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iran

more about iran

iran


  3  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Iran  \I`ran"\  ([=e]`r[aum]n"),  n.  [Mod.  Persian  Ir[=a]n.  Cf 
  {Aryan}.] 
  The  native  name  of  Persia. 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Iran 
  n  :  a  republic  in  the  Middle  East;  Iran  was  the  core  of  the 
  ancient  Persian  Empire  and  was  known  as  Persia  until 
  1935;  rich  in  oil  [syn:  {Iran},  {Persia}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Iran 
 
  Iran:Geography 
 
  Location:  Middle  East,  bordering  the  Gulf  of  Oman  and  the  Persian 
  Gulf,  between  Iraq  and  Pakistan 
 
  Map  references:  Middle  East 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  1.648  million  sq  km 
  land  area:  1.636  million  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  larger  than  Alaska 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  5,440  km  Afghanistan  936  km  Armenia  35  km 
  Azerbaijan  (north)  432  km  Azerbaijan  (northwest)  179  km  Iraq  1,458 
  km  Pakistan  909  km  Turkey  499  km  Turkmenistan  992  km 
 
  Coastline:  2,440  km 
  note:  Iran  also  borders  the  Caspian  Sea  (740  km) 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  contiguous  zone:  24  nm 
  continental  shelf:  natural  prolongation 
  exclusive  economic  zone:  bilateral  agreements,  or  median  lines  in  the 
  Persian  Gulf 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  Iran  and  Iraq  restored  diplomatic  relations  in 
  1990  but  are  still  trying  to  work  out  written  agreements  settling 
  outstanding  disputes  from  their  eight-year  war  concerning  border 
  demarcation,  prisoners-of-war,  and  freedom  of  navigation  and 
  sovereignty  over  the  Shatt  al  Arab  waterway;  Iran  occupies  two  islands 
  in  the  Persian  Gulf  claimed  by  the  UAE:  Tunb  as  Sughra  (Arabic), 
  Jazireh-ye  Tonb-e  Kuchek  (Persian)  or  Lesser  Tunb,  and  Tunb  al  Kubra 
  (Arabic),  Jazireh-ye  Tonb-e  Bozorg  (Persian)  or  Greater  Tunb;  it 
  jointly  administers  with  the  UAE  an  island  in  the  Persian  Gulf  claimed 
  by  the  UAE,  Abu  Musa  (Arabic)  or  Jazireh-ye  Abu  Musa  (Persian);  in 
  1992  the  dispute  over  Abu  Musa  and  the  Tunb  islands  became  more  acute 
  when  Iran  unilaterally  tried  to  control  the  entry  of  third  country 
  nationals  into  the  UAE  portion  of  Abu  Musa  island,  Tehran  subsequently 
  backed  off  in  the  face  of  significant  diplomatic  support  for  the  UAE 
  in  the  region,  but  in  1994  it  increased  its  military  presence  on  the 
  disputed  islands;  periodic  disputes  with  Afghanistan  over  Helmand 
  water  rights;  Caspian  Sea  boundaries  are  not  yet  determined 
 
  Climate:  mostly  arid  or  semiarid,  subtropical  along  Caspian  coast 
 
  Terrain:  rugged,  mountainous  rim;  high,  central  basin  with  deserts, 
  mountains;  small  discontinuous  plains  along  both  coasts 
 
  Natural  resources:  petroleum,  natural  gas,  coal,  chromium,  copper, 
  iron  ore,  lead,  manganese,  zinc,  sulfur 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  8% 
  permanent  crops:  0% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  27% 
  forest  and  woodland:  11% 
  other:  54% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  57,500  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  air  pollution,  especially  in  urban  areas,  from  vehicle 
  emissions,  refinery  operations,  and  industrial  effluents; 
  deforestation;  overgrazing  desertification  oil  pollution  in  the 
  Persian  Gulf;  inadequate  supplies  of  potable  water 
  natural  hazards:  periodic  droughts,  floods;  duststorms  sandstorms; 
  earthquakes  along  the  Western  border 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Endangered  Species,  Hazardous 
  Wastes,  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Wetlands;  signed, 
  but  not  ratified  -  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change,  Desertification 
  Environmental  Modification,  Law  of  the  Sea,  Marine  Life  Conservation 
 
