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ghana

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ghana


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Ghana 
  n  :  a  republic  in  West  Africa  on  the  Gulf  of  Guinea;  "Ghana  was 
  colonized  as  the  Gold  Coast  by  the  British"  [syn:  {Ghana}, 
  {Gold  Coast}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Ghana 
 
  Ghana:Geography 
 
  Location:  Western  Africa,  bordering  the  North  Atlantic  Ocean,  between 
  Cote  d'Ivoire  and  Togo 
 
  Map  references:  Africa 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  238,540  sq  km 
  land  area:  230,020  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  smaller  than  Oregon 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  2,093  km  Burkina  548  km  Cote  d'Ivoire  668  km 
  Togo  877  km 
 
  Coastline:  539  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  contiguous  zone:  24  nm 
  continental  shelf:  200  nm 
  exclusive  economic  zone:  200  nm 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  none 
 
  Climate:  tropical;  warm  and  comparatively  dry  along  southeast  coast; 
  hot  and  humid  in  southwest;  hot  and  dry  in  north 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  low  plains  with  dissected  plateau  in  south-central 
  area 
 
  Natural  resources:  gold,  timber,  industrial  diamonds,  bauxite, 
  manganese,  fish,  rubber 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  5% 
  permanent  crops:  7% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  15% 
  forest  and  woodland:  37% 
  other:  36% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  80  sq  km  (1989) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  recent  drought  in  north  severely  affecting 
  agricultural  activities;  deforestation;  overgrazing  soil  erosion; 
  poaching  and  habitat  destruction  threatens  wildlife  populations;  water 
  pollution;  inadequate  supplies  of  potable  water 
  natural  hazards:  dry,  dusty,  harmattan  winds  occur  from  January  to 
  March;  droughts 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Biodiversity,  Endangered  Species, 
  Environmental  Modification,  Law  of  the  Sea,  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone 
  Layer  Protection,  Ship  Pollution,  Tropical  Timber  83,  Wetlands; 
  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Climate  Change,  Desertification  Marine 
  Life  Conservation 
 
  Note:  Lake  Volta  is  the  world's  largest  artificial  lake;  northeasterly 
  harmattan  wind  (January  to  March) 
 
  Ghana:People 
 
  Population:  17,763,138  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  46%  (female  4,030,154;  male  4,069,945) 
  15-64  years:  51%  (female  4,638,451;  male  4,494,533) 
  65  years  and  over:  3%  (female  276,186;  male  253,869)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  3.06%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  43.57  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  12.02  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  -0.94  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  81.7  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  55.85  years 
  male:  53.88  years 
  female:  57.88  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  6.09  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Ghanaian(s) 
  adjective:  Ghanaian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  black  African  99.8%  (major  tribes  -  Akan  44%, 
  Moshi-Dagomba  16%,  Ewe  13%,  Ga  8%),  European  and  other  0.2% 
 
  Religions:  indigenous  beliefs  38%,  Muslim  30%,  Christian  24%,  other  8% 
 
  Languages:  English  (official),  African  languages  (including  Akan, 
  Moshi-Dagomba,  Ewe,  and  Ga) 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1990  est.) 
  total  population:  60% 
  male:  70% 
  female:  51% 
 
  Labor  force:  3.7  million 
  by  occupation:  agriculture  and  fishing  54.7%,  industry  18.7%,  sales 
  and  clerical  15.2%,  services,  transportation,  and  communications  7.7%, 
  professional  3.7% 
 
  Ghana:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Ghana 
  conventional  short  form:  Ghana 
  former:  Gold  Coast 
 
  Digraph:  GH 
 
  Type:  constitutional  democracy 
 
  Capital:  Accra 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  10  regions;  Ashanti  Brong-Ahafo,  Central, 
  Eastern,  Greater  Accra,  Northern,  Upper  East,  Upper  West,  Volta, 
  Western 
 
  Independence:  6  March  1957  (from  UK) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  6  March  (1957) 
 
  Constitution:  new  constitution  approved  28  April  1992 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  English  common  law  and  customary  law;  has  not 
  accepted  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state  and  head  of  government:  President  Jerry  John  RAWLINGS 
  (since  3  November  1992)  election  last  held  3  November  1992  (next  to  be 
  held  November  1996);  results  -  opposition  boycotted  the  election,  the 
  National  Democratic  Congress  won  198  of  the  total  200  seats  and  2 
  seats  were  won  by  independents 
  cabinet:  Cabinet;  president  nominates  members  subject  to  approval  by 
  the  Parliament 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  National  Assembly:  elections  last  held  29  December  1992  (next  to  be 
  held  December  1996);  results  -  opposition  boycotted  the  election;  the 
  National  Democratic  Congress  won  198  0f  200  total  seats  and 
  independents  won  2 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  National  Democratic  Congress,  Jerry 
  John  RAWLINGS;  New  Patriotic  Party,  Albert  Adu  BOAHEN  People's 
  Heritage  Party,  Alex  ERSKINE;  various  other  smaller  parties 
 
