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lithuaniamore about lithuania

lithuania


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Lithuania 
  n  :  a  republic  in  northeastern  Europe  on  the  Baltic  Sea  [syn:  {Lithuania}, 
  {Lietuva}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Lithuania 
 
  Lithuania:Geography 
 
  Location:  Eastern  Europe,  bordering  the  Baltic  Sea,  between  Latvia  and 
  Russia 
 
  Map  references:  Europe 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  65,200  sq  km 
  land  area:  65,200  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  larger  than  West  Virginia 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  1,273  km  Belarus  502  km  Latvia  453  km  Poland 
  91  km  Russia  Kaliningrad  227  km 
 
  Coastline:  108  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  dispute  with  Russia  (Kaliningrad  Oblast)  over 
  the  position  of  the  Nemunas  (Nemen)  River  border  presently  located  on 
  the  Lithuanian  bank  and  not  in  midriver  as  by  international  standards 
 
  Climate:  maritime;  wet,  moderate  winters  and  summers 
 
  Terrain:  lowland,  many  scattered  small  lakes,  fertile  soil 
 
  Natural  resources:  peat 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  49.1% 
  permanent  crops:  0% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  22.2% 
  forest  and  woodland:  16.3% 
  other:  12.4% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  430  sq  km  (1990) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  contamination  of  soil  and  groundwater  with  petroleum 
  products  and  chemicals  at  military  bases 
  natural  hazards:  NA 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship 
  Pollution,  Wetlands;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Biodiversity,  Climate 
  Change 
 
  Lithuania:People 
 
  Population:  3,876,396  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  23%  (female  426,616;  male  444,556) 
  15-64  years:  65%  (female  1,299,052;  male  1,227,420) 
  65  years  and  over:  12%  (female  313,217;  male  165,535)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  0.71%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  14.46  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  10.95  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  3.62  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  16.5  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  71.37  years 
  male:  66.68  years 
  female:  76.3  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  2  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Lithuanian(s) 
  adjective:  Lithuanian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Lithuanian  80.1%,  Russian  8.6%,  Polish  7.7%, 
  Byelorussian  1.5%,  other  2.1% 
 
  Religions:  Roman  Catholic,  Lutheran,  other 
 
  Languages:  Lithuanian  (official),  Polish,  Russian 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1989) 
  total  population:  98% 
  male:  99% 
  female:  98% 
 
  Labor  force:  1.836  million 
  by  occupation:  industry  and  construction  42%,  agriculture  and  forestry 
  18%,  other  40%  (1990) 
 
  Lithuania:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Lithuania 
  conventional  short  form:  Lithuania 
  local  long  form:  Lietuvos  Respublika 
  local  short  form:  Lietuva 
  former:  Lithuanian  Soviet  Socialist  Republic 
 
  Digraph:  LH 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  Vilnius 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  44  regions  (rajonai,  singular  -  rajonas)  and 
  11  municipalities*:  Akmenes  Rajonas  Alytaus  Rajonas  Alytus*, 
  Anyksciu  Rajonas  Birsionas*,  Birzu  Rajonas  Druskininkai*,  Ignalinos 
  Rajonas  Jonavos  Rajonas  Joniskio  Rajonas  Jurbarko  Rajonas 
  Kaisiadoriu  Rajonas  Marijampoles  Rajonas  Kaunas*,  Kauno  Rajonas 
  Kedainiu  Rajonas  Kelmes  Rajonas  Klaipeda*,  Klaipedos  Rajonas 
  Kretingos  Rajonas  Kupiskio  Rajonas  Lazdiju  Rajonas  Marijampole*, 
  Mazeikiu  Rajonas  Moletu  Rajonas  Neringa*  Pakruojo  Rajonas  Palanga*, 
  Panevezio  Rajonas  Panevezys*,  Pasvalio  Rajonas  Plunges  Rajonas 
  Prienu  Rajonas  Radviliskio  Rajonas  Raseiniu  Rajonas  Rokiskio 
  Rajonas  Sakiu  Rajonas  Salcininky  Rajonas  Siauliai*,  Siauliu 
  Rajonas  Silales  Rajonas  Siltues  Rajonas  Sirvinty  Rajonas  Skuodo 
  Rajonas  Svencioniu  Rajonas  Taurages  Rajonas  Telsiu  Rajonas  Traky 
  Rajonas  Ukmerges  Rajonas  Utenos  Rajonas  Varenos  Rajonas 
  Vilkaviskio  Rajonas  Vilniaus  Rajonas  Vilnius*,  Zarasu  Rajonas 
 
