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induction

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induction


  4  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Induction  \In*duc"tion\,  n.  [L.  inductio:  cf  F.  induction.  See 
  {Induct}.] 
  1.  The  act  or  process  of  inducting  or  bringing  in 
  introduction;  entrance;  beginning;  commencement. 
 
  I  know  not  you  nor  am  I  well  pleased  to  make  this 
  time,  as  the  affair  now  stands,  the  induction  of 
  your  acquaintance.  --Beau.  &  Fl 
 
  These  promises  are  fair,  the  parties  sure  And  our 
  induction  dull  of  prosperous  hope.  --Shak. 
 
  2.  An  introduction  or  introductory  scene,  as  to  a  play;  a 
  preface;  a  prologue.  [Obs.] 
 
  This  is  but  an  induction:  I  will  d?aw  The  curtains 
  of  the  tragedy  hereafter.  --Massinger. 
 
  3.  (Philos.)  The  act  or  process  of  reasoning  from  a  part  to  a 
  whole,  from  particulars  to  generals,  or  from  the 
  individual  to  the  universal;  also  the  result  or  inference 
  so  reached. 
 
  Induction  is  an  inference  drawn  from  all  the 
  particulars.  --Sir  W. 
  Hamilton. 
 
  Induction  is  the  process  by  which  we  conclude  that 
  what  is  true  of  certain  individuals  of  a  class,  is 
  true  of  the  whole  class,  or  that  what  is  true  at 
  certain  times  will  be  true  in  similar  circumstances 
  at  all  times.  --J.  S.  Mill. 
 
  4.  The  introduction  of  a  clergyman  into  a  benefice,  or  of  an 
  official  into  a  office,  with  appropriate  acts  or 
  ceremonies;  the  giving  actual  possession  of  an 
  ecclesiastical  living  or  its  temporalities. 
 
  5.  (Math.)  A  process  of  demonstration  in  which  a  general 
  truth  is  gathered  from  an  examination  of  particular  cases, 
  one  of  which  is  known  to  be  true,  the  examination  being  so 
  conducted  that  each  case  is  made  to  depend  on  the 
  preceding  one  --  called  also  {successive  induction}. 
 
  6.  (Physics)  The  property  by  which  one  body,  having 
  electrical  or  magnetic  polarity,  causes  or  induces  it  in 
  another  body  without  direct  contact  an  impress  of 
  electrical  or  magnetic  force  or  condition  from  one  body  on 
  another  without  actual  contact 
 
  {Electro-dynamic  induction},  the  action  by  which  a  variable 
  or  interrupted  current  of  electricity  excites  another 
  current  in  a  neighboring  conductor  forming  a  closed 
  circuit. 
 
  {Electro-magnetic  induction},  the  influence  by  which  an 
  electric  current  produces  magnetic  polarity  in  certain 
  bodies  near  or  around  which  it  passes. 
 
  {Electro-static  induction},  the  action  by  which  a  body 
  possessing  a  charge  of  statical  electricity  develops  a 
  charge  of  statical  electricity  of  the  opposite  character 
  in  a  neighboring  body. 
 
  {Induction  coil},  an  apparatus  producing  induced  currents  of 
  great  intensity.  It  consists  of  a  coil  or  helix  of  stout 
  insulated  copper  wire,  surrounded  by  another  coil  of  very 
  fine  insulated  wire,  in  which  a  momentary  current  is 
  induced,  when  a  current  (as  from  a  voltaic  battery), 
  passing  through  the  inner  coil,  is  made  broken,  or 
  varied.  The  inner  coil  has  within  it  a  core  of  soft  iron, 
  and  is  connected  at  its  terminals  with  a  condenser;  -- 
  called  also  {inductorium},  and  {Ruhmkorff's  coil}. 
 
  {Induction  pipe},  {port},  or  {valve},  a  pipe,  passageway,  or 
  valve,  for  leading  or  admitting  a  fluid  to  a  receiver,  as 
  steam  to  an  engine  cylinder,  or  water  to  a  pump. 
 
