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germany

more about germany

germany


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Germany 
  n  :  a  republic  in  north-central  Europe  [syn:  {Germany},  {Deutschland}, 
  {Federal  Republic  of  Germany},  {FRG}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Germany 
 
  Germany:Geography 
 
  Location:  Central  Europe,  bordering  the  Baltic  Sea  and  the  North  Sea, 
  between  the  Netherlands  and  Poland,  south  of  Denmark 
 
  Map  references:  Europe 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  356,910  sq  km 
  land  area:  349,520  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  smaller  than  Montana 
  note:  includes  the  formerly  separate  Federal  Republic  of  Germany,  the 
  German  Democratic  Republic,  and  Berlin  following  formal  unification  on 
  3  October  1990 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  3,621  km  Austria  784  km  Belgium  167  km  Czech 
  Republic  646  km  Denmark  68  km  France  451  km  Luxembourg  138  km 
  Netherlands  577  km  Poland  456  km  Switzerland  334  km 
 
  Coastline:  2,389  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  continental  shelf:  200-m  depth  or  to  the  depth  of  exploitation 
  exclusive  economic  zone:  200  nm 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  none 
 
  Climate:  temperate  and  marine;  cool,  cloudy,  wet  winters  and  summers; 
  occasional  warm,  tropical  foehn  wind;  high  relative  humidity 
 
  Terrain:  lowlands  in  north,  uplands  in  center,  Bavarian  Alps  in  south 
 
  Natural  resources:  iron  ore,  coal,  potash,  timber,  lignite,  uranium, 
  copper,  natural  gas,  salt,  nickel 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  34% 
  permanent  crops:  1% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  16% 
  forest  and  woodland:  30% 
  other:  19% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  4,800  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  emissions  from  coal-burning  utilities  and  industries 
  and  lead  emissions  from  vehicle  exhausts  (the  result  of  continued  use 
  of  leaded  fuels)  contribute  to  air  pollution;  acid  rain,  resulting 
  from  sulfur  dioxide  emissions,  is  damaging  forests;  heavy  pollution  in 
  the  Baltic  Sea  from  raw  sewage  and  industrial  effluents  from  rivers  in 
  eastern  Germany 
  natural  hazards:  NA 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Air  Pollution,  Air 
  Pollution-Nitrogen  Oxides,  Air  Pollution-Sulphur  85,  Air 
  Pollution-Volatile  Organic  Compounds,  Antarctic-Environmental 
  Protocol,  Antarctic  Treaty,  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change,  Endangered 
  Species,  Environmental  Modification,  Law  of  the  Sea,  Marine  Dumping, 
  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship  Pollution,  Tropical 
  Timber  83,  Wetlands,  Whaling;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Air 
  Pollution-Sulphur  94,  Desertification  Hazardous  Wastes 
 
  Note:  strategic  location  on  North  European  Plain  and  along  the 
  entrance  to  the  Baltic  Sea 
 
  Germany:People 
 
  Population:  81,337,541  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  16%  (female  6,518,108;  male  6,857,577) 
  15-64  years:  68%  (female  27,167,824;  male  28,130,083) 
  65  years  and  over:  16%  (female  8,127,938;  male  4,536,011)  (July  1995 
  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  0.26%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  10.98  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  10.83  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  2.46  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  6.3  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  76.62  years 
  male:  73.5  years 
  female:  79.92  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  1.5  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  German(s) 
  adjective:  German 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  German  95.1%,  Turkish  2.3%,  Italians  0.7%,  Greeks 
  0.4%,  Poles  0.4%,  other  1.1%  (made  up  largely  of  people  fleeing  the 
  war  in  the  former  Yugoslavia) 
 
  Religions:  Protestant  45%,  Roman  Catholic  37%,  unaffiliated  or  other 
  18% 
 
  Languages:  German 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1991  est.) 
  total  population:  99% 
 
  Labor  force:  36.75  million 
  by  occupation:  industry  41%,  agriculture  6%,  other  53%  (1987) 
 
