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haiti

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haiti


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Haiti 
  n  1:  a  republic  in  the  West  Indies  on  the  island  of  Hispaniola; 
  the  poorest  nation  in  the  Western  Hemisphere  [syn:  {Haiti}] 
  2:  an  island  in  the  West  Indies  [syn:  {Hispaniola},  {Haiti},  {Hayti}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Haiti 
 
  Haiti:Geography 
 
  Location:  Caribbean,  western  one-third  of  the  island  of  Hispaniola, 
  between  the  Caribbean  Sea  and  the  North  Atlantic  Ocean,  west  of  the 
  Dominican  Republic 
 
  Map  references:  Central  America  and  the  Caribbean 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  27,750  sq  km 
  land  area:  27,560  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  larger  than  Maryland 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  275  km  Dominican  Republic  275  km 
 
  Coastline:  1,771  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  contiguous  zone:  24  nm 
  continental  shelf:  to  depth  of  exploitation 
  exclusive  economic  zone:  200  nm 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  claims  US-administered  Navassa  Island 
 
  Climate:  tropical;  semiarid  where  mountains  in  east  cut  off  trade 
  winds 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  rough  and  mountainous 
 
  Natural  resources:  bauxite 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  20% 
  permanent  crops:  13% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  18% 
  forest  and  woodland:  4% 
  other:  45% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  750  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  extensive  deforestation  (much  of  the  remaining 
  forested  land  is  being  cleared  for  agriculture  and  use  as  fuel);  soil 
  erosion;  inadequate  supplies  of  potable  water 
  natural  hazards:  lies  in  the  middle  of  the  hurricane  belt  and  subject 
  to  severe  storms  from  June  to  October;  occasional  flooding  and 
  earthquakes;  periodic  droughts 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Marine  Dumping,  Marine  Life 
  Conservation;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change, 
  Desertification  Hazardous  Wastes,  Law  of  the  Sea,  Nuclear  Test  Ban 
 
  Note:  shares  island  of  Hispaniola  with  Dominican  Republic  (western 
  one-third  is  Haiti,  eastern  two-thirds  is  the  Dominican  Republic) 
 
  Haiti:People 
 
  Population:  6,539,983  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  46%  (female  1,490,939;  male  1,535,607) 
  15-64  years:  50%  (female  1,692,032;  male  1,557,568) 
  65  years  and  over:  4%  (female  133,291;  male  130,546)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  1.5%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  38.64  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  18.65  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  -4.99  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  107.5  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  44.77  years 
  male:  43.04  years 
  female:  46.59  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  5.82  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Haitian(s) 
  adjective:  Haitian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  black  95%,  mulatto  and  European  5% 
 
  Religions:  Roman  Catholic  80%  (of  which  an  overwhelming  majority  also 
  practice  Voodoo),  Protestant  16%  (Baptist  10%,  Pentecostal  4%, 
  Adventist  1%,  other  1%),  none  1%,  other  3%  (1982) 
 
  Languages:  French  (official)  10%,  Creole 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1982) 
  total  population:  35% 
  male:  37% 
  female:  32% 
 
  Labor  force:  2.3  million 
  by  occupation:  agriculture  66%,  services  25%,  industry  9% 
  note:  shortage  of  skilled  labor,  unskilled  labor  abundant  (1982) 
 
  Haiti:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Haiti 
  conventional  short  form:  Haiti 
  local  long  form:  Republique  d'Haiti 
  local  short  form:  Haiti 
 
  Digraph:  HA 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  Port-au-Prince 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  9  departments,  (departements,  singular  - 
  departement);  Artibonite  Centre,  Grand'Anse,  Nord,  Nord-Est, 
  Nord-Ouest,  Ouest,  Sud,  Sud-Est 
 
  Independence:  1  January  1804  (from  France) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  1  January  (1804) 
 
  Constitution:  approved  March  1987,  suspended  June  1988,  most  articles 
  reinstated  March  1989;  October  1991,  government  claims  to  be  observing 
  the  Constitution 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  Roman  civil  law  system;  accepts  compulsory  ICJ 
  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Jean-Bertrand  ARISTIDE  (since  7  February 
  1991),  ousted  in  a  coup  in  September  1991  but  with  US  military 
  support,  returned  to  power  on  15  October  1994;  election  last  held  16 
  December  1990  (next  to  be  held  by  December  1995);  results  -  Rev. 
  Jean-Bertrand  ARISTIDE  67.5%,  Marc  BAZIN  14.2%,  Louis  DEJOIE  4.9% 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Smarck  MICHEL  (since  October  1994) 
  cabinet:  Cabinet;  chosen  by  prime  minister  in  consultation  with  the 
  president 
 
