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libya


  4  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Libya 
  n  :  a  republic  in  North  Africa  on  the  Mediterranean;  consists 
  almost  entirely  of  desert;  a  major  exporter  of  petroleum 
  [syn:  {Libya}] 
 
  From  Easton's  1897  Bible  Dictionary  [easton]: 
 
  Libya 
  the  country  of  the  Ludim  (Gen.  10:13),  Northern  Africa,  a  large 
  tract  lying  along  the  Mediterranean,  to  the  west  of  Egypt  (Acts 
  2:10).  Cyrene  was  one  of  its  five  cities. 
 
 
  From  Hitchcock's  Bible  Names  Dictionary  (late  1800's)  [hitchcock]: 
 
  Libya,  the  heart  of  the  sea;  fat 
 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Libya 
 
  Libya:Geography 
 
  Location:  Northern  Africa,  bordering  the  Mediterranean  Sea,  between 
  Egypt  and  Tunisia 
 
  Map  references:  Africa 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  1,759,540  sq  km 
  land  area:  1,759,540  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  larger  than  Alaska 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  4,383  km  Algeria  982  km  Chad  1,055  km  Egypt 
  1,150  km  Niger  354  km  Sudan  383  km  Tunisia  459  km 
 
  Coastline:  1,770  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
  Gulf  of  Sidra  closing  line:  32  degrees  30  minutes  north 
 
  International  disputes:  the  International  Court  of  Justice  (ICJ)  ruled 
  in  February  1994  that  the  100,000  sq  km  Aozou  Strip  between  Chad  and 
  Libya  belongs  to  Chad,  and  that  Libya  must  withdraw  from  it  by  31  May 
  1994;  Libya  has  withdrawn  some  its  forces  in  response  to  the  ICJ 
  ruling,  but  still  maintains  an  airfield  in  the  disputed  area;  maritime 
  boundary  dispute  with  Tunisia;  claims  part  of  northern  Niger  and  part 
  of  southeastern  Algeria 
 
  Climate:  Mediterranean  along  coast;  dry,  extreme  desert  interior 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  barren,  flat  to  undulating  plains,  plateaus, 
  depressions 
 
  Natural  resources:  petroleum,  natural  gas,  gypsum 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  2% 
  permanent  crops:  0% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  8% 
  forest  and  woodland:  0% 
  other:  90% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  2,420  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  desertification  very  limited  natural  fresh  water 
  resources;  the  Great  Manmade  River  Project,  the  largest  water 
  development  scheme  in  the  world,  is  being  built  to  bring  water  from 
  large  aquifers  under  the  Sahara  to  coastal  cities 
  natural  hazards:  hot,  dry,  dust-laden  ghibli  is  a  southern  wind 
  lasting  one  to  four  days  in  spring  and  fall;  duststorms  sandstorms 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Marine  Dumping,  Nuclear  Test  Ban, 
  Ozone  Layer  Protection;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Biodiversity, 
  Climate  Change,  Desertification  Law  of  the  Sea 
 
  Libya:People 
 
  Population:  5,248,401  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  48%  (female  1,226,851;  male  1,269,813) 
  15-64  years:  49%  (female  1,261,424;  male  1,331,093) 
  65  years  and  over:  3%  (female  76,017;  male  83,203)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  3.7%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  44.89  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  7.91  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  61.4  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  64.29  years 
  male:  62.12  years 
  female:  66.57  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  6.32  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Libyan(s) 
  adjective:  Libyan 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Berber  and  Arab  97%,  Greeks,  Maltese,  Italians, 
  Egyptians,  Pakistanis,  Turks,  Indians,  Tunisians 
 
  Religions:  Sunni  Muslim  97% 
 
  Languages:  Arabic,  Italian,  English,  all  are  widely  understood  in  the 
  major  cities 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1984) 
  total  population:  60% 
  male:  77% 
  female:  42% 
 
  Labor  force:  1  million  (includes  about  280,000  resident  foreigners) 
  by  occupation:  industry  31%,  services  27%,  government  24%,  agriculture 
  18% 
 