  Germany:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Federal  Republic  of  Germany 
  conventional  short  form:  Germany 
  local  long  form:  Bundesrepublik  Deutschland 
  local  short  form:  Deutschland 
 
  Digraph:  GM 
 
  Type:  federal  republic 
 
  Capital:  Berlin 
  note:  the  shift  from  Bonn  to  Berlin  will  take  place  over  a  period  of 
  years  with  Bonn  retaining  many  administrative  functions  and  several 
  ministries 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  16  states  (laender,  singular  -  land); 
  Baden-Wuerttemberg,  Bayern,  Berlin,  Brandenburg,  Bremen,  Hamburg, 
  Hessen,  Mecklenburg-Vorpommern,  Niedersachsen  Nordrhein-Westfalen, 
  Rheinland-Pfalz,  Saarland,  Sachsen,  Sachsen-Anhalt, 
  Schleswig-Holstein,  Thueringen 
 
  Independence:  18  January  1871  (German  Empire  unification);  divided 
  into  four  zones  of  occupation  (UK,  US  USSR,  and  later  France)  in 
  1945  following  World  War  II  Federal  Republic  of  Germany  (FRG  or  West 
  Germany)  proclaimed  23  May  1949  and  included  the  former  UK  US  and 
  French  zones;  German  Democratic  Republic  (GDR  or  East  Germany) 
  proclaimed  7  October  1949  and  included  the  former  USSR  zone; 
  unification  of  West  Germany  and  East  Germany  took  place  3  October 
  1990;  all  four  power  rights  formally  relinquished  15  March  1991 
 
  National  holiday:  German  Unity  Day  (Day  of  Unity),  3  October  (1990) 
 
  Constitution:  23  May  1949,  known  as  Basic  Law;  became  constitution  of 
  the  united  German  people  3  October  1990 
 
  Legal  system:  civil  law  system  with  indigenous  concepts;  judicial 
  review  of  legislative  acts  in  the  Federal  Constitutional  Court;  has 
  not  accepted  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Roman  HERZOG  (since  1  July  1994) 
  head  of  government:  Chancellor  Dr  Helmut  KOHL  (since  4  October  1982) 
  cabinet:  Cabinet;  appointed  by  the  president  upon  the  proposal  of  the 
  chancellor 
 
  Legislative  branch:  bicameral  chamber  (no  official  name  for  the  two 
  chambers  as  a  whole) 
  Federal  Assembly  (Bundestag):  last  held  16  October  1994  (next  to  be 
  held  by  NA  1998);  results  -  CDU  34.2%,  SPD  36.4%,  Alliance  90/Greens 
  7.3%,  CSU  7.3%,  FDP  6.9%,  PDS  4.4%,  Republicans  1.9%  ;  seats  -  (662 
  total,  but  number  can  vary)  CDU  244,  SPD  252,  Alliance  90/Greens  49, 
  CSU  50,  FDP  47,  PDS  30;  elected  by  direct  popular  vote  under  a  system 
  combining  direct  and  proportional  representation;  a  party  must  win  5% 
  of  the  national  vote  or  3  direct  mandates  to  gain  representation 
  Federal  Council  (Bundesrat):  State  governments  are  directly 
  represented  by  votes;  each  has  3  to  6  votes  depending  on  size  and  are 
  required  to  vote  as  a  block;  current  composition:  votes  -  (68  total) 
  SPD-led  states  37,  CDU-led  states  31 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Federal  Constitutional  Court 
  (Bundesverfassungsgericht) 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Christian  Democratic  Union  (CDU), 
  Helmut  KOHL,  chairman;  Christian  Social  Union  (CSU),  Theo  WAIGEL, 
  chairman;  Free  Democratic  Party  (FDP),  Klaus  KINKEL,  chairman;  Social 
  Democratic  Party  (SPD),  Rudolf  SCHARPING,  chairman;  Alliance 
  '90/Greens,  Krista  SAGER,  Juergen  TRITTIN  cochairpersons  Party  of 
  Democratic  Socialism  (PDS),  Lothar  BISKY,  chairman;  Republikaner  Rolf 
  SCHLIERER  chairman;  National  Democratic  Party  (NPD),  Guenter  DECKERT; 
  Communist  Party  (DKP),  Rolf  PRIEMER 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  expellee,  refugee,  and  veterans 
  groups 
 
