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japan

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japan


  5  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Japan  \Ja*pan"\,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  {Japanned};  p.  pr  &  vb  n. 
  {Japanning}.] 
  1.  To  cover  with  a  coat  of  hard,  brilliant  varnish,  in  the 
  manner  of  the  Japanese;  to  lacquer. 
 
  2.  To  give  a  glossy  black  to  as  shoes.  [R.]  --Gay. 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Japan  \Ja*pan"\,  n.  [From  Japan,  the  country.] 
  Work  varnished  and  figured  in  the  Japanese  manner;  also  the 
  varnish  or  lacquer  used  in  japanning. 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Japan  \Ja*pan"\,  a. 
  Of  or  pertaining  to  Japan,  or  to  the  lacquered  work  of  that 
  country;  as  Japan  ware. 
 
  {Japan  allspice}  (Bot.),  a  spiny  shrub  from  Japan 
  ({Chimonanthus  fragrans}),  related  to  the  Carolina 
  allspice. 
 
  {Japan  black}  (Chem.),  a  quickly  drying  black  lacquer  or 
  varnish,  consisting  essentially  of  asphaltum  dissolved  in 
  naphtha  or  turpentine,  and  used  for  coating  ironwork;  -- 
  called  also  {Brunswick  black},  {Japan  lacquer},  or  simply 
  {Japan}. 
 
  {Japan  camphor},  ordinary  camphor  brought  from  China  or 
  Japan,  as  distinguished  from  the  rare  variety  called 
  borneol  or  Borneo  camphor. 
 
  {Japan  clover},  or  {Japan  pea}  (Bot.),  a  cloverlike  plant 
  ({Lespedeza  striata})  from  Eastern  Asia,  useful  for 
  fodder,  first  noticed  in  the  Southern  United  States  about 
  1860,  but  now  become  very  common.  During  the  Civil  War  it 
  was  called  variously  {Yankee  clover}  and  {Rebel  clover}. 
 
 
  {Japan  earth}.  See  {Catechu}. 
 
  {Japan  ink},  a  kind  of  writing  ink,  of  a  deep,  glossy  black 
  when  dry. 
 
  {Japan  varnish},  a  varnish  prepared  from  the  milky  juice  of 
  the  {Rhus  vernix},  a  small  Japanese  tree  related  to  the 
  poison  sumac. 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Japan 
  n  1:  a  string  of  islands  east  of  Asia  [syn:  {Japan},  {Japanese 
  Islands},  {Japanese  Archipelago}] 
  2:  a  constitutional  monarchy  occupying  a  string  of  islands  east 
  of  Asia;  a  world  leader  in  electronics  and  automobile 
  manufacture  and  ship  building  [syn:  {Japan},  {Nippon},  {Nihon}] 
  3:  work  decorated  and  varnished  in  the  Japanese  manner  with  a 
  glossy  durable  black  lacquer 
  4:  a  durable  glossy  black  finish,  originally  from  the  orient 
  v  :  lacquer  with  japan 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Japan 
 
  Japan:Geography 
 
  Location:  Eastern  Asia,  island  chain  between  the  North  Pacific  Ocean 
  and  the  Sea  of  Japan,  east  of  the  Korean  peninsula 
 
  Map  references:  Asia 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  377,835  sq  km 
  land  area:  374,744  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  smaller  than  California 
  note:  includes  Bonin  Islands  (Ogasawara-gunto),  Daito-shoto, 
  Minami-jima,  Okinotori-shima,  Ryukyu  Islands  (Nansei-shoto),  and 
  Volcano  Islands  (Kazan-retto) 
 
  Land  boundaries:  0  km 
 
  Coastline:  29,751  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  exclusive  fishing  zone:  200  nm 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm  3  nm  in  the  international  straits  -  La  Perouse 
  or  Soya,  Tsugaru  Osumi  and  Eastern  and  Western  Channels  of  the  Korea 
  or  Tsushima  Strait 
 