  Legislative  branch:  bicameral  National  Assembly  (Assemblee  Nationale) 
  Senate:  elections  last  held  18  January  1993,  widely  condemned  as 
  illegitimate  (next  to  be  held  25  June  1994);  results  -  percent  of  vote 
  by  party  NA  seats  -  (27  total)  FNCD  12,  MIDH-PANPRA  8,  PAIN  2,  MRN  1, 
  RDNP  1,  PNT  1,  independent  2 
  Chamber  of  Deputies:  elections  last  held  16  December  1990,  with  runoff 
  held  20  January  1991  (next  to  be  held  25  June  1995);  results  -  percent 
  of  vote  by  party  NA  seats  -  (83  total)  FNCD  27,  MIDH-PANPRA  17,  PDCH 
  7,  PAIN  6,  RDNP  6,  MDN  5,  PNT  3,  MKN  2,  MODELH  2,  MRN  1,  independents 
  5,  other  2 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Court  of  Appeal  (Cour  de  Cassation) 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  National  Front  for  Change  and  Democracy 
  (FNCD),  Evans  PAUL,  including  National  Cooperative  Action  Movement 
  (MKN),  Volvick  Remy  JOSEPH;  National  Congress  of  Democratic  Movements 
  (CONACOM),  Victor  BENOIT;  Movement  for  the  Installation  of  Democracy 
  in  Haiti  (MIDH),  Marc  BAZIN;  National  Progressive  Revolutionary  Party 
  (PANPRA),  Serge  GILLES;  National  Patriotic  Movement  of  November  28 
  (MNP-28),  Dejean  BELIZAIRE  National  Agricultural  and  Industrial  Party 
  (PAIN),  Louis  DEJOIE  Movement  for  National  Reconstruction  (MRN),  Rene 
  THEODORE;  Haitian  Christian  Democratic  Party  (PDCH),  Joseph  DOUZE; 
  Assembly  of  Progressive  National  Democrats  (RDNP),  Leslie  MANIGAT 
  National  Party  of  Labor  (PNT),  Thomas  DESULME;  Mobilization  for 
  National  Development  (MDN),  Hubert  DE  RONCERAY  Democratic  Movement 
  for  the  Liberation  of  Haiti  (MODELH),  Francois  LATORTUE  Haitian 
  Social  Christian  Party  (PSCH),  Gregoire  EUGENE;  Movement  for  the 
  Organization  of  the  Country  (MOP),  Gesner  COMEAU  and  Jean  MOLIERE; 
  Democratic  Unity  Confederation  (KID),  Evans  PAUL;  National  Lavalas 
  Political  Organization  (OPL),  Gerard  PIERRE/CHARLES 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  Roman  Catholic  Church; 
  Confederation  of  Haitian  Workers  (CTH);  Federation  of  Workers  Trade 
  Unions  (FOS);  Autonomous  Haitian  Workers  (CATH);  National  Popular 
  Assembly  (APN);  Revolutionary  Front  for  Haitian  Advancement  and 
  Progress  (FRAPH) 
 
  Member  of:  ACCT,  ACP,  CARICOM  (observer),  CCC,  ECLAC  FAO,  G-77,  GATT, 
  IADB,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICRM,  IDA,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO, 
  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  ITU,  LAES,  OAS,  OPANAL  PCA,  UN  UNCTAD 
  UNESCO,  UNIDO  UPU,  WCL,  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Jean  CASIMIR 
  chancery:  2311  Massachusetts  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  332-4090  through  4092 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  745-7215 
  consulate(s)  general:  Boston,  Chicago,  Miami,  New  York,  and  San  Juan 
  (Puerto  Rico) 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  William  Lacy  SWING 
  embassy:  Harry  Truman  Boulevard,  Port-au-Prince 
  mailing  address:  P.  O.  Box  1761,  Port-au-Prince 
  telephone:  [509]  22-0354,  22-0368,  22-0200,  22-0612 
  FAX:  [509]  23-1641 
 