  Libya:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Socialist  People's  Libyan  Arab  Jamahiriya 
  conventional  short  form:  Libya 
  local  long  form:  Al  Jumahiriyah  al  Arabiyah  al  Libiyah  ash  Shabiyah  al 
  Ishirakiyah 
  local  short  form:  none 
 
  Digraph:  LY 
 
  Type:  Jamahiriya  (a  state  of  the  masses)  in  theory,  governed  by  the 
  populace  through  local  councils;  in  fact  a  military  dictatorship 
 
  Capital:  Tripoli 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  25  municipalities  (baladiyah,  singular  - 
  baladiyat);  Ajdabiya  Al  'Aziziyah,  Al  Fatih,  Al  Jabal  al  Akhdar  Al 
  Jufrah  Al  Khums  Al  Kufrah  An  Nuqat  al  Khams  Ash  Shati',  Awbari  Az 
  Zawiyah  Banghazi,  Darnah,  Ghadamis  Gharyan  Misratah  Murzuq  Sabha, 
  Sawfajjin  Surt,  Tarabulus,  Tarhunah  Tubruq  Yafran  Zlitan 
 
  Independence:  24  December  1951  (from  Italy) 
 
  National  holiday:  Revolution  Day  1  September  (1969) 
 
  Constitution:  11  December  1969,  amended  2  March  1977 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  Italian  civil  law  system  and  Islamic  law; 
  separate  religious  courts;  no  constitutional  provision  for  judicial 
  review  of  legislative  acts  has  not  accepted  compulsory  ICJ 
  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal  and  compulsory 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  Revolutionary  Leader  Col.  Mu'ammar  Abu  Minyar 
  al-QADHAFI  (since  1  September  1969) 
  head  of  government:  Chairman  of  the  General  People's  Committee 
  (Premier)  Abd  al  Majid  al-Qa'ud  (since  29  January  1994) 
  cabinet:  General  People's  Committee;  established  by  the  General 
  People's  Congress 
  note:  national  elections  are  indirect  through  a  hierarchy  of  peoples' 
  committees 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  General  People's  Congress:  national  elections  are  indirect  through  a 
  hierarchy  of  peoples'  committees 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  none 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  various  Arab  nationalist  movements 
  with  almost  negligible  memberships  may  be  functioning  clandestinely, 
  as  well  as  some  Islamic  elements 
 
  Member  of:  ABEDA,  AfDB  AFESD  AL  AMF,  AMU,  CAEU,  CCC,  ECA,  FAO, 
  G-77,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICRM,  IDA,  IDB,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF, 
  IMO,  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  ISO,  ITU,  NAM,  OAPEC  OAU,  OIC,  OPEC, 
  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNIDO  UNITAR,  UPU,  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US:  none 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation:  none 
 
  Flag:  plain  green;  green  is  the  traditional  color  of  Islam  (the  state 
  religion) 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  The  socialist-oriented  economy  depends  primarily  upon 
  revenues  from  the  oil  sector,  which  contributes  practically  all  export 
  earnings  and  about  one-third  of  GDP.  In  1990  per  capita  GDP  was  the 
  highest  in  Africa  at  $5,410,  but  GDP  growth  rates  have  slowed  and 
  fluctuated  sharply  in  response  to  changes  in  the  world  oil  market. 
  Import  restrictions  and  inefficient  resource  allocations  have  led  to 
  periodic  shortages  of  basic  goods  and  foodstuffs.  Windfall  revenues 
  from  the  hike  in  world  oil  prices  in  late  1990  improved  the  foreign 
  payments  position  and  resulted  in  a  current  account  surplus  through 
  1992.  The  nonoil  manufacturing  and  construction  sectors,  which  account 
  for  about  20%  of  GDP,  have  expanded  from  processing  mostly 
  agricultural  products  to  include  petrochemicals,  iron,  steel,  and 
  aluminum.  Although  agriculture  accounts  for  only  5%  of  GDP,  it  employs 
  18%  of  the  labor  force.  Climatic  conditions  and  poor  soils  severely 
  limit  farm  output,  and  Libya  imports  about  75%  of  its  food 
  requirements.  The  UN  sanctions  imposed  in  April  1992  have  not  yet  had 
  a  major  impact  on  the  economy  because  Libya's  oil  revenues  generate 
  sufficient  foreign  exchange  which  sustains  imports  of  food,  consumer 
  goods,  and  equipment  for  the  oil  industry  and  ongoing  development 
  projects. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $32.9  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  -0.9%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $6,510  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  25%  (1993  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  NA% 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $8.1  billion 
  expenditures:  $9.8  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $3.1 
  billion  (1989  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $7.2  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  crude  oil,  refined  petroleum  products,  natural  gas 
  partners:  Italy,  Germany,  Spain,  France,  UK  Turkey,  Greece,  Egypt 
 
