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iceland


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Iceland 
  n  1:  an  island  republic  on  the  island  of  Iceland;  became 
  independent  of  Denmark  in  1944  [syn:  {Iceland}] 
  2:  an  island  in  the  North  Atlantic  [syn:  {Iceland}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Iceland 
 
  Iceland:Geography 
 
  Location:  Northern  Europe,  island  between  the  Greenland  Sea  and  the 
  North  Atlantic  Ocean,  northwest  of  the  UK 
 
  Map  references:  Arctic  Region 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  103,000  sq  km 
  land  area:  100,250  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  smaller  than  Kentucky 
 
  Land  boundaries:  0  km 
 
  Coastline:  4,988  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  continental  shelf:  200  nm  or  to  the  edge  of  the  continental  margin 
  exclusive  economic  zone:  200  nm 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  Rockall  continental  shelf  dispute  involving 
  Denmark,  Ireland,  and  the  UK  (Ireland  and  the  UK  have  signed  a 
  boundary  agreement  in  the  Rockall  area) 
 
  Climate:  temperate;  moderated  by  North  Atlantic  Current;  mild,  windy 
  winters;  damp,  cool  summers 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  plateau  interspersed  with  mountain  peaks,  icefields 
  coast  deeply  indented  by  bays  and  fiords 
 
  Natural  resources:  fish,  hydropower  geothermal  power,  diatomite 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  1% 
  permanent  crops:  0% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  20% 
  forest  and  woodland:  1% 
  other:  78% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  NA  sq  km 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  water  pollution  from  fertilizer  runoff;  inadequate 
  wastewater  treatment 
  natural  hazards:  earthquakes  and  volcanic  activity 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Air  Pollution,  Biodiversity, 
  Climate  Change,  Law  of  the  Sea,  Marine  Dumping,  Nuclear  Test  Ban, 
  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship  Pollution,  Wetlands;  signed,  but  not 
  ratified  -  Environmental  Modification,  Marine  Life  Conservation 
 
  Note:  strategic  location  between  Greenland  and  Europe;  westernmost 
  European  country;  more  land  covered  by  glaciers  than  in  all  of 
  continental  Europe 
 
  Iceland:People 
 
  Population:  265,998  (July  1995  est.) 
  note:  population  data  estimates  based  on  average  growth  rate  may 
  differ  slightly  from  official  population  data  because  of  volatile 
  migration  rates 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  24%  (female  31,482;  male  32,912) 
  15-64  years:  65%  (female  84,559;  male  87,089) 
  65  years  and  over:  11%  (female  16,554;  male  13,402)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  0.92%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  15.85  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  6.7  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  4  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  78.98  years 
  male:  76.69  years 
  female:  81.39  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  2.06  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Icelander(s) 
  adjective:  Icelandic 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  homogeneous  mixture  of  descendants  of  Norwegians  and 
  Celts 
 
  Religions:  Evangelical  Lutheran  96%,  other  Protestant  and  Roman 
  Catholic  3%,  none  1%  (1988) 
 
  Languages:  Icelandic 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1976  est.) 
  total  population:  100% 
 
  Labor  force:  127,900 
  by  occupation:  commerce,  transportation,  and  services  60.0%, 
  manufacturing  12.5%,  fishing  and  fish  processing  11.8%,  construction 
  10.8%,  agriculture  4.0%  (1990) 
 
  Iceland:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Iceland 
  conventional  short  form:  Iceland 
  local  long  form:  Lyoveldio  Island 
  local  short  form:  Island 
 