  Flag:  two  equal  horizontal  bands  of  blue  top  and  red  with  a  centered 
  white  rectangle  bearing  the  coat  of  arms,  which  contains  a  palm  tree 
  flanked  by  flags  and  two  cannons  above  a  scroll  bearing  the  motto 
  L'UNION  FAIT  LA  FORCE  (Union  Makes  Strength) 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  About  75%  of  the  population  live  in  abject  poverty. 
  Agriculture  is  mainly  small-scale  subsistence  farming  and  employs 
  two-thirds  of  the  work  force.  The  majority  of  the  population  does  not 
  have  ready  access  to  safe  drinking  water,  adequate  medical  care  or 
  sufficient  food.  The  lack  of  employment  opportunities  remains  one  of 
  the  most  critical  problems  facing  the  economy,  along  with  soil  erosion 
  and  political  instability.  International  trade  sanctions  in  response 
  to  the  September  1991  coup  against  President  ARISTIDE  further  damaged 
  the  economy.  The  restoration  of  President  ARISTIDE  the  lifting  of 
  sanctions  in  late  1994,  and  foreign  aid  will  alleviate  some  economic 
  problems.  Haiti  will  continue  to  depend  heavily  on  foreign  aid. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $5.6  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  -15%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $870  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  52%  (FY93/94  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  50%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $56  million 
  expenditures:  $131  million,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $6 
  million  (1994  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $173.3  million  (f.o.b.,  1993  est.) 
  commodities:  light  manufactures  65%,  coffee  19%,  other  agriculture  8%, 
  other  8% 
  partners:  US  81%,  Europe  12%  (1993) 
 
  Imports:  $476.8  million  (f.o.b.,  1993  est.) 
  commodities:  machines  and  manufactures  34%,  food  and  beverages  22%, 
  petroleum  products  14%,  chemicals  10%,  fats  and  oils  9% 
  partners:  US  51%,  Europe  16%,  Latin  America  18%  (1993) 
 
  External  debt:  $871  million  (September  1994) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  -2%  (1991  est.);  accounts  for  15% 
  of  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  150,000  kW 
  production:  590  million  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  86  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  sugar  refining,  textiles,  flour  milling,  cement 
  manufacturing,  tourism,  light  assembly  industries  based  on  imported 
  parts 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  28%  of  GDP  and  employs  two-thirds  of  work 
  force;  mostly  small-scale  subsistence  farms;  commercial  crops  - 
  coffee,  mangoes,  sugarcane,  wood;  staple  crops  -  rice,  corn,  sorghum; 
  shortage  of  wheat  flour 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  transshipment  point  for  cocaine  and  marijuana  en  route 
  to  the  US  and  Europe 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (1970-89),  $700  million; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-89),  $770  million 
 
  Currency:  1  gourde  G  =  100  centimes 
 
  Exchange  rates:  gourdes  G  per  US$1  -  14.10  (1  December  1994),  12.00 
  (1  July  1993),  8.4  (December  1991),  fixed  rate  of  5.000  through  second 
  quarter  of  1991 
 
  Fiscal  year:  1  October  -  30  September 
 
  Haiti:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  40  km  (single  track;  privately  owned  industrial  line) 
  narrow  gauge:  40  km  0.760-m  gauge 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  4,000  km 
  paved:  950  km 
  unpaved:  otherwise  improved  900  km  unimproved  earth  2,150  km 
 
  Inland  waterways:  negligible;  less  than  100  km  navigable 
 
  Ports:  Cap-Haitien,  Gonaives  Jacmel  Jeremie  Cayes,  Miragoane 
  Port-au-Prince,  Port-de-Paix,  Saint-Marc 
 
  Merchant  marine:  none 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  14 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  1 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  6 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  5 
 
  Haiti:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  36,000  telephones;  domestic  facilities  barely 
  adequate,  international  facilities  slightly  better 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  NA 
  international:  1  INTELSAT  (Atlantic  Ocean)  earth  station 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  33,  FM  0,  shortwave  2 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  4 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Haiti:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army,  Navy,  Air  Force,  Police 
  note:  the  regular  Haitian  Army,  Navy  and  Air  Force  are  currently 
  suspended  and  replaced  by  the  Interim  Public  Security  Force  (IPSF) 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  1,323,034;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  716,233;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually 
  64,371  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $34  million,  1.5%  of 
  GDP  (1988  est.) 
 
 
 




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