  Independence:  6  September  1991  (from  Soviet  Union) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  16  February  (1918) 
 
  Constitution:  adopted  25  October  1992 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  civil  law  system;  no  judicial  review  of 
  legislative  acts 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Algirdas  Mykolas  BRAZAUSKAS  (since  25 
  November  1992;  elected  acting  president  by  Parliament  25  November  1992 
  and  elected  by  direct  vote  15  February  1993);  election  last  held  14 
  February  1993  (next  to  be  held  NA  1997);  results  -  Algirdas  BRAZAUSKAS 
  was  elected;  note  -  on  25  November  1992  BRAZAUSKAS  was  elected 
  chairman  of  Parliament  and  as  such  acting  president  of  the  Republic; 
  he  was  confirmed  in  office  by  direct  balloting  15  February  1993 
  head  of  government:  Premier  Adolfas  SLEZEVICIUS  (since  10  March  1993) 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  appointed  by  the  president  on  the 
  nomination  of  the  prime  minister 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  Seimas  (parliament):  elections  last  held  26  October  and  25  November 
  1992  (next  to  be  held  NA  1996);  results  -  LDDP  51%;  seats  -  (141 
  total)  LDDP  73,  Conservative  Party  30,  LKDP  17,  LTS  8,  Farmers'  Union 
  4,  LLS  4,  Center  Union  2,  others  3 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court,  Court  of  Appeals 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Christian  Democratic  Party  (LKDP), 
  Povilas  KATILIUS  chairman;  Democratic  Labor  Party  of  Lithuania 
  (LDDP),  Adolfas  SLEZEVICIUS  chairman;  Lithuanian  Nationalist  Union 
  (LTS),  Rimantas  SMETONA  chairman;  Lithuanian  Social  Democratic  Party 
  (LSDP),  Aloyzas  SAKALAS  chairman;  Farmers'  Union,  Jonas  CIULEVICIUS 
  chairman;  Center  Union,  Romualdas  OZOLAS  chairman;  Conservative 
  Party,  Vytautas  LANDSBERGIS  chairman;  Lithuanian  Polish  Union  (LLS), 
  Rytardas  MACIKIANEC  chairman 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  Homeland  Union;  Lithuanian  Future 
  Forum;  Farmers  Union 
 
  Member  of:  BIS,  CBSS,  CCC,  CE  EBRD,  ECE,  FAO,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICRM,  IFC, 
  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  INTELSAT  (nonsignatory  user),  INTERPOL,  IOC,  ISO 
  (correspondent),  ITU,  NACC,  OSCE,  PFP,  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNIDO  UPU, 
  WEU  (associate  partner),  WHO  WIPO,  WMO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Alfonsas  EIDINTAS 
  chancery:  2622  16th  Street  NW  Washington,  DC  20009 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  234-5860,  2639 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  328-0466 
  consulate(s)  general:  New  York 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  James  W.  SWIHART  Jr 
  embassy:  Akmenu  6,  Vilnius  2600 
  mailing  address:  APO  AE  09723 
  telephone:  [370]  (2)  223-031 
  FAX:  [370]  (2)  222-779 
 
  Flag:  three  equal  horizontal  bands  of  yellow  (top),  green,  and  red 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Since  independence  in  September  1991,  Lithuania  has  made 
  steady  progress  in  developing  a  market  economy.  Almost  50%  of  state 
  property  has  been  privatized  and  trade  is  diversifying  with  a  gradual 
  shift  away  from  the  former  Soviet  Union  to  Western  markets.  In 
  addition,  the  Lithuanian  government  has  adhered  to  a  disciplined 
  budgetary  and  financial  policy  which  has  brought  inflation  down  from  a 
  monthly  average  of  around  14%  in  first  half  1993  to  an  average  of  3.1% 
  in  1994.  Nevertheless,  the  process  has  been  painful  with  industrial 
  output  in  1993  less  than  half  the  1991  level.  The  economy  appeared  to 
  have  bottomed  out  in  1994,  and  Vilnius's  policies  have  laid  the 
  groundwork  for  vigorous  recovery  over  the  next  few  years.  Recovery 
  will  build  on  Lithuanian's  strategic  location  with  its  ice-free  port 
  at  Klaipeda  and  its  rail  and  highway  hub  in  Vilnius  connecting  it  with 
  Eastern  Europe,  Belarus,  Russia,  and  Ukraine,  and  on  its  agriculture 
  potential,  highly  skilled  labor  force,  and  diversified  industrial 
  sector.  Lacking  important  natural  resources,  it  will  remain  dependent 
  on  imports  of  fuels  and  raw  materials. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $13.5  billion  (1994 
  estimate  as  extrapolated  from  World  Bank  estimate  for  1992) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  -0.5%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $3,500  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  3.1%  (monthly  average  1994) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  4.5%  (January  1995) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $258.5  million 
  expenditures:  $270.2  million,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA 
  (1992  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $2.2  billion  (1994) 
  commodities:  electronics  18%,  petroleum  products  5%,  food  10%, 
  chemicals  6%  (1989) 
  partners:  Russia,  Ukraine,  Germany 
 
