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italy

more about italy

italy


  5  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Italy 
  n  :  a  republic  in  S  Europe;  was  the  core  of  the  Roman  Republic 
  and  the  Roman  Empire  between  the  4th  century  BC  and  the 
  5th  century  AD  [syn:  {Italy},  {Italia}] 
 
  From  U.S.  Gazetteer  (1990)  [gazetteer]: 
 
  Italy,  TX  (town,  FIPS  37072) 
  Location:  32.18139  N,  96.88388  W 
  Population  (1990):  1699  (668  housing  units) 
  Area:  2.9  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  76651 
 
  From  Easton's  1897  Bible  Dictionary  [easton]: 
 
  Italy 
  Acts  18:2;  27:1,  6;  Heb.  13:24),  like  most  geographical  names 
  was  differently  used  at  different  periods  of  history.  As  the 
  power  of  Rome  advanced,  nations  were  successively  conquered  and 
  added  to  it  till  it  came  to  designate  the  whole  country  to  the 
  south  of  the  Alps.  There  was  constant  intercourse  between 
  Palestine  and  Italy  in  the  time  of  the  Romans. 
 
 
  From  Hitchcock's  Bible  Names  Dictionary  (late  1800's)  [hitchcock]: 
 
  Italy,  abounding  with  calves  or  heifers 
 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Italy 
 
  Italy:Geography 
 
  Location:  Southern  Europe,  a  peninsula  extending  into  the  central 
  Mediterranean  Sea,  northeast  of  Tunisia 
 
  Map  references:  Europe 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  301,230  sq  km 
  land  area:  294,020  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  larger  than  Arizona 
  note:  includes  Sardinia  and  Sicily 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  1,899.2  km  Austria  430  km  France  488  km  Holy 
  See  (Vatican  City)  3.2  km  San  Marino  39  km  Slovenia  199  km 
  Switzerland  740  km 
 
  Coastline:  4,996  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  continental  shelf:  200-m  depth  or  to  the  depth  of  exploitation 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  none 
 
  Climate:  predominantly  Mediterranean;  Alpine  in  far  north;  hot,  dry  in 
  south 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  rugged  and  mountainous;  some  plains,  coastal  lowlands 
 
  Natural  resources:  mercury,  potash,  marble,  sulfur,  dwindling  natural 
  gas  and  crude  oil  reserves,  fish,  coal 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  32% 
  permanent  crops:  10% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  17% 
  forest  and  woodland:  22% 
  other:  19% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  31,000  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  air  pollution  from  industrial  emissions  such  as  sulfur 
  dioxide;  coastal  and  inland  rivers  polluted  from  industrial  and 
  agricultural  effluents;  acid  rain  damaging  lakes;  inadequate 
  industrial  waste  treatment  and  disposal  facilities 
  natural  hazards:  regional  risks  include  landslides,  mudflows 
  avalanches,  earthquakes,  volcanic  eruptions,  flooding;  land  subsidence 
  in  Venice 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Air  Pollution,  Air 
  Pollution-Nitrogen  Oxides,  Air  Pollution-Sulphur  85,  Antarctic  Treaty, 
  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change,  Endangered  Species,  Environmental 
  Modification,  Hazardous  Wastes,  Law  of  the  Sea,  Marine  Dumping, 
  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship  Pollution,  Tropical 
  Timber  83,  Wetlands;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Air  Pollution-Sulphur 
  94,  Air  Pollution-Volatile  Organic  Compounds,  Antarctic-Environmental 
  Protocol,  Desertification 
 
  Note:  strategic  location  dominating  central  Mediterranean  as  well  as 
  southern  sea  and  air  approaches  to  Western  Europe 
 
  Italy:People 
 
  Population:  58,261,971  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  15%  (female  4,352,325;  male  4,603,083) 
  15-64  years:  68%  (female  19,969,086;  male  19,874,528) 
  65  years  and  over:  17%  (female  5,630,747;  male  3,832,202)  (July  1995 
  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  0.21%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  10.89  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  9.78  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  1.03  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  7.4  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  77.85  years 
  male:  74.67  years 
  female:  81.23  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  1.41  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Italian(s) 
  adjective:  Italian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Italian  (includes  small  clusters  of  German-, 
  French-,  and  Slovene-Italians  in  the  north  and  Albanian-Italians  and 
  Greek-Italians  in  the  south),  Sicilians,  Sardinians 
 