  Member  of:  AfDB  AG  (observer),  AsDB  Australia  Group  BDEAC  BIS, 
  CBSS,  CCC,  CDB  (non-regional),  CE  CERN,  EBRD,  EC  ECE,  EIB,  ESA,  FAO, 
  G-  5,  G-  7,  G-10,  GATT,  IADB,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICC,  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA, 
  IEA,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INMARSAT  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL, 
  IOC,  IOM,  ISO,  ITU,  MINURSO  MTCR,  NACC,  NAM  (guest),  NATO,  NEA,  NSG, 
  OAS  (observer),  OECD  OSCE,  PCA,  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNHCR  UNIDO 
  UNITAR,  UNOMIG  UPU,  WEU,  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO,  ZC 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Juergen  CHROBOG 
  chancery:  4645  Reservoir  Road  NW  Washington,  DC  20007 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  298-4000 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  298-4249 
  consulate(s)  general:  Atlanta,  Boston,  Chicago,  Detroit,  Houston,  Los 
  Angeles,  Miami,  New  York,  San  Francisco,  Seattle 
  consulate(s):  Manila  (Trust  Territories  of  the  Pacific  Islands)  and 
  Wellington  (America  Samoa) 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Charles  E.  REDMAN 
  embassy:  Deichmanns  Aue  29,  53170  Bonn 
  mailing  address:  Unit  21701,  Bonn;  APO  AE  09080 
  telephone:  [49]  (228)  3391 
  FAX:  [49]  (228)  339-2663 
  branch  office:  Berlin 
  consulate(s)  general:  Frankfurt,  Hamburg,  Leipzig,  Munich,  and 
  Stuttgart 
 
  Flag:  three  equal  horizontal  bands  of  black  (top),  red,  and  yellow 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Five  years  after  the  fall  of  the  Berlin  Wall,  progress 
  towards  economic  integration  between  eastern  and  western  Germany  is 
  clearly  visible,  yet  the  eastern  region  almost  certainly  will  remain 
  dependent  on  subsidies  funded  by  western  Germany  until  well  into  the 
  next  century.  The  staggering  $390  billion  in  western  German  assistance 
  that  the  eastern  states  have  received  since  1990  -  40  times  the  amount 
  in  real  terms  of  US  Marshall  Fund  aid  sent  to  West  Germany  after  World 
  War  II  -  is  just  beginning  to  have  an  impact  on  the  eastern  German 
  standard  of  living,  which  plummeted  after  unification.  Assistance  to 
  the  east  continues  to  run  at  roughly  $100  billion  annually.  Although 
  the  growth  rate  in  the  east  was  much  greater  than  in  the  west  in 
  1993-94,  eastern  GDP  per  capita  nonetheless  remains  well  below 
  preunification  levels;  it  will  take  10-15  years  for  the  eastern  states 
  to  match  western  Germany's  living  standards.  The  economic  recovery  in 
  the  east  is  led  by  the  construction  industries  which  account  for 
  one-third  of  industrial  output,  with  growth  increasingly  supported  by 
  the  service  sectors  and  light  manufacturing  industries.  Eastern 
  Germany's  economy  is  changing  from  one  anchored  on  manufacturing  to  a 
  more  service-oriented  economy.  Western  Germany,  with  three  times  the 
  per  capita  output  of  the  eastern  states,  has  an  advanced  market 
  economy  and  is  a  world  leader  in  exports.  The  strong  recovery  in  1994 
  from  recession  began  in  the  export  sector  and  spread  to  the  investment 
  and  consumption  sectors  in  response  to  falling  interest  rates.  Western 
  Germany  has  a  highly  urbanized  and  skilled  population  that  enjoys 
  excellent  living  standards,  abundant  leisure  time,  and  comprehensive 
  social  welfare  benefits.  It  is  relatively  poor  in  natural  resources, 
  coal  being  the  most  important  mineral.  Western  Germany's  world-class 
  companies  manufacture  technologically  advanced  goods.  The  region's 
  economy  is  mature:  services  and  manufacturing  account  for  the  dominant 
  share  of  economic  activities,  and  raw  materials  and  semimanufactured 
  goods  constitute  a  large  portion  of  imports. 
 