  {Magnetic  induction},  the  action  by  which  magnetic  polarity 
  is  developed  in  a  body  susceptible  to  magnetic  effects 
  when  brought  under  the  influence  of  a  magnet. 
 
  {Magneto-electric  induction},  the  influence  by  which  a  magnet 
  excites  electric  currents  in  closed  circuits. 
 
  {Logical  induction},  (Philos.),  an  act  or  method  of  reasoning 
  from  all  the  parts  separately  to  the  whole  which  they 
  constitute,  or  into  which  they  may  be  united  collectively; 
  the  operation  of  discovering  and  proving  general 
  propositions;  the  scientific  method. 
 
  {Philosophical  induction},  the  inference,  or  the  act  of 
  inferring,  that  what  has  been  observed  or  established  in 
  respect  to  a  part  individual,  or  species,  may  on  the 
  ground  of  analogy,  be  affirmed  or  received  of  the  whole  to 
  which  it  belongs.  This  last  is  the  inductive  method  of 
  Bacon.  It  ascends  from  the  parts  to  the  whole,  and  forms, 
  from  the  general  analogy  of  nature,  or  special 
  presumptions  in  the  case,  conclusions  which  have  greater 
  or  less  degrees  of  force,  and  which  may  be  strengthened  or 
  weakened  by  subsequent  experience  and  experiment.  It 
  relates  to  actual  existences,  as  in  physical  science  or 
  the  concerns  of  life.  Logical  induction  is  founded  on  the 
  necessary  laws  of  thought;  philosophical  induction,  on  the 
  interpretation  of  the  indications  or  analogy  of  nature. 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Magnetic  \Mag*net"ic\,  Magnetical  \Mag*net"ic*al\,  a.  [L. 
  magneticus:  cf  F.  magn['e]tique.] 
  1.  Pertaining  to  the  magnet;  possessing  the  properties  of  the 
  magnet,  or  corresponding  properties;  as  a  magnetic  bar  of 
  iron;  a  magnetic  needle. 
 
  2.  Of  or  pertaining  to  or  characterized  by  the  earth's 
  magnetism;  as  the  magnetic  north;  the  magnetic  meridian. 
 
  3.  Capable  of  becoming  a  magnet;  susceptible  to  magnetism; 
  as  the  magnetic  metals. 
 
  4.  Endowed  with  extraordinary  personal  power  to  excite  the 
  feelings  and  to  win  the  affections;  attractive;  inducing 
  attachment. 
 
  She  that  had  all  magnetic  force  alone.  --Donne. 
 
  5.  Having  susceptible  to  or  induced  by  animal  magnetism, 
  so  called  as  a  magnetic  sleep.  See  {Magnetism}. 
 
  {Magnetic  amplitude},  {attraction},  {dip},  {induction},  etc 
  See  under  {Amplitude},  {Attraction},  etc 
 
  {Magnetic  battery},  a  combination  of  bar  or  horseshoe  magnets 
  with  the  like  poles  adjacent,  so  as  to  act  together  with 
  great  power. 
 
  {Magnetic  compensator},  a  contrivance  connected  with  a  ship's 
  compass  for  compensating  or  neutralizing  the  effect  of  the 
  iron  of  the  ship  upon  the  needle. 
 
  {Magnetic  curves},  curves  indicating  lines  of  magnetic  force, 
  as  in  the  arrangement  of  iron  filings  between  the  poles  of 
  a  powerful  magnet. 
 
  {Magnetic  elements}. 
  a  (Chem.  Physics)  Those  elements,  as  iron,  nickel, 
  cobalt,  chromium,  manganese,  etc.,  which  are  capable 
  or  becoming  magnetic. 
  b  (Physics)  In  respect  to  terrestrial  magnetism,  the 
  declination,  inclination,  and  intensity. 
  c  See  under  {Element}. 
 
