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indonesia

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indonesia


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Indonesia 
  n  :  a  republic  in  southeastern  Asia  including  more  than  13,000 
  islands;  freed  from  Dutch  control  in  1949;  the  principal 
  oil  producer  in  the  Far  East  and  Pacific  regions  [syn:  {Indonesia}, 
  {Dutch  East  Indies}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Indonesia 
 
  Indonesia:Geography 
 
  Location:  Southeastern  Asia,  archipelago  between  the  Indian  Ocean  and 
  the  Pacific  Ocean 
 
  Map  references:  Southeast  Asia 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  1,919,440  sq  km 
  land  area:  1,826,440  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  less  than  three  times  the  size  of  Texas 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  2,602  km  Malaysia  1,782  km  Papua  New  Guinea 
  820  km 
 
  Coastline:  54,716  km 
 
  Maritime  claims:  measured  from  claimed  archipelagic  baselines 
  exclusive  economic  zone:  200  nm 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  sovereignty  over  Timor  Timur  (East  Timor 
  Province)  disputed  with  Portugal  and  not  recognized  by  the  UN  two 
  islands  in  dispute  with  Malaysia 
 
  Climate:  tropical;  hot,  humid;  more  moderate  in  highlands 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  coastal  lowlands;  larger  islands  have  interior 
  mountains 
 
  Natural  resources:  petroleum,  tin,  natural  gas,  nickel,  timber, 
  bauxite,  copper,  fertile  soils,  coal,  gold,  silver 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  8% 
  permanent  crops:  3% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  7% 
  forest  and  woodland:  67% 
  other:  15% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  75,500  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  deforestation;  water  pollution  from  industrial  wastes, 
  sewage;  air  pollution  in  urban  areas 
  natural  hazards:  occasional  floods,  severe  droughts,  and  tsunamis 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change, 
  Endangered  Species,  Hazardous  Wastes,  Law  of  the  Sea,  Nuclear  Test 
  Ban,  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship  Pollution,  Tropical  Timber  83, 
  Wetlands;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Desertification  Marine  Life 
  Conservation,  Tropical  Timber  94 
 
  Note:  archipelago  of  13,500  islands  (6,000  inhabited);  straddles 
  Equator;  strategic  location  astride  or  along  major  sea  lanes  from 
  Indian  Ocean  to  Pacific  Ocean 
 
  Indonesia:People 
 
  Population:  203,583,886  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  32%  (female  32,548,039;  male  33,485,810) 
  15-64  years:  64%  (female  65,394,816;  male  64,914,362) 
  65  years  and  over:  4%  (female  4,027,367;  male  3,213,492)  (July  1995 
  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  1.56%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  24.06  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  8.48  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  65  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  61.22  years 
  male:  59.13  years 
  female:  63.42  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  2.74  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Indonesian(s) 
  adjective:  Indonesian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Javanese  45%,  Sundanese  14%,  Madurese  7.5%,  coastal 
  Malays  7.5%,  other  26% 
 
  Religions:  Muslim  87%,  Protestant  6%,  Roman  Catholic  3%,  Hindu  2%, 
  Buddhist  1%,  other  1%  (1985) 
 
  Languages:  Bahasa  Indonesia  (modified  form  of  Malay;  official), 
  English,  Dutch,  local  dialects  the  most  widely  spoken  of  which  is 
  Javanese 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1990) 
  total  population:  82% 
  male:  88% 
  female:  75% 
 
  Labor  force:  67  million 
  by  occupation:  agriculture  55%,  manufacturing  10%,  construction  4%, 
  transport  and  communications  3%  (1985  est.) 
 
  Indonesia:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Indonesia 
  conventional  short  form:  Indonesia 
  local  long  form:  Republik  Indonesia 
  local  short  form:  Indonesia 
  former:  Netherlands  East  Indies;  Dutch  East  Indies 
 
  Digraph:  ID 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  Jakarta 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  24  provinces  (propinsi-propinsi,  singular  - 
  propinsi),  2  special  regions*  (daerah-daerah  istimewa  singular  - 
  daerah  istimewa),  and  1  special  capital  city  district**  (daerah  khusus 
  ibukota);  Aceh*,  Bali,  Bengkulu  Irian  Jaya,  Jakarta  Raya**,  Jambi, 
  Jawa  Barat,  Jawa  Tengah  Jawa  Timur,  Kalimantan  Barat,  Kalimantan 
  Selatan  Kalimantan  Tengah  Kalimantan  Timur,  Lampung,  Maluku  Nusa 
  Tenggara  Barat,  Nusa  Tenggara  Timur,  Riau,  Sulawesi  Selatan  Sulawesi 
  Tengah  Sulawesi  Tenggara  Sulawesi  Utara,  Sumatera  Barat,  Sumatera 
  Selatan  Sumatera  Utara,  Timor  Timur,  Yogyakarta* 
 
  Independence:  17  August  1945  (proclaimed  independence;  on  27  December 
  1949,  Indonesia  became  legally  independent  from  the  Netherlands) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  17  August  (1945) 
 
