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latviamore about latvia

latvia


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Latvia 
  n  :  a  republic  in  northeastern  Europe  on  the  Baltic  Sea  [syn:  {Latvia}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Latvia 
 
  Latvia:Geography 
 
  Location:  Eastern  Europe,  bordering  the  Baltic  Sea,  between  Estonia 
  and  Lithuania 
 
  Map  references:  Europe 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  64,100  sq  km 
  land  area:  64,100  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  larger  than  West  Virginia 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  1,078  km  Belarus  141  km  Estonia  267  km 
  Lithuania  453  km  Russia  217  km 
 
  Coastline:  531  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  exclusive  economic  zone:  200  nm 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
  continental  shelf:  200-m  depth  or  to  the  depth  of  exploitation 
 
  International  disputes:  the  Abrene  section  of  border  ceded  by  the 
  Latvian  Soviet  Socialist  Republic  to  Russia  in  1944 
 
  Climate:  maritime;  wet,  moderate  winters 
 
  Terrain:  low  plain 
 
  Natural  resources:  minimal;  amber,  peat,  limestone,  dolomite 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  27% 
  permanent  crops:  0% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  13% 
  forest  and  woodland:  39% 
  other:  21% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  160  sq  km  (1990) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  air  and  water  pollution  because  of  a  lack  of  waste 
  conversion  equipment;  Gulf  of  Riga  and  Daugava  River  heavily  polluted; 
  contamination  of  soil  and  groundwater  with  chemicals  and  petroleum 
  products  at  military  bases 
  natural  hazards:  NA 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Air  Pollution,  Hazardous  Wastes, 
  Ship  Pollution;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Biodiversity,  Climate 
  Change 
 
  Latvia:People 
 
  Population:  2,762,899  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  22%  (female  294,521;  male  304,830) 
  15-64  years:  65%  (female  933,003;  male  870,128) 
  65  years  and  over:  13%  (female  247,476;  male  112,941)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  0.5%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  13.71  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  12.49  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  3.76  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  21  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  69.65  years 
  male:  64.6  years 
  female:  74.95  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  1.97  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Latvian(s) 
  adjective:  Latvian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Latvian  51.8%,  Russian  33.8%,  Byelorussian  4.5%, 
  Ukrainian  3.4%,  Polish  2.3%,  other  4.2% 
 
  Religions:  Lutheran,  Roman  Catholic,  Russian  Orthodox 
 
  Languages:  Lettish  (official),  Lithuanian,  Russian,  other 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1989) 
  total  population:  100% 
  male:  100% 
  female:  99% 
 
  Labor  force:  1.407  million 
  by  occupation:  industry  and  construction  41%,  agriculture  and  forestry 
  16%,  other  43%  (1990) 
 
  Latvia:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Latvia 
  conventional  short  form:  Latvia 
  local  long  form:  Latvijas  Republika 
  local  short  form:  Latvija 
  former:  Latvian  Soviet  Socialist  Republic 
 
  Digraph:  LG 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  Riga 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  26  counties  (singular  -  rajons)  and  7 
  municipalities*:  Aizkraukles  Rajons,  Aluksnes  Rajons,  Balvu  Rajons, 
  Bauskas  Rajons,  Cesu  Rajons,  Daugavpils*,  Daugavpils  Rajons,  Dobeles 
  Rajons,  Gulbenes  Rajons,  Jekabpils  Rajons,  Jelgava*,  Jelgavas  Rajons, 
  Jurmala*,  Kraslavas  Rajons,  Kuldigas  Rajons,  Leipaja*,  Liepajas 
  Rajons,  Limbazu  Rajons,  Ludzas  Rajons,  Madonas  Rajons,  Ogres  Rajons, 
  Preiju  Rajons,  Rezekne*,  Rezeknes  Rajons,  Riga*,  Rigas  Rajons,  Saldus 
  Rajons,  Talsu  Rajons,  Tukuma  Rajons,  Valkas  Rajons,  Valmieras  Rajons, 
  Ventspils*,  Ventspils  Rajons 
 