  Digraph:  IC 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  Reykjavik 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  23  counties  (syslar,  singular  -  sysla)  and 
  14  independent  towns*  (kaupstadhir,  singular  -  kaupstadhur);  Akranes*, 
  Akureyri*,  Arnessysla  Austur-Bardhastrandarsysla, 
  Austur-Hunavatnssysla,  Austur-Skaftafellssysla,  Borgarfjardharsysla, 
  Dalasysla  Eyjafjardharsysla  Gullbringusysla  Hafnarfjordhur*, 
  Husavik*,  Isafjordhur*,  Keflavik*,  Kjosarsysla  Kopavogur*,  Myrasysla 
  Neskaupstadhur*,  Nordhur-Isafjardharsysla,  Nordhur-Mulasys-la, 
  Nordhur-Thingeyjarsysla,  Olafsfjordhur*,  Rangarvallasysla  Reykjavik*, 
  Saudharkrokur*,  Seydhisfjordhur*,  Siglufjordhur*,  Skagafjardharsysla 
  Snaefellsnes-og  Hnappadalssysla  Strandasysla  Sudhur-Mulasysla, 
  Sudhur-Thingeyjarsysla,  Vesttmannaeyjar*,  Vestur-Bardhastrandarsysla, 
  Vestur-Hunavatnssysla,  Vestur-Isafjardharsysla, 
  Vestur-Skaftafellssysla 
 
  Independence:  17  June  1944  (from  Denmark) 
 
  National  holiday:  Anniversary  of  the  Establishment  of  the  Republic,  17 
  June  (1944) 
 
  Constitution:  16  June  1944,  effective  17  June  1944 
 
  Legal  system:  civil  law  system  based  on  Danish  law;  does  not  accept 
  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Vigdis  FINNBOGADOTTIR  (since  1  August  1980); 
  election  last  held  on  29  June  1988  (next  scheduled  for  June  1996); 
  results  -  there  was  no  election  in  1992  as  President  Vigdis 
  FINNBOGADOTTIR  was  unopposed 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  David  ODDSSON  (since  30  April  1991) 
 
  cabinet:  Cabinet;  appointed  by  the  president 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  Parliament  (Althing):  elections  last  held  on  8  April  1995  (next  to  be 
  held  by  April  1999);  results  -  Independence  Party  37.1%,  Progressive 
  Party  23.3%,  Social  Democratic  Party  11.4%,  Socialists  14.3%,  People's 
  Movement  7.2%,  Women's  Party  4.9%;  seats  -  (63  total)  Independence  25, 
  Progressive  15,  Social  Democratic  7,  Socialists  9,  People's  Movement 
  4,  Women's  Party  3 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court  Haestirettur 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Independence  Party  (conservative), 
  David  ODDSSON;  Progressive  Party,  Halldor  ASGRIMSSON  Social 
  Democratic  Party,  Jon  Baldvin  HANNIBALSSON  People's  Alliance  (left 
  socialist),  Olafur  Ragnar  GRIMSSON  Women's  Party;  People's  Movement 
  (moderate  left);  National  Awakening,  Johanna  SIGURDARDOTTIR 
 
  Member  of:  Australia  Group  BIS,  CCC,  CE  EBRD,  ECE,  EFTA,  FAO,  GATT, 
  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICC,  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO, 
  INMARSAT  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  ISO,  ITU,  MTCR,  NACC,  NATO,  NC 
  NEA,  NIB,  OECD  OSCE,  PCA,  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNU,  UPU,  WEU 
  (associate),  WHO  WIPO,  WMO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Einar  BENEDIKTSSON 
  chancery:  Suite  1200,  1156  15th  Street  NW  Washington,  DC  20005 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  265-6653  through  6655 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  265-6656 
  consulate(s)  general:  New  York 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Parker  W.  BORG 
  embassy:  Laufasvegur  21,  Box  40,  Reykjavik 
  mailing  address:  US  Embassy,  PSC  1003,  Box  40,  Reykjavik;  FPO  AE 
  09728-0340 
  telephone:  [354]  (1)  629100 
  FAX:  [354]  (1)  629139 
 