  International  disputes:  islands  of  Etorofu  Kunashiri  Shikotan  and 
  the  Habomai  group  occupied  by  the  Soviet  Union  in  1945,  now 
  administered  by  Russia,  claimed  by  Japan;  Liancourt  Rocks  disputed 
  with  South  Korea;  Senkaku-shoto  (Senkaku  Islands)  claimed  by  China  and 
  Taiwan 
 
  Climate:  varies  from  tropical  in  south  to  cool  temperate  in  north 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  rugged  and  mountainous 
 
  Natural  resources:  negligible  mineral  resources,  fish 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  13% 
  permanent  crops:  1% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  1% 
  forest  and  woodland:  67% 
  other:  18% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  28,680  sq  km  (1989) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  air  pollution  from  power  plant  emissions  results  in 
  acid  rain;  acidification  of  lakes  and  reservoirs  degrading  water 
  quality  and  threatening  aquatic  life;  Japan's  appetite  for  fish  and 
  tropical  timber  is  contributing  to  the  depletion  of  these  resources  in 
  Asia  and  elsewhere 
  natural  hazards:  many  dormant  and  some  active  volcanoes;  about  1,500 
  seismic  occurrences  (mostly  tremors)  every  year;  tsunamis 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Antarctic  Treaty,  Biodiversity, 
  Climate  Change,  Endangered  Species,  Environmental  Modification, 
  Hazardous  Wastes,  Marine  Dumping,  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer 
  Protection,  Ship  Pollution,  Tropical  Timber  83,  Tropical  Timber  94, 
  Wetlands,  Whaling;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Antarctic-Environmental 
  Protocol,  Desertification  Law  of  the  Sea 
 
  Note:  strategic  location  in  northeast  Asia 
 
  Japan:People 
 
  Population:  125,506,492  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  16%  (female  9,955,603;  male  10,542,973) 
  15-64  years:  69%  (female  43,377,425;  male  43,843,645) 
  65  years  and  over:  15%  (female  10,514,017;  male  7,272,829)  (July  1995 
  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  0.32%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  10.66  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  7.46  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  4.3  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  79.44  years 
  male:  76.6  years 
  female:  82.42  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  1.56  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Japanese  (singular  and  plural) 
  adjective:  Japanese 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Japanese  99.4%,  other  0.6%  (mostly  Korean) 
 
  Religions:  observe  both  Shinto  and  Buddhist  84%,  other  16%  (including 
  0.7%  Christian) 
 
  Languages:  Japanese 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1970  est.) 
  total  population:  99% 
 
  Labor  force:  65.87  million  (December  1994) 
  by  occupation:  trade  and  services  54%,  manufacturing,  mining,  and 
  construction  33%,  agriculture,  forestry,  and  fishing  7%,  government  3% 
  (1988) 
 
  Japan:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  none 
  conventional  short  form:  Japan 
 
  Digraph:  JA 
 
  Type:  constitutional  monarchy 
 
  Capital:  Tokyo 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  47  prefectures;  Aichi,  Akita,  Aomori  Chiba, 
  Ehime,  Fukui  Fukuoka,  Fukushima  Gifu,  Gumma,  Hiroshima,  Hokkaido, 
  Hyogo,  Ibaraki  Ishikawa  Iwate,  Kagawa,  Kagoshima  Kanagawa  Kochi, 
  Kumamoto  Kyoto,  Mie,  Miyagi  Miyazaki  Nagano,  Nagasaki,  Nara, 
  Niigata  Oita,  Okayama  Okinawa,  Osaka,  Saga,  Saitama  Shiga,  Shimane 
  Shizuoka  Tochigi  Tokushima  Tokyo,  Tottori  Toyama,  Wakayama 
  Yamagata  Yamaguchi  Yamanashi 
 
  Independence:  660  BC  (traditional  founding  by  Emperor  Jimmu) 
 
  National  holiday:  Birthday  of  the  Emperor,  23  December  (1933) 
 
  Constitution:  3  May  1947 
 
  Legal  system:  modeled  after  European  civil  law  system  with 
  English-American  influence;  judicial  review  of  legislative  acts  in  the 
  Supreme  Court;  accepts  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction,  with  reservations 
 