  National  product: 
  Germany:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $1.3446  trillion  (1994  est.) 
  western:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $1.2363  trillion  (1994  est.) 
  eastern:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $108.3  billion  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate: 
  Germany:  2.9%  (1994  est.) 
  western:  2.3%  (1994  est.) 
  eastern:  9.2%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita: 
  Germany:  $16,580  (1994  est.) 
  western:  $19,660  (1994  est.) 
  eastern:  $5,950  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices): 
  western:  3%  (1994) 
  eastern:  3.2%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate: 
  western:  8.2%  (December  1994) 
  eastern:  13.5%  (December  1994) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $690  billion 
  expenditures:  $780  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $96.5 
  billion  (1994) 
 
  Exports:  $437  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994) 
  commodities:  manufactures  89.3%  (including  machines  and  machine  tools, 
  chemicals,  motor  vehicles,  iron  and  steel  products),  agricultural 
  products  5.5%,  raw  materials  2.7%,  fuels  1.3%  (1993) 
  partners:  EC  47.9%  (France  11.7%,  Netherlands  7.4%,  Italy  7.5%,  UK 
  7.7%,  Belgium-Luxembourg  6.6%),  EFTA  15.5%,  US  7.7%,  Eastern  Europe 
  5.2%,  OPEC  3.0%  (1993) 
 
  Imports:  $362  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994) 
  commodities:  manufactures  75.1%,  agricultural  products  10.0%,  fuels 
  8.3%,  raw  materials  5.0%  (1993) 
  partners:  EC  46.4%  (France  11.3%,  Netherlands  8.4%,  Italy  8.1%,  UK 
  6.0%,  Belgium-Luxembourg  5.7%),  EFTA  14.3%,  US  7.3%,  Japan  6.3%, 
  Eastern  Europe  5.1%,  OPEC  2.6%  (1993) 
 
  External  debt:  $NA 
 
  Industrial  production: 
  western:  growth  rate  2.8%  (1994) 
  eastern:  growth  rate  $NA 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  115,430,000  kW 
  production:  493  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  5,683  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries: 
  western:  among  world's  largest  and  technologically  advanced  producers 
  of  iron,  steel,  coal,  cement,  chemicals,  machinery,  vehicles,  machine 
  tools,  electronics;  food  and  beverages 
  eastern:  metal  fabrication,  chemicals,  brown  coal,  shipbuilding, 
  machine  building,  food  and  beverages,  textiles,  petroleum  refining 
 
  Agriculture: 
  western:  accounts  for  about  1%  of  GDP  (including  fishing  and 
  forestry);  diversified  crop  and  livestock  farming;  principal  crops  and 
  livestock  include  potatoes,  wheat,  barley,  sugar  beets,  fruit, 
  cabbage,  cattle,  pigs,  poultry;  net  importer  of  food 
  eastern:  accounts  for  about  10%  of  GDP  (including  fishing  and 
  forestry);  principal  crops  -  wheat,  rye,  barley,  potatoes,  sugar 
  beets,  fruit;  livestock  products  include  pork,  beef,  chicken,  milk, 
  hides  and  skins;  net  importer  of  food 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  source  of  precursor  chemicals  for  South  American 
  cocaine  processors;  transshipment  point  for  Southwest  Asian  heroin  and 
  Latin  American  cocaine  for  West  European  markets 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  western-donor:  ODA  and  OOF  commitments  (1970-89),  $75.5  billion 
  eastern-donor:  bilateral  to  non-Communist  less  developed  countries 
  (1956-89)  $4  billion 
 