  Flag:  blue  with  a  red  cross  outlined  in  white  that  extends  to  the 
  edges  of  the  flag;  the  vertical  part  of  the  cross  is  shifted  to  the 
  hoist  side  in  the  style  of  the  Dannebrog  (Danish  flag) 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Iceland's  Scandinavian-type  economy  is  basically 
  capitalistic,  but  with  an  extensive  welfare  system,  relatively  low 
  unemployment,  and  comparatively  even  distribution  of  income.  The 
  economy  is  heavily  dependent  on  the  fishing  industry,  which  provides 
  nearly  75%  of  export  earnings  and  employs  12%  of  the  work  force.  In 
  the  absence  of  other  natural  resources  -  except  energy  -  Iceland's 
  economy  is  vulnerable  to  changing  world  fish  prices.  The  economy,  in 
  recession  since  1988,  began  to  recover  in  1993,  posting  0.4%  growth, 
  but  was  still  hampered  by  cutbacks  in  fish  quotas  as  well  as  falling 
  world  prices  for  its  main  exports:  fish  and  fish  products,  aluminum, 
  and  ferrosilicon  Real  GDP  grew  by  perhaps  2.4%  in  1994.  The 
  center-right  government  plans  to  continue  its  policies  of  reducing  the 
  budget  and  current  account  deficits,  limiting  foreign  borrowing, 
  containing  inflation,  revising  agricultural  and  fishing  policies, 
  diversifying  the  economy,  and  privatizing  state-owned  industries.  The 
  government,  however,  remains  divided  on  the  issue  of  EU  membership, 
  primarily  because  of  Icelanders'  concern  about  losing  control  over 
  their  fishing  resources. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $4.5  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  2.4%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $17,250  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  1.3%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  7%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $1.9  billion 
  expenditures:  $2.1  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA 
  (1994  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $1.4  billion  (f.o.b.,  1993) 
  commodities:  fish  and  fish  products,  animal  products,  aluminum, 
  ferrosilicon  diatomite 
  partners:  EC  68%  (UK  25%,  Germany  12%),  US  11%,  Japan  8%  (1992) 
 
  Imports:  $1.3  billion  (c.i.f.,  1993) 
  commodities:  machinery  and  transportation  equipment,  petroleum 
  products,  foodstuffs,  textiles 
  partners:  EC  53%  (Germany  14%,  Denmark  10%,  UK  9%),  Norway  14%,  US  9% 
  (1992) 
 
  External  debt:  $2.5  billion  (1993  est.) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  1.75%  (1991  est.) 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  1,070,000  kW 
  production:  4.7  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  16,458  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  fish  processing,  aluminum  smelting,  ferro-silicon 
  production,  geothermal  power 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  about  15%  of  GDP;  fishing  is  most  important 
  economic  activity,  contributing  nearly  75%  to  export  earnings; 
  principal  crops  -  potatoes,  turnips;  livestock  -  cattle,  sheep;  fish 
  catch  of  about  1.1  million  metric  tons  in  1992 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-81),  $19.1  million 
 
  Currency:  1  Icelandic  krona  (IKr)  =  100  aurar 
 
  Exchange  rates:  Icelandic  kronur  (IKr)  per  US$1  -  67.760  (January 
  1995),  69.944  (1994),  67.603  (1993),  57.546  (1992),  58.996  (1991), 
  58.284  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Iceland:Transportation 
 
  Railroads:  0  km 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  11,373  km 
  paved:  2,513  km 
  unpaved:  gravel,  earth  8,860  km  (1992) 
 
  Ports:  Akureyri  Hornafjordur  Isafjordur  Keflavik  Raufarhofn 
  Reykjavik,  Seydhisfjordhur  Straumsvik  Vestmannaeyjar 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  6  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  30,025  GRT/40,410  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  cargo  1,  chemical  tanker  1,  oil  tanker  1,  refrigerated 
  cargo  1,  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  2 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  90 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  1 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  3 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  6 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  53 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  4 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  23 
 
  Iceland:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  140,000  telephones;  adequate  domestic  service 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  the  trunk  network  consists  of  coaxial  and  fiber-optic 
  cables  and  microwave  radio  relay  links 
  international:  2  earth  stations  carry  all  international  traffic 
  through  an  Atlantic  Ocean  INTELSAT  satellite 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  5,  FM  147  (transmitters  and  repeaters), 
  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  202  (transmitters  and  repeaters) 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Iceland:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  no  regular  armed  forces;  Police,  Coast  Guard;  note  - 
  Iceland's  defense  is  provided  by  the  US-manned  Icelandic  Defense  Force 
  (IDF)  headquartered  at  Keflavik 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  70,743;  males  fit  for  military 
  service  62,698  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  none 
 
 
 




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