  Member  of:  ACP,  AfDB  C,  CCC,  ECA,  ECOWAS  FAO,  G-24,  G-77,  GATT, 
  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO, 
  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  IOM  (observer),  ITU,  MINURSO  NAM,  OAU,  UN 
  UNAMIR  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNIDO  UNIFIL,  UNIKOM  UNPROFOR  UNU,  UPU, 
  WCL,  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Ekwow  SPIO-GARBRAH 
  chancery:  3512  International  Drive  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  686-4520 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  686-4527 
  consulate(s)  general:  New  York 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Kenneth  L.  BROWN  (scheduled  to  leave  in 
  June  1995) 
  embassy:  Ring  Road  East,  East  of  Danquah  Circle,  Accra 
  mailing  address:  P.  O.  Box  194,  Accra 
  telephone:  [233]  (21)  775348,  775349,  775297,  775298 
  FAX:  [233]  (21)  776008 
 
  Flag:  three  equal  horizontal  bands  of  red  (top),  yellow,  and  green 
  with  a  large  black  five-pointed  star  centered  in  the  gold  band;  uses 
  the  popular  pan-African  colors  of  Ethiopia;  similar  to  the  flag  of 
  Bolivia,  which  has  a  coat  of  arms  centered  in  the  yellow  band 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Well  endowed  with  natural  resources,  Ghana  is  relatively 
  well  off  having  twice  the  per  capita  output  of  the  poorer  countries 
  in  West  Africa.  Heavily  reliant  on  international  assistance,  Ghana  has 
  made  steady  progress  in  liberalizing  its  economy  since  1983.  Overall 
  growth  continued  at  a  rate  of  approximately  5%  in  1994,  due  largely  to 
  increased  gold,  timber,  and  cocoa  production  -  major  sources  of 
  foreign  exchange.  The  economy,  however,  continues  to  revolve  around 
  subsistence  agriculture,  which  accounts  for  45%  of  GDP  and  employs  55% 
  of  the  work  force,  mainly  small  landholders.  Public  sector  wage 
  increases,  regional  peacekeeping  commitments,  and  the  containment  of 
  internal  unrest  in  the  underdeveloped  north  have  placed  substantial 
  demands  on  the  government's  budget  and  have  led  to  inflationary 
  deficit  financing  and  a  27%  depreciation  of  the  cedi  in  1994. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $22.6  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  5%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $1,310  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  25%  (1993  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  10%  (1991) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $1.05  billion 
  expenditures:  $1.2  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $178 
  million  (1993) 
 
  Exports:  $1  billion  (f.o.b.,  1993  est.) 
  commodities:  cocoa  40%,  gold,  timber,  tuna,  bauxite,  and  aluminum 
  partners:  Germany  31%,  US  12%,  UK  11%,  Netherlands  6%,  Japan  5%  (1991) 
 
  Imports:  $1.7  billion  (c.i.f.,  1993  est.) 
  commodities:  petroleum  16%,  consumer  goods,  foods,  intermediate  goods, 
  capital  equipment 
  partners:  UK  22%,  US  11%,  Germany  9%,  Japan  6% 
 
  External  debt:  $4.6  billion  (December  1993  est.) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  3.4%  in  manufacturing  (1993); 
  accounts  for  almost  15%  of  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  1,180,000  kW 
  production:  6.1  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  323  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  mining,  lumbering,  light  manufacturing,  aluminum,  food 
  processing 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  almost  50%  of  GDP  (including  fishing  and 
  forestry);  the  major  cash  crop  is  cocoa;  other  principal  crops  -  rice, 
  coffee,  cassava,  peanuts,  corn,  shea  nuts,  timber;  normally 
  self-sufficient  in  food 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  illicit  producer  of  cannabis  for  the  international  drug 
  trade  transit  hub  for  Southwest  and  Southeast  Asian  heroin  destined 
  for  Europe  and  the  US 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-89),  $455  million; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-89),  $2.6  billion;  OPEC  bilateral  aid  (1979-89),  $78  million; 
  Communist  countries  (1970-89)  $106  million 
 
  Currency:  1  new  cedi  C  =  100  pesewas 
 
  Exchange  rates:  new  cedis  per  US$1  -  1,046.74  (December  1994),  936.71 
  (1994),  649.06  (1993),  437.09  (1992),  367.83  (1991),  326.33  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Ghana:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  953  km  note  -  undergoing  major  renovation 
  narrow  gauge:  953  km  1.067-m  gauge  (32  km  double  track) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  32,250  km 
  paved:  concrete,  bituminous  6,084  km 
  unpaved:  gravel,  crushed  stone,  improved  earth  26,166  km 
 
  Inland  waterways:  Volta,  Ankobra  and  Tano  Rivers  provide  168  km  of 
  perennial  navigation  for  launches  and  lighters;  Lake  Volta  provides 
  1,125  km  of  arterial  and  feeder  waterways 
 
  Pipelines:  none 
 
  Ports:  Takoradi  Tema 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  3  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  27,427  GRT/35,894  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  cargo  2,  refrigerated  cargo  1 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  12 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  3 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  1 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  2 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  2 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  2 
 
  Ghana:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  42,300  telephones;  poor  to  fair  system;  telephone 
  density  -  2.4/1,000  persons 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  primarily  microwave  radio  relay 
  international:  1  Atlantic  Ocean  INTELSAT  earth  station 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  4,  FM  1,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  4  (translators  8) 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Ghana:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army,  Navy,  Air  Force,  Police  Force,  Palace  Guard,  Civil 
  Defense 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  3,975,767;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  2,217,032;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually 
  170,723  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $108  million,  1.5%  of 
  GDP  (1993) 
 
 
 




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