  Suffrage:  20  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  Emperor  AKIHITO  (since  7  January  1989) 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Tomiichi  MURAYAMA  (since  30  June 
  1994);  Deputy  Prime  Minister  Yohei  KONO  (since  30  June  1994) 
  cabinet:  Cabinet;  appointed  by  the  prime  minister 
 
  Legislative  branch:  bicameral  Diet  (Kokkai)  consists  of  an  upper  house 
  or  House  of  Councillors  and  a  lower  house  or  House  of  Representatives 
  House  of  Councillors  (Sangi-in):  half  of  the  members  elected  every 
  three  years  to  six-year  terms;  elections  last  held  on  26  July  1992 
  (next  set  to  be  held  23  July  1995);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party 
  NA  seats  -  (252  total)  LDP  106,  SDPJ  73,  Komeito  24,  DSP  12,  JCP  11, 
  JNP  4,  others  16,  independents  6;  note  -  the  distribution  of  seats  as 
  of  1  April  1995  is  as  follows  -  LDP  94,  SDPJ  68,  Heisei-kai  47,  Shin 
  Ryokufu-kai  16,  JCP  11,  others  15,  vacant  1 
  House  of  Representatives  (Shugi-in):  all  members  elected  every  four 
  years  to  four-year  terms;  elections  last  held  on  18  July  1993  (next  to 
  be  held  by  1997);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA  seats  -  (511 
  total)  LDP  223,  SDPJ  70,  Shinseito  55,  Komeito  51,  JNP  35,  JCP  15,  DSP 
  15,  Sakigake  13,  others  4,  independents  30;  note  -  the  distribution  of 
  seats  as  of  1  April  1995  is  as  follows  -  LDP  207,  Shinshinto  173,  SDPJ 
  70,  Sakigake  21,  JCP  15,  others  19,  vacant  6 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Liberal  Democratic  Party  (LDP),  Yohei 
  KONO,  president  and  Yoshiro  MORI,  secretary  general;  Social  Democratic 
  Party  of  Japan  (SDPJ),  Tomiichi  MURAYAMA  Japan  Communist  Party  (JCP), 
  Tetsuzo  FUWA,  Presidium  chairman;  Sakigake  (Harbinger),  Masayoshi 
  TAKEMURA  chairman;  Shinshinto  (New  Frontier  Party,  NFP),  Toshiki 
  KAIFU  chairman  and  Ichiro  OZAWA,  secretary  general 
  note:  Shinshinto  was  formed  in  December  1994  by  the  merger  of 
  Shinseito  (Japan  Renewal  Party,  JRP),  Komeito  (Clean  Government  Party, 
  CGP),  Japan  New  Party  (JNP),  Democratic  Socialist  Party  (DSP),  and 
  several  minor  groups;  Shin  Ryokufu-kai  is  a  parliamentary  alliance 
  which  exists  only  in  the  upper  house,  it  includes  remnants  of 
  Shinseito  JNP,  DSP,  and  a  minor  labor  group  Heisei-kai  is  a  joint 
  bloc  of  Shinshinto  and  Komei  members;  Komei  is  a  group  formed  from 
  what  remains  of  Komeito  in  the  upper  house 
 
