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laosmore about laos

laos


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Laos 
  n  :  a  mountainous  republic  in  southeastern  Asia  [syn:  {Laos}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Laos 
 
  Laos:Geography 
 
  Location:  Southeastern  Asia,  northeast  of  Thailand 
 
  Map  references:  Southeast  Asia 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  236,800  sq  km 
  land  area:  230,800  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  larger  than  Utah 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  5,083  km  Burma  235  km  Cambodia  541  km  China 
  423  km  Thailand  1,754  km  Vietnam  2,130  km 
 
  Coastline:  0  km  (landlocked) 
 
  Maritime  claims:  none;  landlocked 
 
  International  disputes:  boundary  dispute  with  Thailand 
 
  Climate:  tropical  monsoon;  rainy  season  (May  to  November);  dry  season 
  (December  to  April) 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  rugged  mountains;  some  plains  and  plateaus 
 
  Natural  resources:  timber,  hydropower  gypsum,  tin,  gold,  gemstones 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  4% 
  permanent  crops:  0% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  3% 
  forest  and  woodland:  58% 
  other:  35% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  1,554  sq  km  (1992  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  deforestation;  soil  erosion;  a  majority  of  the 
  population  does  not  have  access  to  potable  water 
  natural  hazards:  floods,  droughts,  and  blight 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Climate  Change,  Environmental 
  Modification,  Nuclear  Test  Ban;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Law  of  the 
  Sea 
 
  Note:  landlocked 
 
  Laos:People 
 
  Population:  4,837,237  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  45%  (female  1,084,615;  male  1,111,928) 
  15-64  years:  51%  (female  1,280,142;  male  1,199,149) 
  65  years  and  over:  4%  (female  86,390;  male  75,013)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  2.84%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  42.64  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  14.28  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  99.2  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  52.2  years 
  male:  50.66  years 
  female:  53.81  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  5.98  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Lao(s)  or  Laotian(s) 
  adjective:  Lao  or  Laotian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Lao  Loum  (lowland)  68%,  Lao  Theung  (upland)  22%,  Lao 
  Soung  (highland)  including  the  Hmong  ("Meo")  and  the  Yao  (Mien)  9%, 
  ethnic  Vietnamese/Chinese  1% 
 
  Religions:  Buddhist  60%,  animist  and  other  40% 
 
  Languages:  Lao  (official),  French,  English,  and  various  ethnic 
  languages 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1992) 
  total  population:  50% 
  male:  65% 
  female:  35% 
 
  Labor  force:  1  million-1.5  million 
  by  occupation:  agriculture  80%  (1992  est.) 
 
  Laos:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Lao  People's  Democratic  Republic 
  conventional  short  form:  Laos 
  local  long  form:  Sathalanalat  Paxathipatai  Paxaxon  Lao 
  local  short  form:  none 
 
  Digraph:  LA 
 
  Type:  Communist  state 
 
  Capital:  Vientiane 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  16  provinces  (khoueng,  singular  and  plural) 
  and  1  municipality*  (kampheng  nakhon,  singular  and  plural);  Attapu 
  Bokeo,  Bolikhamxai  Champasak  Houaphan  Khammouan  Louangnamtha 
  Louangphabang  Oudomxai  Phongsali  Salavan  Savannakhet  Viangchan*, 
  Viangchan  Xaignabouli  Xekong,  Xiangkhoang 
 
  Independence:  19  July  1949  (from  France) 
 
  National  holiday:  National  Day  2  December  (1975)  (proclamation  of  the 
  Lao  People's  Democratic  Republic) 
 
  Constitution:  promulgated  14  August  1991 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  traditional  customs,  French  legal  norms  and 
  procedures,  and  Socialist  practice 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  NOUHAK  PHOUMSAVAN  (since  25  November  1992) 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Gen.  KHAMTAI  SIPHANDON  (since  15 
  August  1991) 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  appointed  by  the  president,  approved  by 
  the  Assembly 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  National  Assembly:  elections  last  held  on  20  December  1992  (next  to  be 
  held  NA);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA  seats  -  (85  total) 
  number  of  seats  by  party  NA 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  People's  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Lao  People's  Revolutionary  Party 
  (LPRP),  KHAMTAI  Siphandon  party  president;  other  parties  proscribed 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  non-Communist  political  groups 
  proscribed;  most  opposition  leaders  fled  the  country  in  1975 
 
  Member  of:  ACCT,  AsDB  ASEAN  (observer),  CP  ESCAP,  FAO,  G-77,  IBRD, 
  ICAO,  ICRM,  IDA,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  INTELSAT  (nonsignatory 
  user),  INTERPOL,  IOC,  ITU,  NAM,  PCA,  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNIDO  UPU, 
  WFTU  WHO  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  HIEM  PHOMMACHANH 
  chancery:  2222  S  Street  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  332-6416,  6417 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  332-4923 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Victor  L.  TOMSETH 
  embassy:  Rue  Bartholonie  Vientiane 
  mailing  address:  B.  P.  114,  Vientiane;  American  Embassy,  Box  V,  APO  AP 
  96546 
  telephone:  [856]  (21)  212581,  212582,  212585 
  FAX:  [856]  (21)  212584 
 