  Religions:  Roman  Catholic  98%,  other  2% 
 
  Languages:  Italian,  German  (parts  of  Trentino-Alto  Adige  region  are 
  predominantly  German  speaking),  French  (small  French-speaking  minority 
  in  Valle  d'Aosta  region),  Slovene  (Slovene-speaking  minority  in  the 
  Trieste-Gorizia  area) 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1990  est.) 
  total  population:  97% 
  male:  98% 
  female:  96% 
 
  Labor  force:  23.988  million 
  by  occupation:  services  58%,  industry  32.2%,  agriculture  9.8%  (1988) 
 
  Italy:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Italian  Republic 
  conventional  short  form:  Italy 
  local  long  form:  Repubblica  Italiana 
  local  short  form:  Italia 
  former:  Kingdom  of  Italy 
 
  Digraph:  IT 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  Rome 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  20  regions  (regioni,  singular  -  regione); 
  Abruzzi,  Basilicata,  Calabria,  Campania,  Emilia-Romagna, 
  Friuli-Venezia  Giulia  Lazio,  Liguria,  Lombardia,  Marche,  Molise, 
  Piemonte,  Puglia,  Sardegna,  Sicilia,  Toscana,  Trentino-Alto  Adige, 
  Umbria,  Valle  d'Aosta,  Veneto 
 
  Independence:  17  March  1861  (Kingdom  of  Italy  proclaimed) 
 
  National  holiday:  Anniversary  of  the  Republic,  2  June  (1946) 
 
  Constitution:  1  January  1948 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  civil  law  system,  with  ecclesiastical  law 
  influence;  appeals  treated  as  trials  de  novo;  judicial  review  under 
  certain  conditions  in  Constitutional  Court;  has  not  accepted 
  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal  (except  in  senatorial  elections, 
  where  minimum  age  is  25) 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Oscar  Luigi  SCALFARO  (since  28  May  1992) 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  (referred  to  in  Italy  as  the 
  President  of  the  Council  of  Ministers)  Lamberto  DINI  (since  1  February 
  1995) 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  nominated  by  the  President  of  the 
  Council  (i.e.,  Prime  Minister)  and  approved  by  the  President  of  the 
  Republic 
 
  Legislative  branch:  bicameral  Parliament  (Parlamento) 
  Senate  (Senato  della  Repubblica):  elections  last  held  27-28  March  1994 
  (next  must  be  held  by  spring  1999,  but  may  be  held  by  end  of  1995); 
  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA  seats  -  (326  total,  315 
  elected,  11  appointed  senators-for-life)  PDS  61,  Northern  League  60, 
  National  Alliance  48,  Forza  Italia  36,  Italian  Popular  Party  31, 
  Communist  Refoundation  18,  Greens  and  The  Network  13,  Italian 
  Socialists  13,  Christian  Democratic  Center  12,  Democratic  Alliance  8, 
  Christian  Socialists  5,  Pact  for  Italy  4,  Radical  Party  (Pannella 
  List)  1,  others  5 
  Chamber  of  Deputies  (Camera  dei  Deputati):  elections  last  held  27-28 
  March  1994  (next  must  be  held  by  spring  1999,  but  may  be  held  by  end 
  of  1995);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA  seats  -  (630  total) 
  Northern  League  117,  PDS  114,  Forza  Italia  113,  National  Alliance  109, 
  Communist  Refoundation  39,  Christian  Democratic  Center  33,  Italian 
  Popular  Party  33,  Greens  and  The  Network  20,  Democratic  Alliance  18, 
  Italian  Socialists  16,  Pact  for  Italy  13,  Christian  Socialists  5 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Constitutional  Court  (Corte  Costituzionale) 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Forza  Italia  (FI),  Silvio  BERLUSCONI 
  National  Alliance,  Gianfranco  FINI,  party  secretary;  Northern  League  - 
  Federal  Italy  (NL),  Umberto  BOSSI,  president;  Italian  Social  Movement, 
  Pino  RAUTI  Democratic  Party  of  the  Left  (PDS,  Massimo  D'ALEMA, 
  secretary;  Communist  Refoundation  (RC),  Fausto  BERTINOTTI  Greens, 
  Gianni  MATTIOLI  Italian  Socialists,  Ottaviano  DELTURCO  Rete  (The 
  Network),  Leoluca  ORLANDO;  Christian  Socialists,  Ermanno  GORRIERI 
  Pact  for  Italy,  Mario  SEGNI;  Italian  Popular  Party  (PPI),  Rocco 
  BUTTIGLIONE  Gerardo  BIANCO;  Christian  Democratic  Center  (CCD),  Pier 
  Ferdinando  CASINI;  Union  of  the  Democratic  Center  (UDC),  Raffaele 
  COSTA;  Pannella  List,  Marco  PANNELLA 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  the  Roman  Catholic  Church;  three 
  major  trade  union  confederations  (Confederazione  Generale  Italiana  del 
  Lavoro  or  CGIL  which  is  PDS-dominated,  Confederazione  Italiana  dei 
  Sindacati  Lavoratori  or  CISL  which  is  centerist,  and  Unione  Italiana 
  del  Lavoro  or  UIL  which  is  center-left);  Italian  manufacturers  and 
  merchants  associations  (Confindustria,  Confcommercio);  organized  farm 
  groups  (Confcoltivatori,  Confagricoltura) 
 