  Member  of:  AfDB  AG  (observer),  APEC,  AsDB  Australia  Group  BIS,  CCC, 
  CP  EBRD,  ESCAP,  FAO,  G-  2,  G-  5,  G-  7,  G-  8,  G-10,  GATT,  IADB,  IAEA, 
  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICC,  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA,  IEA,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF, 
  IMO,  INMARSAT  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  IOM,  ISO,  ITU,  MTCR,  NEA,  NSG, 
  OAS  (observer),  OECD  PCA,  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNHCR  UNIDO  UNITAR, 
  UNOMOZ  UNRWA  UNU,  UPU,  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO,  ZC 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Takakazu  KURIYAMA 
  chancery:  2520  Massachusetts  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  939-6700 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  328-2187 
  consulate(s)  general:  Agana  (Guam),  Anchorage,  Atlanta,  Boston, 
  Chicago,  Detroit,  Honolulu,  Houston,  Kansas  City  (Missouri),  Los 
  Angeles,  Miami,  New  Orleans,  New  York,  Portland  (Oregon),  San 
  Francisco,  and  Seattle 
  consulate(s):  Saipan  (Northern  Mariana  Islands) 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Walter  F.  MONDALE 
  embassy:  10-5,  Akasaka  1-chome,  Minato-ku  (107),  Tokyo 
  mailing  address:  Unit  45004,  Box  258,  Tokyo;  APO  AP  96337-0001 
  telephone:  [81]  (3)  3224-5000 
  FAX:  [81]  (3)  3505-1862 
  consulate(s)  general:  Naha  (Okinawa),  Osaka-Kobe,  Sapporo 
  consulate(s):  Fukuoka,  Nagoya 
 
  Flag:  white  with  a  large  red  disk  (representing  the  sun  without  rays) 
  in  the  center 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Government-industry  cooperation,  a  strong  work  ethic, 
  mastery  of  high  technology,  and  a  comparatively  small  defense 
  allocation  (roughly  1%  of  GDP)  have  helped  Japan  advance  with 
  extraordinary  rapidity  to  the  rank  of  second  most  powerful  economy  in 
  the  world.  Industry,  the  most  important  sector  of  the  economy,  is 
  heavily  dependent  on  imported  raw  materials  and  fuels.  Usually 
  self-sufficient  in  rice,  Japan  must  import  about  50%  of  its 
  requirements  of  other  grain  and  fodder  crops.  Japan  maintains  one  of 
  the  world's  largest  fishing  fleets  and  accounts  for  nearly  15%  of  the 
  global  catch.  Overall  economic  growth  has  been  spectacular:  a  10% 
  average  in  the  1960s,  a  5%  average  in  the  1970s  and  1980s.  Economic 
  growth  came  to  a  halt  in  1992-93  largely  because  of  contractionary 
  domestic  policies  intended  to  wring  speculative  excesses  from  the 
  stock  and  real  estate  markets.  Growth  resumed  at  a  0.6%  pace  in  1994 
  largely  because  of  consumer  demand.  As  for  foreign  trade  the  stronger 
  yen  and  slower  global  growth  are  containing  export  growth. 
  Unemployment  and  inflation  remain  remarkably  low  in  comparison  with 
  the  other  industrialized  nations.  Japan  continues  to  run  a  huge  trade 
  surplus  -  $121  billion  in  1994,  roughly  the  same  size  as  in  1993  - 
  which  supports  extensive  investment  in  foreign  assets.  Prime  Minister 
  MURAYAMA  has  yet  to  formalize  his  government's  plans  for 
  administrative  and  economic  reform,  including  reduction  in  the  trade 
  surplus.  As  leader  of  a  coalition  government,  he  has  softened  his  own 
  socialist  positions.  The  crowding  of  the  habitable  land  area  and  the 
  aging  of  the  population  are  two  major  long-run  problems. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $2.5274  trillion 
  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  0.6%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $20,200  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  0.7%  (1994) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  2.9%  (1994) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $569  billion 
  expenditures:  $671  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  (public 
  works  only)  of  about  $126  billion  (1994  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $395.5  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994) 
  commodities:  manufactures  97%  (including  machinery  46%,  motor  vehicles 
  20%,  consumer  electronics  10%) 
  partners:  Southeast  Asia  33%,  US  29%,  Western  Europe  18%,  China  5% 
 
  Imports:  $274.3  billion  (c.i.f.,  1994) 
  commodities:  manufactures  52%,  fossil  fuels  20%,  foodstuffs  and  raw 
  materials  28% 
  partners:  Southeast  Asia  25%,  US  23%,  Western  Europe  15%,  China  9% 
 