  Iran:People 
 
  Population:  64,625,455  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  45%  (female  14,113,933;  male  14,995,015) 
  15-64  years:  51%  (female  16,237,810;  male  16,803,943) 
  65  years  and  over:  4%  (female  1,197,869;  male  1,276,885)  (July  1995 
  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  2.29%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  34.85  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  6.85  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  -5.11  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  54.6  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  66.97  years 
  male:  65.77  years 
  female:  68.22  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  4.93  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Iranian(s) 
  adjective:  Iranian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Persian  51%,  Azerbaijani  24%,  Gilaki  and  Mazandarani 
  8%,  Kurd  7%,  Arab  3%,  Lur  2%,  Baloch  2%,  Turkmen  2%,  other  1% 
 
  Religions:  Shi'a  Muslim  95%,  Sunni  Muslim  4%,  Zoroastrian,  Jewish, 
  Christian,  and  Baha'i  1% 
 
  Languages:  Persian  and  Persian  dialects  58%,  Turkic  and  Turkic 
  dialects  26%,  Kurdish  9%,  Luri  2%,  Baloch  1%,  Arabic  1%,  Turkish  1%, 
  other  2% 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1991) 
  total  population:  66% 
  male:  74% 
  female:  56% 
 
  Labor  force:  15.4  million 
  by  occupation:  agriculture  33%,  manufacturing  21% 
  note:  shortage  of  skilled  labor  (1988  est.) 
 
  Iran:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Islamic  Republic  of  Iran 
  conventional  short  form:  Iran 
  local  long  form:  Jomhuri-ye  Eslami-ye  Iran 
  local  short  form:  Iran 
 
  Digraph:  IR 
 
  Type:  theocratic  republic 
 
  Capital:  Tehran 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  24  provinces  (ostanha,  singular  -  ostan); 
  Azarbayjan-e  Bakhtari  (West  Azerbaijan),  Azarbayjan-e  Khavari  (East 
  Azerbaijan),  Bakhtaran  Bushehr  Chahar  Mahall  va  Bakhtiari  Esfahan, 
  Fars,  Gilan,  Hamadan,  Hormozgan  Ilam,  Kerman,  Khorasan  Khuzestan 
  Kohkiluyeh  va  Buyer  Ahmadi  Kordestan  Lorestan,  Markazi  Mazandaran 
  Semnan  Sistan  va  Baluchestan  Tehran,  Yazd,  Zanjan 
  note:  there  may  be  a  new  province  named  Ardabil  formed  from  a  part  of 
  Azarbayjan-e  Khavari  (East  Azerbaijan)  which  may  have  been  renamed 
  Azarbayjan-e  Markazi  (Central  Azerbaijan);  the  name  Bakhtaran  may  have 
  been  changed  to  Kermanshahan 
 
  Independence:  1  April  1979  (Islamic  Republic  of  Iran  proclaimed) 
 
  National  holiday:  Islamic  Republic  Day  1  April  (1979) 
 
  Constitution:  2-3  December  1979;  revised  1989  to  expand  powers  of  the 
  presidency  and  eliminate  the  prime  ministership 
 
  Legal  system:  the  Constitution  codifies  Islamic  principles  of 
  government 
 
  Suffrage:  15  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  supreme  leader  rahbar  and  functional  chief  of  state:  Leader  of  the 
  Islamic  Revolution  Ayatollah  Ali  Hoseini-KHAMENEI  (since  4  June  1989) 
  head  of  government:  President  Ali  Akbar  Hashemi-RAFSANJANI  (since  3 
  August  1989);  election  last  held  June  1993  (next  to  be  held  June 
  1997);  results  -  Ali  Akbar  Hashemi-RAFSANJANI  was  elected  with  63%  of 
  the  vote 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  selected  by  the  president  with 
  legislative  approval 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  Islamic  Consultative  Assembly  (Majles-e-Shura-ye-Eslami):  elections 
  last  held  8  April  1992  (next  to  be  held  April  1996);  results  -  percent 
  of  vote  by  party  NA  seats  -  (270  seats  total)  number  of  seats  by 
  party  NA 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  there  are  at  least  76  licensed  parties; 
  the  three  most  important  are  -  Tehran  Militant  Clergy  Association, 
  Mohammad  Reza  MAHDAVI-KANI;  Militant  Clerics  Association,  Mehdi 
  MAHDAVI-KARUBI  and  Mohammad  Asqar  MUSAVI-KHOINIHA;  Fedaiyin  Islam 
  Organization,  Sadeq  KHALKHALI 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  groups  that  generally  support  the 
  Islamic  Republic  include  Hizballah  Mojahedin  of  the  Islamic 
  Revolution,  Muslim  Students  Following  the  Line  of  the  Imam;  armed 
  political  groups  that  have  been  almost  completely  repressed  by  the 
  government  include  Mojahedin-e  Khalq  Organization  (MEK),  People's 
  Fedayeen  Kurdish  Democratic  Party;  the  Society  for  the  Defense  of 
  Freedom 
 
