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kazakhstan

more about kazakhstan

kazakhstan


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Kazakhstan 
  n  :  a  landlocked  republic  south  of  Russia  and  northeast  of  the 
  Caspian  Sea;  the  original  Turkic-speaking  inhabitants 
  were  overrun  by  Mongols  in  the  13th  century;  an  Asian 
  Soviet  from  1936  to  1991  [syn:  {Kazakstan},  {Kazakhstan}, 
  {Kazak},  {Kazakh}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Kazakhstan 
 
  Kazakhstan:Geography 
 
  Location:  Central  Asia,  northwest  of  China 
 
  Map  references:  Commonwealth  of  Independent  States  -  Central  Asian 
  States 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  2,717,300  sq  km 
  land  area:  2,669,800  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  less  than  four  times  the  size  of  Texas 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  12,012  km  China  1,533  km  Kyrgyzstan  1,051  km 
  Russia  6,846  km  Turkmenistan  379  km  Uzbekistan  2,203  km 
 
  Coastline:  0  km  (landlocked) 
  note:  Kazakhstan  borders  the  Aral  Sea  (1,015  km)  and  the  Caspian  Sea 
  (1,894  km) 
 
  Maritime  claims:  none;  landlocked 
 
  International  disputes:  Caspian  Sea  boundaries  are  not  yet  determined 
 
  Climate:  continental,  cold  winters  and  hot  summers,  arid  and  semiarid 
 
  Terrain:  extends  from  the  Volga  to  the  Altai  Mountains  and  from  the 
  plains  in  western  Siberia  to  oasis  and  desert  in  Central  Asia 
 
  Natural  resources:  major  deposits  of  petroleum,  coal,  iron  ore, 
  manganese,  chrome  ore,  nickel,  cobalt,  copper,  molybdenum,  lead,  zinc, 
  bauxite,  gold,  uranium 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  15% 
  permanent  crops:  NEGL% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  57% 
  forest  and  woodland:  4% 
  other:  24% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  23,080  sq  km  (1990) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  radioactive  or  toxic  chemical  sites  associated  with 
  its  former  defense  industries  and  test  ranges  are  found  throughout  the 
  country  and  pose  health  risks  for  humans  and  animals;  industrial 
  pollution  is  severe  in  some  cities;  because  the  two  main  rivers  which 
  flowed  into  the  Aral  Sea  have  been  diverted  for  irrigation,  it  is 
  drying  up  and  leaving  behind  a  harmful  layer  of  chemical  pesticides 
  and  natural  salts;  these  substances  are  then  picked  up  by  the  wind  and 
  blown  into  noxious  dust  storms;  pollution  in  the  Caspian  Sea;  soil 
  pollution  from  overuse  of  agricultural  chemicals  and  salinization  from 
  faulty  irrigation  practices 
  natural  hazards:  NA 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Biodiversity,  Ship  Pollution; 
  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Climate  Change,  Desertification 
 
  Note:  landlocked 
 
  Kazakhstan:People 
 
  Population:  17,376,615  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  30%  (female  2,589,509;  male  2,664,952) 
  15-64  years:  63%  (female  5,531,519;  male  5,371,563) 
  65  years  and  over:  7%  (female  820,900;  male  398,172)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  0.62%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  19.26  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  7.93  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  -5.11  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  40  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  68.25  years 
  male:  63.61  years 
  female:  73.13  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  2.43  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Kazakhstani(s) 
  adjective:  Kazakhstani 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Kazakh  Qazaq  41.9%,  Russian  37%,  Ukrainian  5.2%, 
  German  4.7%,  Uzbek  2.1%,  Tatar  2%,  other  7.1%  (1991  official  data) 
 
  Religions:  Muslim  47%,  Russian  Orthodox  44%,  Protestant  2%,  other  7% 
 
  Languages:  Kazakh  Qazaqz  official  language  spoken  by  over  40%  of 
  population,  Russian  (language  of  interethnic  communication)  spoken  by 
  two-thirds  of  population  and  used  in  everyday  business 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1989) 
  total  population:  98% 
  male:  99% 
  female:  96% 
 