  External  debt:  $NA 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  1%  (1994);  accounts  for  30%  of  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  205,140,000  kW 
  production:  840  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  6,262  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  steel  and  non-ferrous  metallurgy,  heavy  electrical 
  equipment,  construction  and  mining  equipment,  motor  vehicles  and 
  parts  electronic  and  telecommunication  equipment  and  components, 
  machine  tools  and  automated  production  systems,  locomotives  and 
  railroad  rolling  stock,  shipbuilding,  chemicals,  textiles,  food 
  processing 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  only  2%  of  GDP;  highly  subsidized  and 
  protected  sector,  with  crop  yields  among  highest  in  world;  principal 
  crops  -  rice,  sugar  beets,  vegetables,  fruit;  animal  products  include 
  pork,  poultry,  dairy  and  eggs;  about  50%  self-sufficient  in  food 
  production;  shortages  of  wheat,  corn,  soybeans;  world's  largest  fish 
  catch  of  10  million  metric  tons  in  1991 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  donor:  ODA  and  OOF  commitments  (1970-94),  $132  billion 
  note:  ODA  outlay  of  $9.9  billion  in  1994  (est.) 
 
  Currency:  yen  Y 
 
  Exchange  rates:  yen  Y  per  US$1  -  99.75  (January  1995),  102.21 
  (1994),  111.20  (1993),  126.65  (1992),  134.71  (1991),  144.79  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  1  April  -  31  March 
 
  Japan:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  27,327  km  (5,724  km  double  track  and  multitrack  sections) 
  standard  gauge:  2,012  km  1.435-m  gauge  (2,012  km  electrified) 
  narrow  gauge:  25,315  km  predominantly  1.067-m  gauge  (9,038  km 
  electrified)  (1987) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  1,111,974  km 
  paved:  754,102  km  (including  4,869  km  of  national  expressways) 
  unpaved:  gravel,  crushed  stone,  or  earth  357,872  km  (1991) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  about  1,770  km  seagoing  craft  ply  all  coastal 
  inland  seas 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  84  km  petroleum  products  322  km  natural  gas 
  1,800  km 
 
  Ports:  Akita,  Amagasaki  Chiba,  Hachinohe  Hakodate  Higashi-Harima, 
  Himeji  Hiroshima,  Kawasaki  Kinuura  Kobe,  Kushiro  Mizushima  Moji, 
  Nagoya,  Osaka,  Sakai,  Sakaide  Shimizu  Tokyo,  Tomakomai 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  851  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  18,195,386 
  GRT/27,292,044  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  210,  cargo  63,  chemical  tanker  7,  combination 
  ore/oil  7,  container  41,  liquefied  gas  tanker  41,  multifunction 
  large-load  carrier  1,  oil  tanker  264,  passenger  10,  passenger-cargo  5, 
  refrigerated  cargo  48,  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  43,  short-sea  passenger 
  30,  specialized  tanker  2,  vehicle  carrier  79 
  note:  Japan  owns  an  additional  1,537  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over) 
  totaling  45,490,202  DWT  that  operate  under  Panamanian,  Liberian, 
  Vanuatu,  Bahamian,  Singaporian,  Cypriot,  Philippines,  Hong  Kong,  and 
  Maltese  registry 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  175 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  6 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  31 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  36 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  30 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  70 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  2 
 
  Japan:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  64,000,000  telephones;  excellent  domestic  and 
  international  service 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  NA 
  international:  5  INTELSAT  (4  Pacific  Ocean  and  1  Indian  Ocean)  earth 
  stations;  submarine  cables  to  US  (via  Guam),  Philippines,  China,  and 
  Russia 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  318,  FM  58,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  95  million 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  12,350  (1  kW  or  greater  196) 
  televisions:  100  million 
 
  Japan:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Japan  Ground  Self-Defense  Force  (Army),  Japan  Maritime 
  Self-Defense  Force  (Navy),  Japan  Air  Self-Defense  Force  (Air  Force) 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  31,947,532;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  27,494,758;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually 
  910,970  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $47.2  billion,  1%  of 
  GDP  (FY95/96) 
 
 
 




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