  Currency:  1  deutsche  mark  DM  =  100  pfennige 
 
  Exchange  rates:  deutsche  marks  DM  per  US$1  -  1.5313  (January  1995), 
  1.6228  (1994),  1.6533  (1993),  1.5617  (1992),  1.6595  (1991),  1.6157 
  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Germany:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  43,457  km 
  standard  gauge:  43,190  km  (electrified  16,694  km) 
  narrow  gauge:  267  km  (1994) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  636,282  km 
  paved:  501,282  km  (10,955  km  of  autobahn) 
  unpaved:  135,000  km  (1991) 
 
  Inland  waterways: 
  western:  5,222  km  of  which  almost  70%  are  usable  by  craft  of 
  1,000-metric-ton  capacity  or  larger;  major  rivers  include  the  Rhine 
  and  Elbe;  Kiel  Canal  is  an  important  connection  between  the  Baltic  Sea 
  and  North  Sea 
  eastern:  2,319  km  (1988) 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  3,644  km  petroleum  products  3,946  km  natural 
  gas  97,564  km  (1988) 
 
  Ports:  Berlin,  Bonn,  Brake,  Bremen,  Bremerhaven  Cologne,  Dresden, 
  Duisburg  Emden,  Hamburg,  Karlsruhe,  Kiel,  Lubeck,  Magdeburg, 
  Mannheim,  Rostock,  Stuttgart 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  481  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  5,065,074  GRT/6,409,198 
  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  barge  carrier  6,  bulk  8,  cargo  224,  chemical  tanker  16, 
  combination  bulk  4,  combination  ore/oil  5,  container  158,  liquefied 
  gas  tanker  13,  oil  tanker  10,  passenger  3,  railcar  carrier  4, 
  refrigerated  cargo  7,  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  18,  short-sea  passenger  5 
 
  note:  the  German  register  includes  ships  of  the  former  East  and  West 
  Germany 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  660 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  13 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  64 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  68 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  53 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  381 
  with  unpaved  runways  over  3,047  m:  2 
  with  unpaved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  8 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  9 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  62 
 
  Germany:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system: 
  western:  40,300,000  telephones;  highly  developed,  modern 
  telecommunication  service  to  all  parts  of  the  country;  fully  adequate 
  in  all  respects;  intensively  developed,  highly  redundant  cable  and 
  microwave  radio  relay  networks,  all  completely  automatic 
  local:  very  modern 
  intercity:  domestic  satellite,  microwave  radio  relay,  and  cable 
  systems 
  international:  12  INTELSAT  (Atlantic  Ocean),  2  INTELSAT  (Indian 
  Ocean),  and  1  EUTELSAT  earth  station;  2  HF  radiocommunication  centers; 
  tropospheric  scatter  links 
  eastern:  3,970,000  telephones;  badly  needs  modernization 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  NA 
  international:  1  INTELSAT  earth  station  and  1  Intersputnik  system 
 
  Radio: 
  western:  NA 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  80,  FM  470,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
  eastern:  NA 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  23,  FM  17,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  67  million 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  246  (repeaters  6,000);  note  -  there  are  15  Russian 
  repeaters  in  eastern  Germany 
  televisions:  25  million  in  western  Germany,  6  million  in  eastern 
  Germany 
 
  Germany:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army,  Navy  (includes  Naval  Air  Arm),  Air  Force,  Border 
  Police,  Coast  Guard 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  15-49  20,274,127;  males  fit  for  military 
  service  17,472,940;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually  428,082 
  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $40  billion,  1.8%  of 
  GNP  (1995) 
 
 
 




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