  Labor  force:  7.356  million 
  by  occupation:  industry  and  construction  31%,  agriculture  and  forestry 
  26%,  other  43%  (1992) 
 
  Kazakhstan:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Kazakhstan 
  conventional  short  form:  Kazakhstan 
  local  long  form:  Qazaqstan  Respublikasy 
  local  short  form:  none 
  former:  Kazakh  Soviet  Socialist  Republic 
 
  Digraph:  KZ 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  Almaty 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  19  oblystar  (singular  -  oblys)  and  1  city 
  (qalalar,  singular  -  qala)*;  Almaty  Qalasy*,  Almaty  Oblysy  Aqmola 
  Oblysy  Aqtobe  Oblysy  Atyrau  Oblysy  Batys  Qazaqstan  Oblysy  (Oral), 
  Kokshetau  Oblysy  Mangghystau  Oblysy  (Aqtau),  Ongtustik  Qazaqstan 
  Oblysy  (Shymkent),  Qaraghandy  Oblysy  Qostanay  Oblysy  Qyzylorda 
  Oblysy  Pavlodar  Oblysy  Semey  Oblysy  Shyghys  Qazaqstan  Oblysy 
  (Oskemen;  formerly  Ust'-Kamenogorsk),  Soltustik  Qazaqstan  Oblysy 
  (Petropavl),  Taldyqorghan  Oblysy  Torghay  Oblysy  Zhambyl  Oblysy 
  Zhezqazghan  Oblysy 
  note:  names  in  parentheses  are  administrative  centers  when  name 
  differs  from  oblys  name 
 
  Independence:  16  December  1991  (from  the  Soviet  Union) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  16  December  (1991) 
 
  Constitution:  adopted  28  January  1993 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  civil  law  system 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Nursultan  NAZARBAYEV  (since  NA  April  1990); 
  Vice  President  Yerik  ASANBAYEV  (since  1  December  1991);  election  last 
  held  1  December  1991  (next  to  be  held  NA  1996);  results  -  Nursultan  A. 
  NAZARBAYEV  ran  unopposed;  note  -  NAZARBAYEV  has  extended  his  term  to 
  the  year  2000  by  a  nationwide  referendum  held  30  April  1995 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Akezhan  KAZHEGELDIN  (since  12 
  October  1994);  First  Deputy  Prime  Ministers  Nigmatzhan  ISINGARIN 
  (since  12  October  1994)  and  Vitalia  METTE  (since  March  1995) 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  appointed  by  the  prime  minister 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  Supreme  Council:  elections  last  held  7  March  1994  (next  to  be  held  NA 
  1999);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA  seats  -  (177  total) 
  Union  Peoples'  Unity  of  Kazakhstan  33,  Confederation  of  Trade  Unions 
  of  the  Republic  of  Kazakhstan  11,  Peoples'  Congress  of  Kazakhstan 
  Party  9,  Socialist  Party  of  Kazakhstan  8,  Peasant  Union  of  the 
  Republic  Kazakhstan  4,  Social  Movement  LAD  4,  Organization  of  Veterans 
  1,  Union  of  Youth  of  Kazakhstan  1,  Democratic  Committee  for  Human 
  Rights  1,  Association  of  Lawyers  of  Kazakhstan  1,  International  Public 
  Committee  "Aral-Asia-Kazakhstan"  1,  Congress  of  Entrepreneurs  of 
  Kazakhstan  1,  Deputies  of  the  12th  Supreme  Soviet  40,  independents  62 
  note:  the  Supreme  Council  disbanded  12  March  1995  following  a 
  Constitutional  Court  ruling  that  the  March  1994  elections  were  invalid 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  People's  Unity  Party  (PUP;  was  Union  of 
  People's  Unity),  Kuanysh  SULTANOV  chairman;  People's  Congress  of 
  Kazakhstan  (PCK),  Olzhas  SULEYMENOV  chairman;  Socialist  Party  of 
  Kazakhstan  (SPK;  former  Communist  Party),  Yermukhamet  YERTYSHBAYEV 
  co-chairman;  Republican  Party  (Azat),  Kamal  ORMANTAYEV  chairman; 
  Democratic  Progress  (Russian)  Party,  Alexandra  DOKUCHAYEVA  chairman; 
  Confederation  of  Trade  Unions  of  the  Republic  of  Kazakhstan;  Peasant 
  Union  of  the  Republic  Kazakhstan  (KPU);  Social  Movement  LAD,  V. 
  MIKHAYLOV  chairman;  Union  of  Youth  of  Kazakhstan;  Democratic 
  Committee  for  Human  Rights;  Association  of  Lawyers  of  Kazakhstan; 
  International  Public  Committee  "Aral-Asia-Kazakhstan";  Congress  of 
  Entrepreneurs  of  Kazakhstan;  Deputies  of  the  12th  Supreme  Soviet; 
  People's  Cooperative  Party,  Umirzak  SARSENOV  chairman;  Organization 
  of  Veterans 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  Independent  Trade  Union  Center 
  (Birlesu;  an  association  of  independent  trade  union  and  business 
  associations),  Leonid  SOLOMIN,  president 
 