  Member  of:  CCC,  CP  ECO,  ESCAP,  FAO,  G-19,  G-24,  G-77,  IAEA,  IBRD, 
  ICAO,  ICC,  ICRM,  IDA,  IDB,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INMARSAT 
  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  IOM  (observer),  ISO,  ITU,  NAM,  OIC,  OPEC, 
  PCA,  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNHCR  UNIDO  UPU,  WCL,  WFTU  WHO  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Iran  has  an  Interests  Section  in  the  Pakistani 
  Embassy  in  Washington,  DC 
  chancery:  Iranian  Interests  Section,  2209  Wisconsin  Avenue  NW 
  Washington,  DC  20007 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  965-4990 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation:  protecting  power  in  Iran  is  Switzerland 
 
  Flag:  three  equal  horizontal  bands  of  green  (top),  white,  and  red;  the 
  national  emblem  (a  stylized  representation  of  the  word  Allah)  in  red 
  is  centered  in  the  white  band;  Allah  Alkbar  (God  is  Great)  in  white 
  Arabic  script  is  repeated  11  times  along  the  bottom  edge  of  the  green 
  band  and  11  times  along  the  top  edge  of  the  red  band 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Iran's  economy  is  a  mixture  of  central  planning,  state 
  ownership  of  oil  and  other  large  enterprises,  village  agriculture,  and 
  small-scale  private  trading  and  service  ventures.  Over  the  past 
  several  years,  the  government  has  introduced  several  measures  to 
  liberalize  the  economy  and  reduce  government  intervention,  but  most  of 
  these  changes  have  moved  slowly  because  of  political  opposition.  Iran 
  has  faced  increasingly  severe  financial  difficulties  since  mid-1992 
  due  to  an  import  surge  that  began  in  1989  and  general  financial 
  mismanagement.  At  yearend  1993  the  Iranian  Government  estimated  that 
  it  owed  foreign  creditors  about  $30  billion;  an  estimated  $8  billion 
  of  this  debt  was  in  arrears.  At  yearend  1994,  Iran  rescheduled  $12 
  billion  in  debt.  Earnings  from  oil  exports  -  which  provide  90%  of 
  Iran's  export  revenues  -  are  providing  less  relief  to  Iran  than  usual 
  because  of  reduced  oil  prices. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $310  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  -2%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $4,720  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  35%  (1994) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  over  30%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $NA 
  expenditures:  $NA,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA 
 
  Exports:  $16  billion  (f.o.b.,  FY92/93  est.) 
  commodities:  petroleum  90%,  carpets,  fruits,  nuts,  hides 
  partners:  Japan,  Italy,  France,  Netherlands,  Belgium/Luxembourg, 
  Spain,  and  Germany 
 
  Imports:  $18  billion  (c.i.f.,  FY92/93  est.) 
  commodities:  machinery,  military  supplies,  metal  works  foodstuffs, 
  pharmaceuticals,  technical  services,  refined  oil  products 
  partners:  Germany,  Japan,  Italy,  UK  UAE 
 