  Member  of:  AfDB  AG  (observer),  AsDB  Australia  Group  BIS,  CCC,  CDB 
  (non-regional),  CE  CEI,  CERN,  EBRD,  EC  ECE,  ECLAC  EIB,  ESA,  FAO,  G- 
  7,  G-10,  GATT,  IADB,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICC,  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA,  IEA, 
  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INMARSAT  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC, 
  IOM,  ISO,  ITU,  LAIA  (observer),  MINURSO  MTCR,  NACC,  NATO,  NEA,  NSG, 
  OAS  (observer),  OECD  ONUSAL  OSCE,  PCA,  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNHCR 
  UNIDO  UNIFIL,  UNIKOM  UNITAR,  UNMOGIP  UNOMOZ  UNTSO  UPU,  WCL,  WEU, 
  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO,  ZC 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Boris  BIANCHERI-CHIAPPORI 
  chancery:  1601  Fuller  Street  NW  Washington,  DC  20009 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  328-5500 
  consulate(s)  general:  Boston,  Chicago,  Houston,  Miami,  New  York,  Los 
  Angeles,  Philadelphia,  San  Francisco 
  consulate(s):  Detroit  and  New  Orleans 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Reginald  BARTHOLOMEW 
  embassy:  Via  Veneto  119/A,  00187-Rome 
  mailing  address:  PSC  59,  Box  100,  Rome;  APO  AE  09624 
  telephone:  [39]  (6)  46741 
  FAX:  [39]  (6)  4882672 
  consulate(s)  general:  Florence,  Milan,  Naples 
 
  Flag:  three  equal  vertical  bands  of  green  (hoist  side),  white,  and 
  red;  similar  to  the  flag  of  Ireland,  which  is  longer  and  is  green 
  (hoist  side),  white,  and  orange;  also  similar  to  the  flag  of  the  Cote 
  d'Ivoire,  which  has  the  colors  reversed  -  orange  (hoist  side),  white, 
  and  green 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Since  World  War  II  the  Italian  economy  has  changed  from  one 
  based  on  agriculture  into  a  ranking  industrial  economy,  with 
  approximately  the  same  total  and  per  capita  output  as  France  and  the 
  UK  The  country  is  still  divided  into  a  developed  industrial  north, 
  dominated  by  private  companies,  and  an  undeveloped  agricultural  south, 
  dominated  by  large  public  enterprises.  Services  account  for  48%  of 
  GDP,  industry  35%,  agriculture  4%,  and  public  administration  13%.  Most 
  raw  materials  needed  by  industry  and  over  75%  of  energy  requirements 
  must  be  imported.  After  growing  at  an  average  annual  rate  of  3%  in 
  1983-90,  growth  slowed  to  about  1%  in  1991  and  1992,  fell  by  0.7%  in 
  1993,  and  recovered  to  2%  in  1994.  In  the  second  half  of  1992,  Rome 
  became  unsettled  by  the  prospect  of  not  qualifying  to  participate  in 
  EU  plans  for  economic  and  monetary  union  later  in  the  decade;  thus  it 
  finally  began  to  address  its  huge  fiscal  imbalances.  Subsequently,  the 
  government  has  adopted  fairly  stringent  budgets,  abandoned  its  highly 
  inflationary  wage  indexation  system,  and  started  to  scale  back  its 
  extremely  generous  social  welfare  programs,  including  pension  and 
  health  care  benefits.  Monetary  officials  were  forced  to  withdraw  the 
  lira  from  the  European  monetary  system  in  September  1992  when  it  came 
  under  extreme  pressure  in  currency  markets.  For  the  1990s,  Italy  faces 
  the  problems  of  pushing  ahead  with  fiscal  reform,  refurbishing  a 
  tottering  communications  system,  curbing  pollution  in  major  industrial 
  centers,  and  adjusting  to  the  new  competitive  forces  accompanying  the 
  ongoing  expansion  and  economic  integration  of  the  European  Union. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $998.9  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  2.2%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $17,180  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  3.9%  (1994) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  12.2%  (January  1995) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $339  billion 
  expenditures:  $431  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA 
  (1994  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $190.8  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994) 
  commodities:  metals,  textiles  and  clothing,  production  machinery, 
  motor  vehicles,  transportation  equipment,  chemicals,  other 
  partners:  EU  53.4%,  US  7.8%,  OPEC  3.8%  (1994) 
 