  Member  of:  AsDB  CCC,  CIS,  EBRD,  ECO,  ESCAP,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  IDA, 
  IFC,  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INTELSAT  (nonsignatory  user),  INTERPOL,  IOC,  ITU, 
  NACC,  OIC  (observer),  OSCE,  PFP,  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UPU,  WHO  WIPO, 
  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Tuleutai  S.  SULEYMENOV 
  chancery:  (temporary)  3421  Massachusetts  Avenue,  NW  Washington,  DC 
  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  333-4504  through  4507 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  333-4509 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  William  H.  COURTNEY 
  embassy:  99/97  Furmanova  Street,  Almaty,  Republic  of  Kazakhstan  480012 
 
  mailing  address:  use  embassy  street  address 
  telephone:  [7]  (3272)  63-24-26 
  FAX:  [7]  (3272)  63-38-83 
 
  Flag:  sky  blue  background  representing  the  endless  sky  and  a  gold  sun 
  with  32  rays  soaring  above  a  golden  steppe  eagle  in  the  center;  on  the 
  hoist  side  is  a  "national  ornamentation"  in  yellow 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Kazakhstan,  the  second  largest  of  the  former  Soviet  states 
  in  territory,  possesses  enormous  untapped  fossil-fuel  reserves  as  well 
  as  plentiful  supplies  of  other  minerals  and  metals.  It  also  has 
  considerable  agricultural  potential  with  its  vast  steppe  lands 
  accommodating  both  livestock  and  grain  production.  Kazakhstan's 
  industrial  sector  rests  on  the  extraction  and  processing  of  these 
  natural  resources  and  also  on  a  relatively  large  machine  building 
  sector  specializing  in  construction  equipment,  tractors,  agricultural 
  machinery,  and  some  defense  items.  The  breakup  of  the  USSR  and  the 
  collapse  of  demand  for  Kazakhstan's  traditional  heavy  industry 
  products  have  resulted  in  a  sharp  contraction  of  the  economy  since 
  1991,  with  the  steepest  annual  decline  occurring  in  1994.  The 
  government  has  pursued  a  moderate  program  of  economic  reform  and 
  privatization  which  is  gradually  lifting  state  controls  over  economic 
  activity  and  shifting  assets  into  the  private  sector.  Nevertheless, 
  government  control  over  key  sectors  of  the  economy  remains  strong. 
  Sustained  economic  hardships  and  continued  pressures  from  industrial 
  elites  will  make  it  difficult  for  the  government  to  sustain  its 
  policies  of  monetary  and  fiscal  discipline  which  had  brought  down 
  inflation  by  the  end  of  1994.  Continued  lack  of  pipeline 
  transportation  for  expanded  oil  exports  has  closed  off  a  likely  source 
  of  economic  recovery. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $55.2  billion  (1994 
  estimate  as  extrapolated  from  World  Bank  estimate  for  1992) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  -25%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $3,200  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  24%  per  month  (1994  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  1.1%  includes  only  officially  registered 
  unemployed;  also  large  numbers  of  underemployed  workers  (1994) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $NA 
  expenditures:  $NA,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA 
 