  Constitution:  August  1945,  abrogated  by  Federal  Constitution  of  1949 
  and  Provisional  Constitution  of  1950,  restored  5  July  1959 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  Roman-Dutch  law,  substantially  modified  by 
  indigenous  concepts  and  by  new  criminal  procedures  code;  has  not 
  accepted  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  17  years  of  age;  universal  and  married  persons  regardless  of 
  age 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state  and  head  of  government:  President  Gen.  (Ret.)  SOEHARTO 
  (since  27  March  1968);  Vice  President  Gen.  (Ret.)  Try  SUTRISNO  (since 
  11  March  1993) 
  cabinet:  Cabinet 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  House  of  Representatives  (Dewan  Perwakilan  Rakyat  or  DPR):  elections 
  last  held  on  8  June  1992  (next  to  be  held  NA  1997);  results  -  GOLKAR 
  68%,  PPP  17%,  PDI  15%;  seats  -  (500  total,  400  elected,  100  military 
  representatives  appointed)  GOLKAR  282,  PPP  62,  PDI  56 
  note:  the  People's  Consultative  Assembly  (Majelis  Permusyawaratan 
  Rakyat  or  MPR)  includes  the  DPR  plus  500  indirectly  elected  members 
  who  meet  every  five  years  to  elect  the  president  and  vice  president 
  and  theoretically,  to  determine  national  policy 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court  (Mahkamah  Agung) 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  GOLKAR  (quasi-official  party  based  on 
  functional  groups),  Lt  Gen.  (Ret.)  HARMOKO  general  chairman; 
  Indonesia  Democracy  Party  (PDI  -  federation  of  former  Nationalist  and 
  Christian  Parties),  Megawati  SUKARNOPUTRI  chairman;  Development  Unity 
  Party  (PPP,  federation  of  former  Islamic  parties),  Ismail  Hasan 
  METAREUM  chairman 
 
  Member  of:  APEC,  AsDB  ASEAN,  CCC,  CP  ESCAP,  FAO,  G-15,  G-19,  G-77, 
  GATT,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICC,  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA,  IDB,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS 
  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INMARSAT  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  IOM  (observer),  ISO, 
  ITU,  NAM,  OIC,  OPEC,  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNIDO  UNIKOM  UNMIH 
  UNPROFOR  UPU,  WCL,  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Arifin  Mohamad  SIREGAR 
  chancery:  2020  Massachusetts  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20036 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  775-5200 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  775-5365 
  consulate(s)  general:  Chicago,  Houston,  Los  Angeles,  New  York,  San 
  Francisco 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Robert  L.  BARRY 
  embassy:  Medan  Merdeka  Selatan  5,  Box  1,  Jakarta 
  mailing  address:  APO  AP  96520 
  telephone:  [62]  (21)  360360 
  FAX:  [62]  (21)  3862259 
  consulate(s)  general:  Medan,  Surabaya 
 
  Flag:  two  equal  horizontal  bands  of  red  top  and  white;  similar  to 
  the  flag  of  Monaco,  which  is  shorter;  also  similar  to  the  flag  of 
  Poland,  which  is  white  top  and  red 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Indonesia  is  a  mixed  economy  with  some  socialist 
  institutions  and  central  planning  but  with  a  recent  emphasis  on 
  deregulation  and  private  enterprise.  Indonesia  has  extensive  natural 
  wealth,  yet  with  a  large  and  rapidly  increasing  population,  it 
  remains  a  rather  poor  country.  Real  GDP  growth  in  1985-94  averaged 
  about  6%,  quite  impressive,  but  not  sufficient  to  both  slash 
  underemployment  and  absorb  the  2.3  million  workers  annually  entering 
  the  labor  force.  Agriculture,  including  forestry  and  fishing,  is  an 
  important  sector,  accounting  for  21%  of  GDP  and  over  50%  of  the  labor 
  force.  The  staple  crop  is  rice.  Once  the  world's  largest  rice 
  importer,  Indonesia  is  now  nearly  self-sufficient.  Plantation  crops  - 
  rubber  and  palm  oil  -  and  textiles  and  plywood  are  being  encouraged 
  for  both  export  and  job  generation.  Industrial  output  now  accounts  for 
  almost  40%  of  GDP  and  is  based  on  a  supply  of  diverse  natural 
  resources,  including  crude  oil,  natural  gas,  timber,  metals,  and  coal. 
  Foreign  investment  has  also  boosted  manufacturing  output  and  exports 
  in  recent  years.  Indeed,  the  economy's  growth  is  highly  dependent  on 
  the  continuing  expansion  of  nonoil  exports.  Japan  remains  Indonesia's 
  most  important  customer  and  supplier  of  aid.  Rapid  growth  in  the  money 
  supply  in  1989-90  prompted  Jakarta  to  implement  a  tight  monetary 
  policy  in  1991,  forcing  the  private  sector  to  go  to  foreign  banks  for 
  investment  financing.  Real  interest  rates  remained  above  10%  and 
  off-shore  commercial  debt  grew.  The  growth  in  off-shore  debt  prompted 
  Jakarta  to  limit  foreign  borrowing  beginning  in  late  1991.  Despite  the 
  continued  problems  in  moving  toward  a  more  open  financial  system  and 
  the  persistence  of  a  fairly  tight  credit  situation,  GDP  growth  in 
  1992-94  has  matched  the  government  target  of  6%-7%  annual  growth. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $619.4  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  6.7%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $3,090  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  9.3%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  3%  official  rate;  underemployment  40%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $32.8  billion 
  expenditures:  $32.8  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $12.9 
  billion  (FY94/95) 
 
