Ex.  15:27). 
 
  After  a  time  the  children  of  Israel  "took  their  journey  from 
  Elim,"  and  encamped  by  the  Red  Sea  (Num.  33:10),  and  thence 
  removed  to  the  "wilderness  of  Sin"  (to  be  distinguished  from  the 
  wilderness  of  Zin,  20:1),  where  they  again  encamped.  Here 
  probably  the  modern  el-Markha,  the  supply  of  bread  they  had 
  brought  with  them  out  of  Egypt  failed.  They  began  to  murmur" 
  for  want  of  bread.  God  "heard  their  murmurings"  and  gave  them 
  quails  and  manna,  "bread  from  heaven"  (Ex.  16:4-36).  Moses 
  directed  that  an  omer  of  manna  should  be  put  aside  and  preserved 
  as  a  perpetual  memorial  of  God's  goodness.  They  now  turned 
  inland,  and  after  three  encampments  came  to  the  rich  and  fertile 
  valley  of  Rephidim,  in  the  Wady  Feiran  Here  they  found  no 
  water,  and  again  murmured  against  Moses.  Directed  by  God,  Moses 
  procured  a  miraculous  supply  of  water  from  the  "rock  in  Horeb," 
  one  of  the  hills  of  the  Sinai  group  (17:1-7);  and  shortly 
  afterwards  the  children  of  Israel  here  fought  their  first  battle 
  with  the  Amalekites  whom  they  smote  with  the  edge  of  the  sword. 
 
  From  the  eastern  extremity  of  the  Wady  Feiran  the  line  of 
  march  now  probably  led  through  the  Wady  esh-Sheikh  and  the  Wady 
  Solaf,  meeting  in  the  Wady  er-Rahah,  "the  enclosed  plain  in 
  front  of  the  magnificient  cliffs  of  Ras  Sufsafeh."  Here  they 
  encamped  for  more  than  a  year  (Num.  1:1;  10:11)  before  Sinai 
  (q.v.). 
 
  The  different  encampments  of  the  children  of  Israel,  from  the 
  time  of  their  leaving  Egypt  till  they  reached  the  Promised  Land, 
  are  mentioned  in  Ex  12:37-19;  Num.  10-21;  33;  Deut.  1,  2,  10. 
 
  It  is  worthy  of  notice  that  there  are  unmistakable  evidences 
  that  the  Egyptians  had  a  tradition  of  a  great  exodus  from  their 
  country,  which  could  be  none  other  than  the  exodus  of  the 
  Hebrews. 
 
 
  From  Hitchcock's  Bible  Names  Dictionary  (late  1800's)  [hitchcock]: 
 
  Exodus,  going  out  departure 
 




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