  External  debt:  $30  billion  (December  1993) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  4.6%  (1993  est.);  accounts  for 
  almost  30%  of  GDP,  including  petroleum 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  19,080,000  kW 
  production:  50.8  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  745  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  petroleum,  petrochemicals,  textiles,  cement  and  other 
  building  materials,  food  processing  (particularly  sugar  refining  and 
  vegetable  oil  production),  metal  fabricating,  armaments  and  military 
  equipment 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  about  20%  of  GDP;  principal  products  - 
  wheat,  rice,  other  grains,  sugar  beets,  fruits,  nuts,  cotton,  dairy 
  products,  wool,  caviar;  not  self-sufficient  in  food 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  illicit  producer  of  opium  poppy  for  the  domestic  and 
  international  drug  trade  produced  35-70  metric  tons  in  1993;  net 
  opiate  importer  but  also  a  key  transshipment  point  for  Southwest  Asian 
  heroin  to  Europe 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-80),  $1  billion; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-89),  $1.675  billion;  Communist  countries  (1970-89),  $976  million 
 
  note:  aid  fell  sharply  following  the  1979  revolution 
 
  Currency:  10  Iranian  rials  IR  =  1  toman;  note  -  domestic  figures  are 
  generally  referred  to  in  terms  of  the  toman 
 
  Exchange  rates:  Iranian  rials  IR  per  US$1  -  1,749.04  (January  1995), 
  1,748.75  (1994),  1,267.77  (1993),  65.552  (1992),  67.505  (1991);  black 
  market  rate:  3,000  rials  per  US$1  (December  1994) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  21  March  -  20  March 
 
  Iran:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  4,850  km  note  -  480  km  under  construction  from  Bafq  to 
  Bandar-e  'Abbas;  segment  from  Bafq  to  Sirjan  has  been  completed  and  is 
  operational;  section  from  Sirjan  to  Bandar-e  'Abbas  still  under 
  construction 
  broad  gauge:  90  km  1.676-m  gauge 
  narrow  gauge:  4,760  km  1.432-m  gauge 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  140,200  km 
  paved:  42,694  km 
  unpaved:  gravel,  crushed  stone  46,866  km  improved  earth  49,440  km 
  unimproved  earth  1,200  km 
 
  Inland  waterways:  904  km  the  Shatt  al  Arab  is  usually  navigable  by 
  maritime  traffic  for  about  130  km  channel  has  been  dredged  to  3 
  meters  and  is  in  use 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  5,900  km  petroleum  products  3,900  km  natural 
  gas  4,550  km 
 
  Ports:  Abadan  (largely  destroyed  in  fighting  during  1980-88  war), 
  Ahvaz,  Bandar  Beheshti  Bandar-e  'Abbas,  Bandar-e  Anzali  Bandar-e 
  Bushehr  Bandar-e  Khomeyni  Bandar-e  Mah  Shahr,  Bandar-e  Torkeman 
  Jazireh-ye  Khark,  Jazireh-ye  Lavan,  Jazireh-ye  Sirri,  Khorramshahr 
  (limited  operation  since  November  1992),  Now  Shahr 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  132  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  3,816,820  GRT/6,991,693 
  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  48,  cargo  38,  chemical  tanker  5,  combination  bulk 
  2,  liquefied  gas  tanker  1,  oil  tanker  26,  refrigerated  cargo  3, 
  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  8,  short-sea  passenger  1 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  261 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  28 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  12 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  32 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  20 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  46 
  with  unpaved  runways  over  3,047  m:  2 
  with  unpaved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  2 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  18 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  101 
 
  Iran:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  2,143,000  telephones;  35  telephones/1,000  persons 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  microwave  radio  relay  extends  throughout  country;  system 
  centered  in  Tehran 
  international:  3  INTELSAT  (2  Atlantic  Ocean  and  1  Indian  Ocean)  earth 
  stations;  HF  radio  and  microwave  radio  relay  to  Turkey,  Pakistan, 
  Syria,  Kuwait,  Tajikistan,  and  Uzbekistan;  submarine  fiber  optic  cable 
  to  UAE 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  77,  FM  3,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  28 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Iran:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Islamic  Republic  of  Iran  Ground  Forces,  Navy,  Air  and  Air 
  Defense  Force,  Revolutionary  Guards  (includes  Basij  militia  with  its 
  ground,  air,  and  naval  forces),  Law  Enforcement  Forces 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  14,639,290;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  8,703,732;  males  reach  military  age  (21)  annually 
  615,096  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  according  to  official  Iranian  data,  Iran  spent 
  1,785  billion  rials,  including  $808  million  in  hard  currency,  in  1992 
  and  budgeted  2,507  billion  rials,  including  $850  million  in  hard 
  currency,  for  1993 
  note:  conversion  of  rial  expenditures  into  US  dollars  using  the 
  current  exchange  rate  could  produce  misleading  results 
 
 
 




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