  Exports:  $41.3  billion  (f.o.b,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  manufactures  56.7%,  fuels  24.8%,  foodstuffs  11.1%,  raw 
  materials  7.4%  (1994  est.) 
  partners:  Japan  30%,  US  14%,  Singapore  9%,  South  Korea  6%,  Taiwan  4% 
  (1993) 
 
  Imports:  $31.4  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  capital  equipment  44.2%,  intermed  and  raw  materials 
  37.0%,  consumer  goods  11.5%,  fuels  7.2%  (1994  est.) 
  partners:  Japan  22%,  US  11%,  South  Korea  7%,  Germany  7%,  Singapore  6%, 
  Australia  5%,  Taiwan  5%  (1993) 
 
  External  debt:  $87  billion  (1994) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  8.4%  (1993  est.);  accounts  for  40% 
  of  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  12,100,000  kW 
  production:  44  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  207  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  petroleum  and  natural  gas,  textiles,  mining,  cement, 
  chemical  fertilizers,  plywood,  food,  rubber 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  21%  of  GDP;  subsistence  food  production; 
  small-holder  and  plantation  production  for  export;  main  products  are 
  rice,  cassava,  peanuts,  rubber,  cocoa,  coffee,  palm  oil,  copra,  other 
  tropical  products,  poultry,  beef,  pork,  eggs 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  illicit  producer  of  cannabis  for  the  international  drug 
  trade  but  not  a  major  player;  government  actively  eradicating 
  plantings  and  prosecuting  traffickers;  growing  role  as  transshipment 
  point  for  Golden  Triangle  heroin;  increasing  indigenous 
  methamphetamine  abuse 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-89),  $4.4  billion; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-89),  $25.9  billion;  OPEC  bilateral  aid  (1979-89),  $213  million; 
  Communist  countries  (1970-89),  $175  million 
 
  Currency:  1  Indonesian  rupiah  Rp  =  100  sen  (sen  no  longer  used) 
 
  Exchange  rates:  Indonesian  rupiahs  Rp  per  US$1  -  2,203.6  (January 
  1995),  2,160.7  (1994),  2,087.1  (1993),  2,029.9  (1992),  1,950.3  (1991), 
  1,842.8  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  1  April  -  31  March 
 
  Indonesia:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  6,964  km 
  narrow  gauge:  6,389  km  1.067-m  gauge  (101  km  electrified;  101  km 
  double  track);  497  km  0.750-m  gauge;  78  km  0.600-m  gauge 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  119,500  km 
  paved:  NA 
  unpaved:  NA 
  undifferentiated:  provincial  34,180  km  district  73,508  km  state 
  11,812  km 
 
  Inland  waterways:  21,579  km  total;  Sumatra  5,471  km  Java  and  Madura 
  820  km  Kalimantan  10,460  km  Celebes  241  km  Irian  Jaya  4,587  km 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  2,505  km  petroleum  products  456  km  natural  gas 
  1,703  km  (1989) 
 
  Ports:  Cilacap  Cirebon  Jakarta,  Kupang,  Palembang  Semarang, 
  Surabaya  Ujungpandang 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  438  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  1,942,527  GRT/2,818,296 
  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  26,  cargo  259,  chemical  tanker  7,  container  11, 
  liquefied  gas  tanker  6,  livestock  carrier  1,  oil  tanker  85,  passenger 
  6,  passenger-cargo  12,  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  7,  short-sea  passenger 
  7,  specialized  tanker  7,  vehicle  carrier  4 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  450 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  3 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  10 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  35 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  42 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  324 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  4 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  32 
 
  Indonesia:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  763,000  telephones  (1986);  domestic  service  fair, 
  international  service  good 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  interisland  microwave  system  and  HF  police  net;  1  earth 
  station  for  a  domestic  satellite 
  international:  2  INTELSAT  (1  Indian  Ocean  and  1  Pacific  Ocean)  earth 
  stations 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  618,  FM  38,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
  note:  radiobroadcast  coverage  good 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  9 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Indonesia:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army,  Navy,  Air  Force,  National  Police 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  55,883,688;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  32,952,204;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually 
  2,247,586  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $2.4  billion,  1.5%  of 
  GNP  (FY94/95) 
 
 
 




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