  Imports:  $2.7  billion  (1994) 
  commodities:  oil  24%,  machinery  14%,  chemicals  8%,  grain  NA%  (1989) 
  partners:  Russia,  Germany,  Belarus 
 
  External  debt:  $NA 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  -52%  (1992);  accounts  for  35%  of 
  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  6,190,000  kW 
  production:  18.9  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  4,608  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  industry's  share  in  the  economy  has  been  declining 
  substantially  over  the  past  year,  due  to  the  economic  crisis  and  the 
  growth  of  services  in  the  economy;  among  branches  which  are  still 
  important:  metal-cutting  machine  tools  6.6%,  electric  motors  4.6%, 
  television  sets  6.2%,  refrigerators  and  freezers  5.4%;  other  branches: 
  petroleum  refining,  shipbuilding  (small  ships),  furniture  making, 
  textiles,  food  processing,  fertilizers,  agricultural  machinery, 
  optical  equipment,  electronic  components,  computers,  and  amber 
 
  Agriculture:  employs  around  18%  of  labor  force;  accounts  for  25%  of 
  GDP;  sugar,  grain,  potatoes,  sugar  beets,  vegetables,  meat,  milk, 
  dairy  products,  eggs,  fish;  most  developed  are  the  livestock  and  dairy 
  branches,  which  depend  on  imported  grain;  net  exporter  of  meat,  milk, 
  and  eggs 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  transshipment  point  for  illicit  drugs  from  Central  and 
  Southwest  Asia  and  Latin  America  to  Western  Europe;  limited  producer 
  of  illicit  opium;  mostly  for  domestic  consumption 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (1992),  $10  million; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-86),  $NA  million;  Communist  countries  (1971-86),  $NA  million 
 
  Currency:  introduced  the  convertible  litas  in  June  1993 
 
  Exchange  rates:  litai  per  US$1  -  4  (fixed  rate  1  May  1994) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Lithuania:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  2,010  km 
  broad  gauge:  2,010  km  1.524-m  gauge  (120  km  electrified)  (1990) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  44,200  km 
  paved:  35,500  km 
  unpaved:  earth  8,700  km  (1990) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  600  km  perennially  navigable 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil,  105  km  natural  gas  760  km  (1992) 
 
  Ports:  Kaunas,  Klaipeda 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  44  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  275,893  GRT/321,440  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  1,  cargo  28,  combination  bulk  11,  railcar  carrier 
  3,  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  1 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  96 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  3 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  4 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  14 
  with  unpaved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  1 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  1 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  6 
  with  unpaved  runways  under  914  m:  63 
 
  Lithuania:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  900,000  telephones;  240  telephones/1,000  persons; 
  telecommunications  system  ranks  among  the  most  modern  of  the  former 
  Soviet  republics 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  land  lines  and  microwave  radio  relay 
  international:  international  connections  no  longer  depend  on  the 
  Moscow  gateway  switch,  but  are  established  by  satellite  through  Oslo 
  from  Vilnius  and  through  Copenhagen  from  Kaunas;  1  EUTELSAT  and  1 
  INTELSAT  earth  station;  an  NMT-450  analog  cellular  network  operates  in 
  Vilnius  and  other  cities  and  is  linked  internationally  through 
  Copenhagen  by  EUTELSAT  international  electronic  mail  is  available; 
  land  lines  or  microwave  to  former  USSR  republics 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  13,  FM  26,  shortwave  1,  longwave  1 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  3 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Lithuania:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Ground  Forces,  Navy,  Air  and  Air  Defense  Force,  Security 
  Forces  (internal  and  border  troops),  National  Guard  (Skat) 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  949,663;  males  fit  for  military 
  service  750,386;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually  27,630  (1995 
  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $30  million,  2%  of 
  GDP  (1994);  note  -  for  1995  defense  expenditures  were  $54  million  at 
  exchange  rate  conversion 
 
 
 




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