  Imports:  $6.9  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  machinery,  transport  equipment,  food,  manufactured  goods 
  partners:  Italy,  Germany,  UK  France,  Spain,  Turkey,  Tunisia,  Eastern 
  Europe 
 
  External  debt:  $3.5  billion  excluding  military  debt  (1991  est.) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  10.5%  (1990) 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  4,600,000  kW 
  production:  16.1  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  3,078  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  petroleum,  food  processing,  textiles,  handicrafts,  cement 
 
  Agriculture:  5%  of  GDP;  cash  crops  -  wheat,  barley,  olives,  dates, 
  citrus  fruits,  peanuts;  75%  of  food  is  imported 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral 
  commitments  (1970-87),  $242  million 
  note:  no  longer  a  recipient 
 
  Currency:  1  Libyan  dinar  LD  =  1,000  dirhams 
 
  Exchange  rates:  Libyan  dinars  LD  per  US$1  -  0.3555  (January  1995), 
  0.3596  (1994),  0.3250  (1993),  0.3013  (1992),  0.2684  (1991),  0.2699 
  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Libya:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  note:  Libya  has  had  no  railroad  in  operation  since  1965,  all  previous 
  systems  having  been  dismantled;  current  plans  are  to  construct  a 
  1.435-m  standard  gauge  line  from  the  Tunisian  frontier  to  Tripoli  and 
  Misratah  then  inland  to  Sabha,  center  of  a  mineral-rich  area,  but 
  there  has  been  no  progress;  other  plans  made  jointly  with  Egypt  would 
  establish  a  rail  line  from  As  Sallum,  Egypt,  to  Tobruk  with  completion 
  set  for  mid-1994;  no  progress  has  been  reported 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  19,300  km 
  paved:  bituminous  10,800  km 
  unpaved:  gravel,  earth  8,500  km 
 
  Inland  waterways:  none 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  4,383  km  petroleum  products  443  km  (includes 
  liquified  petroleum  gas  256  km);  natural  gas  1,947  km 
 
  Ports:  Al  Khums  Banghazi,  Darnah,  Marsa  al  Burayqah  Misratah  Ra's 
  Lanuf  Tobruk  Tripoli,  Zuwarah 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  30  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  686,136  GRT/1,208,194  DWT 
 
  ships  by  type:  cargo  10,  chemical  tanker  1,  liquefied  gas  tanker  2, 
  oil  tanker  10,  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  3,  short-sea  passenger  4 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  146 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  24 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  5 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  22 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  6 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  21 
  with  unpaved  runways  over  3,047  m:  4 
  with  unpaved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  3 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  17 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  44 
 
  Libya:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  370,000  telephones;  modern  telecommunications  system 
 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  microwave  radio  relay,  coaxial  cable,  tropospheric  scatter, 
  and  14  domestic  satellites 
  international:  2  INTELSAT  (1  Atlantic  Ocean  and  1  Indian  Ocean) 
  satellite  earth  stations;  submarine  cables  to  France  and  Italy; 
  microwave  radio  relay  to  Tunisia  and  Egypt;  tropospheric  scatter  to 
  Greece;  planned  ARABSAT  and  Intersputnik  satellite  earth  stations 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  17,  FM  3,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  12 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Libya:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Armed  Peoples  of  the  Libyan  Arab  Jamahiriyah  (includes  Army, 
  Navy,  and  Air  and  Air  Defense  Command),  Police 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  1,131,175;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  672,571;  males  reach  military  age  (17)  annually 
  54,676  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $1.4  billion,  6.1%  of 
  GDP  (1994  est.) 
 
 
 




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