  Imports:  $168.7  billion  (c.i.f.,  1994) 
  commodities:  industrial  machinery,  chemicals,  transport  equipment, 
  petroleum,  metals,  food,  agricultural  products 
  partners:  EU  56.3%,  OPEC  5.3%,  US  4.6%  (1994) 
 
  External  debt:  $67  billion  (1993  est.) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  4.3%  (1994  est.);  accounts  for  35% 
  of  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  61,630,000  kW 
  production:  209  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  4,033  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  machinery,  iron  and  steel,  chemicals,  food  processing, 
  textiles,  motor  vehicles,  clothing,  footwear,  ceramics 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  about  4%  of  GDP;  self-sufficient  in  foods 
  other  than  meat,  dairy  products,  and  cereals;  principal  crops  - 
  fruits,  vegetables,  grapes,  potatoes,  sugar  beets,  soybeans,  grain, 
  olives;  fish  catch  of  525,000  metric  tons  in  1990 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  important  gateway  country  for  Latin  American  cocaine 
  and  Southwest  Asian  heroin  entering  the  European  market 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  donor:  ODA  and  OOF  commitments  (1970-89),  $25.9  billion 
 
  Currency:  1  Italian  lira  (Lit)  =  100  centesimi 
 
  Exchange  rates:  Italian  lire  (Lit)  per  US$1  -  1,609.5  (January  1995), 
  1,612.4  (1994),  1,573.7  (1993),  1,232.4  (1992),  1,240.6  (1991), 
  1,198.1  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Italy:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  19,503  km 
  standard  gauge:  18,230  km  1.435-m  gauge  (10,499  km  electrified;  2,112 
  km  privately  owned) 
  narrow  gauge:  1,273  km  0.950-m  to  1.000-m  gauge  (224  km  electrified; 
  1,273  km  privately  owned) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  305,388  km 
  paved:  277,388  km  (6,940  km  of  expressways) 
  unpaved:  gravel,  crushed  stone  23,000  km  earth  5,000  km  (1992) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  2,400  km  for  various  types  of  commercial  traffic, 
  although  of  limited  overall  value 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  1,703  km  petroleum  products  2,148  km  natural 
  gas  19,400  km 
 
  Ports:  Ancona,  Augusta,  Bari,  Cagliari  (Sardinia),  Catania  Gaeta, 
  Genoa,  La  Spezia  Livorno  Naples,  Oristano  (Sardinia),  Palermo 
  (Sicily),  Piombino  Porto  Torres  (Sardinia),  Ravenna,  Savona,  Trieste, 
  Venice 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  441  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  5,767,969  GRT/8,547,221 
  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  40,  cargo  62,  chemical  tanker  34,  combination 
  ore/oil  3,  container  18,  liquefied  gas  tanker  37,  multifunction 
  large-load  carrier  1,  oil  tanker  136,  passenger  7,  roll-on/roll-off 
  cargo  54,  short-sea  passenger  30,  specialized  tanker  11,  vehicle 
  carrier  8 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  138 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  5 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  34 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  15 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  26 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  34 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  2 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  22 
 
  Italy:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  25,600,000  telephones;  modern,  well-developed,  fast 
  fully  automated  telephone,  telex,  and  data  services 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  high-capacity  cable  and  microwave  radio  relay  trunks 
  international:  international  service  by  21  submarine  cables,  3 
  satellite  earth  stations  operating  in  INTELSAT  with  3  Atlantic  Ocean 
  antennas  and  2  Indian  Ocean  antennas;  also  participates  in  INMARSAT 
  and  EUTELSAT  systems 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  135,  FM  28  (repeaters  1,840),  shortwave  0 
  radios:  16  million 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  83  (repeaters  1,000) 
  televisions:  18  million 
 
  Italy:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army,  Navy,  Air  Force,  Carabinieri 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  14,934,657;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  12,962,594;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually 
  382,142  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $21.5  billion,  2%  of 
  GDP  (1994) 
 
 
 




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