  Independence:  6  September  1991  (from  Soviet  Union) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  18  November  (1918) 
 
  Constitution:  newly  elected  Parliament  in  1993  restored  the  1933 
  constitution 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  civil  law  system 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Guntis  ULMANIS  (since  7  July  1993); 
  Parliament  Saeima  elected  President  ULMANIS  in  the  third  round  of 
  balloting  on  7  July  1993 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Maris  GAILIS  (since  September  1994) 
 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  appointed  by  the  Supreme  Council 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  Parliament  (Saeima):  elections  last  held  5-6  June  1993  (next  to  be 
  held  NA  October  1995);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA  seats  - 
  (100  total)  LC  36,  LNNK  15,  Concord  for  Latvia  13,  LZS  12,  Equal 
  Rights  7,  LKDS  6,  TUB  6,  DCP  5 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Latvian  Way  Union  (LC),  Valdis  BIRKAVS 
  Latvian  Farmers  Union  (LZS),  Alvars  BERKIS  Latvian  National 
  Independence  Movement  (LNNK),  Andrejs  KRASTINS  Aristids  LAMBERGS 
  cochairmen  Concord  for  Latvia,  Janis  JURKANS  Equal  Rights,  Sergejs 
  DIMANIS  Christian  Democrat  Union  (LKDS),  Peteris  CIMDINS  Andris 
  SAULITIS  Janis  RUSKO;  Fatherland  and  Freedom  (TUB),  Maris  GRINBLATS 
  Roberts  MILBERGS  Oigerts  DZENTIS  Democratic  Center  (DCP),  Ints 
  CALITIS;  Popular  Front  of  Latvia  (LTF),  Uldis  AUGSTKALNS 
 
  Member  of:  BIS,  CBSS,  CCC,  CE  EBRD,  ECE,  FAO,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICRM,  IDA, 
  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INTELSAT  (nonsignatory  user),  INTERPOL, 
  IOC,  IOM  (observer),  ITU,  NACC,  OSCE,  PFP,  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNIDO 
  UPU,  WEU  (associate  partner),  WHO  WIPO,  WMO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Ojars  Eriks  KALNINS 
  chancery:  4325  17th  Street  NW  Washington,  DC  20011 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  726-8213,  8214 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  726-6785 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Ints  M,  SILINS 
  embassy:  Raina  Boulevard  7,  Riga  226050 
  mailing  address:  use  embassy  street  address 
  telephone:  [371]  (2)  213-962 
  FAX:  [371]  882-0047  (cellular) 
 
  Flag:  two  horizontal  bands  of  maroon  (top  and  bottom),  white  (middle, 
  narrower  than  other  two  bands) 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Latvia  is  rapidly  becoming  a  dynamic  market  economy,  rivaled 
  only  by  Estonia  among  the  former  Soviet  states  in  the  speed  of  its 
  transformation.  However,  the  transition  has  been  painful;  in  1994  the 
  IMF  reported  a  2%  growth  in  GDP,  following  steep  declines  in  1992-93. 
  The  government's  tough  monetary  policies  and  reform  program  have  kept 
  inflation  at  less  than  2%  a  month,  supported  a  dynamic  private  sector 
  now  accounting  for  more  than  half  of  GDP,  and  spurred  the  growth  of 
  trade  ties  with  the  West.  Much  of  agriculture  is  already  privatized 
  and  the  government  plans  to  step  up  the  pace  of  privatization  of  state 
  enterprises.  Latvia  thus  is  in  the  midst  of  recovery,  helped  by  the 
  country's  strategic  location  on  the  Baltic  Sea,  its  well-educated 
  population,  and  its  diverse  -  albeit  largely  obsolete  -  industrial 
  structure. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $12.3  billion  (1994 
  estimate  as  extrapolated  from  World  Bank  estimate  for  1992) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  2%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $4,480  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  1.9%  (monthly  average  1994) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  6.5%  (December  1994) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $NA 
  expenditures:  $NA,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA 
 