  Exports:  $3.1  billion  (1994) 
  commodities:  oil,  ferrous  and  nonferrous  metals,  chemicals,  grain, 
  wool,  meat,  coal 
  partners:  Russia,  Ukraine,  Uzbekistan 
 
  Imports:  $3.5  billion  (1994) 
  commodities:  machinery  and  parts  industrial  materials,  oil  and  gas 
  partners:  Russia  and  other  former  Soviet  republics,  China 
 
  External  debt:  less  than  $1  billion  debt  to  Russia 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  -28%  (1994) 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  17,380,000  kW 
  production:  65.1  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  3,750  kWh  (1994) 
 
  Industries:  accounts  for  26%  of  net  national  product;  extractive 
  industries  (oil,  coal,  iron  ore,  manganese,  chromite,  lead,  zinc, 
  copper,  titanium,  bauxite,  gold,  silver,  phosphates,  sulfur),  iron  and 
  steel,  nonferrous  metal,  tractors  and  other  agricultural  machinery, 
  electric  motors,  construction  materials 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  20%  of  GDP;  employs  about  26%  of  the  labor 
  force;  grain,  mostly  spring  wheat;  meat,  cotton,  wool 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  illicit  cultivation  of  cannabis  and  opium  poppy;  mostly 
  for  CIS  consumption;  limited  government  eradication  program;  used  as 
  transshipment  point  for  illicit  drugs  to  Western  Europe  and  North 
  America  from  Southwest  Asia 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  approximately  $1  billion  in  foreign  loans  and  credits 
  allocated  in  1994;  disbursements  projected  at  $700  billion  through 
  1995 
 
  Currency:  national  currency  the  tenge  introduced  on  15  November  1993 
 
  Exchange  rates:  tenges  per  US$1  -  54  (yearend  1994) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Kazakhstan:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  14,460  km  in  common  carrier  service;  does  not  include 
  industrial  lines 
  broad  gauge:  14,460  km  1.520-m  gauge  (1990) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  189,000  km 
  paved  and  graveled:  108,100  km 
  unpaved:  earth  80,900  km  (1990) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  Syrdariya  River,  Ertis  River 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  2,850  km  refined  products  1,500  km  natural  gas 
  3,480  km  (1992) 
 
  Ports:  Aqtau  (Shevchenko),  Atyrau  (Gur'yev),  Oskemen 
  (Ust-Kamenogorsk),  Pavlodar  Semey  Semipalatinsk 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  352 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  7 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  23 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  11 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  5 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  9 
  with  unpaved  runways  over  3,047  m:  9 
  with  unpaved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  8 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  25 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  65 
  with  unpaved  runways  under  914  m:  190 
 
  Kazakhstan:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  2.2  million  telephones;  telephone  service  is  poor; 
  about  17  telephones/100  persons  in  urban  areas  and  7.6  telephones/100 
  persons  in  rural  areas;  Almaty  has  184,000  telephones 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  land  line  and  microwave  radio  relay 
  international:  international  traffic  with  other  former  USSR  republics 
  and  China  carried  by  landline  and  microwave,  and  with  other  countries 
  by  satellite  and  through  8  international  telecommunications  circuits 
  at  the  Moscow  international  gateway  switch;  INTELSAT  earth  station; 
  new  satellite  earth  station  established  at  Almaty  with  Turkish 
  financial  help  (December  1992)  with  2500  channel  band  width 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  NA  FM  NA  shortwave  NA 
  radios:  4.088  million  (with  multiple  speakers  for  program  diffusion 
  6,082,000) 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  Orbita  (TV  receive  only)  earth  station 
  televisions:  4.75  million 
 
  Kazakhstan:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army,  Republic  National  Guard,  Republic  Security  Forces 
  (internal  and  border  troops) 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  4,513,089;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  3,605,584;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually 
  154,280  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  69.3  billion  rubles,  NA%  of  GDP  (forecast  for 
  1993);  note  -  conversion  of  the  military  budget  into  US  dollars  using 
  the  current  exchange  rate  could  produce  misleading  results 
 
 
 




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