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fermentation

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fermentation


  3  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
 
 
  2.  A  state  of  agitation  or  excitement,  as  of  the  intellect  or 
  the  feelings. 
 
  It  puts  the  soul  to  fermentation  and  activity. 
  --Jer.  Taylor. 
 
  A  univesal  fermentation  of  human  thought  and  faith. 
  --C.  Kingsley. 
 
  {Acetous,  or  Acetic},  {fermentation},  a  form  of  oxidation  in 
  which  alcohol  is  converted  into  vinegar  or  acetic  acid  by 
  the  agency  of  a  specific  fungus  or  ferment  ({Mycoderma 
  aceti}).  The  process  involves  two  distinct  reactions,  in 
  which  the  oxygen  of  the  air  is  essential.  An  intermediate 
  product,  aldehyde,  is  formed  in  the  first  process.  1. 
  C2H6O  +  O  =  H2O  +  C2H4O 
 
  Note:  Alcohol.  Water.  Aldehyde.  2.  C2H4O  +  O  =  C2H4O2 
 
  Note:  Aldehyde.  Acetic  acid. 
 
  {Alcoholic  fermentation},  the  fermentation  which  saccharine 
  bodies  undergo  when  brought  in  contact  with  the  yeast 
  plant  or  Torula.  The  sugar  is  converted,  either  directly 
  or  indirectly,  into  alcohol  and  carbonic  acid,  the  rate  of 
  action  being  dependent  on  the  rapidity  with  which  the 
  Torul[ae]  develop. 
 
  {Ammoniacal  fermentation},  the  conversion  of  the  urea  of  the 
  urine  into  ammonium  carbonate,  through  the  growth  of  the 
  special  urea  ferment.  CON2H4  +  2H2O  =  (NH4)2CO3 
 
  Note:  Urea.  Water.  Ammonium  carbonate. 
 
  Note:  Whenever  urine  is  exposed  to  the  air  in  open  vessels 
  for  several  days  it  undergoes  this  alkaline 
  fermentation. 
 
  {Butyric  fermentation},  the  decomposition  of  various  forms  of 
  organic  matter,  through  the  agency  of  a  peculiar 
  worm-shaped  vibrio,  with  formation  of  more  or  less  butyric 
  acid.  It  is  one  of  the  many  forms  of  fermentation  that 
  collectively  constitute  putrefaction.  See  {Lactic 
  fermentation}. 
 
  {Fermentation  by  an}  {unorganized  ferment  or  enzyme}. 
  Fermentations  of  this  class  are  purely  chemical  reactions, 
  in  which  the  ferment  acts  as  a  simple  catalytic  agent.  Of 
  this  nature  are  the  decomposition  or  inversion  of  cane 
  sugar  into  levulose  and  dextrose  by  boiling  with  dilute 
  acids,  the  conversion  of  starch  into  dextrin  and  sugar  by 
  similar  treatment,  the  conversion  of  starch  into  like 
  products  by  the  action  of  diastase  of  malt  or  ptyalin  of 
  saliva,  the  conversion  of  albuminous  food  into  peptones 
  and  other  like  products  by  the  action  of 
  pepsin-hydrochloric  acid  of  the  gastric  juice  or  by  the 
  ferment  of  the  pancreatic  juice. 
 
  {Fermentation  theory  of  disease}  (Biol.  &  Med.),  the  theory 
  that  most  if  not  all  infectious  or  zymotic  disease  are 
  caused  by  the  introduction  into  the  organism  of  the  living 
  germs  of  ferments,  or  ferments  already  developed 
  (organized  ferments),  by  which  processes  of  fermentation 
  are  set  up  injurious  to  health.  See  {Germ  theory}. 
 
  {Glycerin  fermentation},  the  fermentation  which  occurs  on 
  mixing  a  dilute  solution  of  glycerin  with  a  peculiar 
  species  of  schizomycetes  and  some  carbonate  of  lime,  and 
  other  matter  favorable  to  the  growth  of  the  plant,  the 
  glycerin  being  changed  into  butyric  acid,  caproic  acid, 
  butyl,  and  ethyl  alcohol.  With  another  form  of  bacterium 
  ({Bacillus  subtilis})  ethyl  alcohol  and  butyric  acid  are 
  mainly  formed. 
 
  {Lactic  fermentation},  the  transformation  of  milk  sugar  or 
  other  saccharine  body  into  lactic  acid,  as  in  the  souring 
  of  milk,  through  the  agency  of  a  special  bacterium 
  ({Bacterium  lactis}  of  Lister).  In  this  change  the  milk 
  sugar,  before  assuming  the  form  of  lactic  acid,  presumably 
  passes  through  the  stage  of  glucose.  C12H22O11.H2O  = 
  4C3H6O3 
 
  Note:  Hydrated  milk  sugar.  Lactic  acid. 
 
  Note:  In  the  lactic  fermentation  of  dextrose  or  glucose,  the 
  lactic  acid  which  is  formed  is  very  prone  to  undergo 
  butyric  fermentation  after  the  manner  indicated  in  the 
  following  equation:  2C3H6O3  (lactic  acid)  =  C4H8O2 
  (butyric  acid)  +  2CO2  (carbonic  acid)  +  2H2  (hydrogen 
  gas). 
 
  {Putrefactive  fermentation}.  See  {Putrefaction}. 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Fermentation  \Fer`men*ta"tion\,  n.  [Cf.  F.  fermentation.] 
  1.  The  process  of  undergoing  an  effervescent  change,  as  by 
  the  action  of  yeast;  in  a  wider  sense  (Physiol.  Chem.), 
  the  transformation  of  an  organic  substance  into  new 
  compounds  by  the  action  of  a  ferment,  either  formed  or 
  unorganized.  It  differs  in  kind  according  to  the  nature  of 
  the  ferment  which  causes  it 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  fermentation 
  n  1:  a  state  of  agitation  or  turbulent  change  or  development: 
  "the  political  ferment  produced  a  new  leadership"; 
  "social  unrest"  [syn:  {agitation},  {ferment},  {unrest}] 
  2:  a  process  in  which  an  agent  causes  an  organic  substance  to 
  break  down  into  simpler  substances;  especially,  the 
  anaerobic  breakdown  of  sugar  into  alcohol  [syn:  {zymosis}, 
  {zymolysis},  {fermenting},  {ferment}] 
  3:  a  chemical  phenomenon  in  which  an  organic  molecule  splits 
  into  simpler  substances  [syn:  {ferment}] 




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