  Exports:  $1  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994) 
  commodities:  oil  products,  timber,  ferrous  metals,  dairy  products, 
  furniture,  textiles 
  partners:  Russia,  Germany,  Sweden,  Belarus 
 
  Imports:  $1.2  billion  (c.i.f.,  1994) 
  commodities:  fuels,  cars,  ferrous  metals,  chemicals 
  partners:  Russia,  Germany,  Sweden,  Ukraine 
 
  External  debt:  $NA 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  -9.5%  (1994  est.);  accounts  for  27% 
  of  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  2,080,000  kW 
  production:  5.5  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  1,864  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  highly  diversified;  dependent  on  imports  for  energy,  raw 
  materials,  and  intermediate  products;  produces  buses,  vans,  street  and 
  railroad  cars,  synthetic  fibers,  agricultural  machinery,  fertilizers, 
  washing  machines,  radios,  electronics,  pharmaceuticals,  processed 
  foods,  textiles 
 
  Agriculture:  principally  dairy  farming  and  livestock  feeding;  products 
  -  meat,  milk,  eggs,  grain,  sugar  beets,  potatoes,  vegetables;  fishing 
  and  fish  packing 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  transshipment  point  for  illicit  drugs  from  Central  and 
  Southwest  Asia  and  Latin  America  to  Western  Europe;  limited  producer 
  of  illicit  opium;  mostly  for  domestic  consumption;  also  produces 
  illicit  amphetamines  for  export 
 
  Economic  aid:  $NA 
 
  Currency:  1  lat  =  100  cents;  introduced  NA  March  1993 
 
  Exchange  rates:  lats  per  US$1  -  0.55  (December  1994),  0.5917  (January 
  1994),  1.32  (March  1993) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Latvia:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  2,400  km 
  broad  gauge:  2,400  km  1.520-m  gauge  (270  km  electrified) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  59,500  km 
  paved  and  graveled:  33,000  km 
  unpaved:  earth  26,500  km  (1990) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  300  km  perennially  navigable 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  750  km  refined  products  780  km  natural  gas  560 
  km  (1992) 
 
  Ports:  Daugavpils  Liepaja  Riga,  Ventspils 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  85  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  774,182  GRT/1,010,517  DWT 
 
  ships  by  type:  cargo  17,  oil  tanker  37,  refrigerated  cargo  24, 
  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  7 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  50 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  6 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  1 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  27 
  with  unpaved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  2 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  2 
  with  unpaved  runways  under  914  m:  10 
 
  Latvia:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  660,000  telephones;  240  telephones/1,000  persons 
  (1993);  Latvia  is  better  provided  with  telephone  service  than  most  of 
  the  other  former  Soviet  republics;  an  NMT-450  analog  cellular 
  telephone  network  covers  75%  of  Latvia's  population 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  NA 
  international:  international  traffic  carried  by  leased  connection  to 
  the  Moscow  international  gateway  switch  and  through  the  new  Ericsson 
  AXE  local/transit  digital  telephone  exchange  in  Riga  and  through  the 
  Finnish  cellular  net;  electronic  mail  capability  by  Sprint  data 
  network 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  NA  FM  NA  shortwave  NA 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  NA 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Latvia:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Ground  Forces,  Navy,  Air  and  Air  Defense  Forces,  Security 
  Forces  (internal  and  border  troops),  Border  Guard,  Home  Guard 
  Zemessardze 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  658,193;  males  fit  for  military 
  service  517,896;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually  18,736  (1995 
  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  176  million  rubles,  3%  to  5%  of  GDP  (1994);  note 
  -  conversion  of  the  military  budget  into  US  dollars  using  the 
  prevailing  exchange  rate  could  produce  misleading  results 
 
 
 




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