  Flag:  three  horizontal  bands  of  red  (top),  blue  (double  width),  and 
  red  with  a  large  white  disk  centered  in  the  blue  band 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  The  government  of  Laos  -  one  of  the  few  remaining  official 
  Communist  states  -  has  been  decentralizing  control  and  encouraging 
  private  enterprise  since  1986.  The  results,  starting  from  an  extremely 
  low  base,  have  been  striking  -  growth  has  averaged  7.5%  annually  since 
  1988.  Even  so  Laos  is  a  landlocked  country  with  a  primitive 
  infrastructure.  It  has  no  railroads,  a  rudimentary  road  system,  and 
  limited  external  and  internal  telecommunications.  Electricity  is 
  available  in  only  a  few  urban  areas.  Subsistence  agriculture  accounts 
  for  half  of  GDP  and  provides  80%  of  total  employment.  The  predominant 
  crop  is  rice.  In  non-drought  years,  Laos  is  self-sufficient  overall  in 
  food,  but  each  year  flood,  pests,  and  localized  drought  cause 
  shortages  in  various  parts  of  the  country.  For  the  foreseeable  future 
  the  economy  will  continue  to  depend  on  aid  from  the  IMF  and  other 
  international  sources;  aid  from  the  former  USSR  and  Eastern  Europe  has 
  been  cut  sharply.  As  in  many  developing  countries,  deforestation  and 
  soil  erosion  will  hamper  efforts  to  maintain  the  high  rate  of  GDP 
  growth. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $4  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  8.4%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $850  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  6.5%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  21%  (1992  est.) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $NA 
  expenditures:  $NA 
 
  Exports:  $277  million  (f.o.b.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  electricity,  wood  products,  coffee,  tin,  garments 
  partners:  Thailand  57%,  Germany  10%,  France  10%,  Japan  5%  (1991) 
 
  Imports:  $528  million  (c.i.f.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  food,  fuel  oil,  consumer  goods,  manufactures 
  partners:  Thailand  55%,  Japan  16%,  China  8%,  Italy  4%  (1991) 
 
  External  debt:  $NA 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  7.5%  (1992  est.);  accounts  for  18% 
  of  GDP  (1992  est.) 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  260,000  kW 
  production:  870  million  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  44  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  tin  and  gypsum  mining,  timber,  electric  power, 
  agricultural  processing,  construction 
 
  Agriculture:  principal  crops  -  rice  (80%  of  cultivated  land),  sweet 
  potatoes,  vegetables,  corn,  coffee,  sugarcane,  cotton;  livestock  - 
  buffaloes,  hogs,  cattle,  poultry 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  illicit  producer  of  cannabis,  opium  poppy  for  the 
  international  drug  trade  fourth  largest  opium  producer  (85  metric 
  tons  in  1994);  heroin  producer;  increasingly  used  as  transshipment 
  point  for  heroin  produced  in  Burma 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-79),  $276  million; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-89),  $605  million;  Communist  countries  (1970-89),  $995  million; 
  international  assistance  in  loans  and  grant  aid  (1993/94)  $217.7 
  million 
 
  Currency:  1  new  kip  NK  =  100  at 
 
  Exchange  rates:  new  kips  NK  per  US$1  -  717  (1994  est.),  720  (July 
  1993).  710  (May  1992),  710  (December  1991),  700  (September  1990),  576 
  (1989) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  1  October  -  30  September 
 
  Laos:Transportation 
 
  Railroads:  0  km 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  14,130  km 
  paved:  2,260  km 
  unpaved:  11,870  km  (1992  est.) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  about  4,587  km  primarily  Mekong  and  tributaries; 
  2,897  additional  kilometers  are  sectionally  navigable  by  craft  drawing 
  less  than  0.5  m 
 
  Pipelines:  petroleum  products  136  km 
 
  Ports:  none 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  1  cargo  ship  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  2,370  GRT/3,000  DWT 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  52 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  1 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  5 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  3 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  25 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  1 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  17 
 
  Laos:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  7,390  telephones  (1986);  service  to  general  public 
  very  poor;  radio  communications  network  provides  generally  erratic 
  service  to  government  users 
  local:  16  telephone  lines  per  1,000  people 
  intercity:  radio  communications 
  international:  1  earth  station 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  10,  FM  0,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  2 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Laos:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Lao  People's  Army  (LPA;  includes  riverine  naval  and  militia 
  elements),  Air  Force,  National  Police  Department 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  1,051,105;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  567,017;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually 
  51,437  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $105  million,  8.1%  of 
  GDP  (FY92/93) 
 
 
 




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