  {Magnetic  equator},  the  line  around  the  equatorial  parts  of 
  the  earth  at  which  there  is  no  dip,  the  dipping  needle 
  being  horizontal. 
 
  {Magnetic  field},  or  {Field  of  magnetic  force},  any  space 
  through  which  magnet  exerts  its  influence. 
 
  {Magnetic  fluid},  the  hypothetical  fluid  whose  existence  was 
  formerly  assumed  in  the  explanations  of  the  phenomena  of 
  magnetism. 
 
  {Magnetic  iron},  or  {Magnetic  iron  ore}.  (Min.)  Same  as 
  {Magnetite}. 
 
  {Magnetic  needle},  a  slender  bar  of  steel,  magnetized  and 
  suspended  at  its  center  on  a  sharp-pointed  pivot,  or  by  a 
  delicate  fiber,  so  that  it  may  take  freely  the  direction 
  of  the  magnetic  meridian.  It  constitutes  the  essential 
  part  of  a  compass,  such  as  the  mariner's  and  the 
  surveyor's. 
 
  {Magnetic  poles},  the  two  points  in  the  opposite  polar 
  regions  of  the  earth  at  which  the  direction  of  the  dipping 
  needle  is  vertical. 
 
  {Magnetic  pyrites}.  See  {Pyrrhotite}. 
 
  {Magnetic  storm}  (Terrestrial  Physics),  a  disturbance  of  the 
  earth's  magnetic  force  characterized  by  great  and  sudden 
  changes. 
 
  {Magnetic  telegraph},  a  telegraph  acting  by  means  of  a 
  magnet.  See  {Telegraph}. 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  induction 
  n  1:  a  formal  entry  into  a  position  or  office;  "his  initiation 
  into  the  club";  "he  was  ordered  to  report  for  induction 
  into  the  arm"  [syn:  {initiation},  {installation}] 
  2:  an  electrical  phenomenon  whereby  an  electromotive  force 
  (EMF)  is  generated  in  a  closed  circuit  by  a  change  in  the 
  flow  of  current 
  3:  reasoning  from  detailed  facts  to  general  principles  [syn:  {generalization}, 
  {inductive  reasoning}] 
  4:  the  process  whereby  changes  in  the  current  flow  in  a  circuit 
  produce  magnetism  or  an  EMF 
  5:  stimulation  that  calls  up  (evokes  or  induces  or  elicits)  a 
  particular  class  of  behaviors  [syn:  {evocation},  {elicitation}] 
  6:  (physics)  a  property  of  an  electric  circuit  by  which  an 
  electromotive  force  is  induced  in  it  by  a  variation  of 
  current  [syn:  {inductance}] 
  7:  an  act  that  sets  in  motion  some  course  of  events  [syn:  {trigger}, 
  {initiation}] 
 
  From  The  Free  On-line  Dictionary  of  Computing  (13  Mar  01)  [foldoc]: 
 
  induction 
 
    A  method  of  proving  statements  about  {well-ordered 
  sets}.  If  S  is  a  well-ordered  set  with  ordering  "<",  and  we 
  want  to  show  that  a  property  P  holds  for  every  element  of  S, 
  it  is  sufficient  to  show  that  for  all  s  in  S, 
 
  IF  for  all  t  in  S,  t  <  s  =>  P(t)  THEN  P(s) 
 
  I.e.  if  P  holds  for  anything  less  than  s  then  it  holds  for  s. 
  In  this  case  we  say  P  is  proved  by  induction. 
 
  The  most  common  instance  of  proof  by  induction  is  induction 
  over  the  {natural  numbers}  where  we  prove  that  some  property 
  holds  for  n=0  and  that  if  it  holds  for  n,  it  holds  for  n+1. 
 
  (In  fact  it  is  sufficient  for  "<"  to  be  a  {well-founded} 
  {partial  order}  on  S,  not  necessarily  a  well-ordering  of  S.) 
 
  (1999-12-09) 
 
 




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