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madagascarmore about madagascar

madagascar


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Madagascar 
  n  :  an  island  in  the  Indian  Ocean  off  the  southeastern  coast  of 
  Africa;  the  4th  largest  island  in  the  world  [syn:  {Madagascar}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Madagascar 
 
  Madagascar:Geography 
 
  Location:  Southern  Africa,  island  in  the  Indian  Ocean,  east  of 
  Mozambique 
 
  Map  references:  Africa 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  587,040  sq  km 
  land  area:  581,540  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  less  than  twice  the  size  of  Arizona 
 
  Land  boundaries:  0  km 
 
  Coastline:  4,828  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  contiguous  zone:  24  nm 
  continental  shelf:  200  nm  or  100  nm  from  the  2,500-m  isobath 
  exclusive  economic  zone:  200  nm 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  claims  Bassas  da  India,  Europa  Island, 
  Glorioso  Islands,  Juan  de  Nova  Island,  and  Tromelin  Island  (all 
  administered  by  France) 
 
  Climate:  tropical  along  coast,  temperate  inland,  arid  in  south 
 
  Terrain:  narrow  coastal  plain,  high  plateau  and  mountains  in  center 
 
  Natural  resources:  graphite,  chromite,  coal,  bauxite,  salt,  quartz, 
  tar  sands,  semiprecious  stones,  mica,  fish 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  4% 
  permanent  crops:  1% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  58% 
  forest  and  woodland:  26% 
  other:  11% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  9,000  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  soil  erosion  results  from  deforestation  and 
  overgrazing  desertification  surface  water  contaminated  with  raw 
  sewage  and  other  organic  wastes;  several  species  of  flora  and  fauna 
  unique  to  the  island  are  endangered 
  natural  hazards:  periodic  cyclones 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Endangered  Species,  Marine  Life 
  Conservation,  Nuclear  Test  Ban;  signed,  but  not  ratified  - 
  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change,  Desertification  Law  of  the  Sea 
 
  Note:  world's  fourth-largest  island;  strategic  location  along 
  Mozambique  Channel 
 
  Madagascar:People 
 
  Population:  13,862,325  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  47%  (female  3,231,647;  male  3,265,715) 
  15-64  years:  50%  (female  3,511,699;  male  3,413,564) 
  65  years  and  over:  3%  (female  225,205;  male  214,495)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  3.18%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  44.82  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  12.99  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  86.9  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  54.45  years 
  male:  52.47  years 
  female:  56.48  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  6.62  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Malagasy  (singular  and  plural) 
  adjective:  Malagasy 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Malayo-Indonesian  (Merina  and  related  Betsileo), 
  Cotiers  (mixed  African,  Malayo-Indonesian,  and  Arab  ancestry  - 
  Betsimisaraka  Tsimihety  Antaisaka  Sakalava),  French,  Indian, 
  Creole,  Comoran 
 
  Religions:  indigenous  beliefs  52%,  Christian  41%,  Muslim  7% 
 
  Languages:  French  (official),  Malagasy  (official) 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1990  est.) 
  total  population:  80% 
  male:  88% 
  female:  73% 
 
  Labor  force: 
  total  workers:  4.9  million 
  workers  not  receiving  money  wages:  4.7  million  (96%  of  total  labor 
  force);  note  -  4.3  million  workers  are  in  subsistence  agriculture 
  wage  earners:  175,000  (3.6%  of  total  work  force) 
  wage  earners  by  occupation:  agriculture  45,500,  domestic  service 
  29,750,  industry  26,250,  commerce  24,500,  construction  19,250,  service 
  15,750,  transportation  10,500,  other  3,500  (1985  est.) 
 
  Madagascar:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Madagascar 
  conventional  short  form:  Madagascar 
  local  long  form:  Republique  de  Madagascar 
  local  short  form:  Madagascar 
  former:  Malagasy  Republic 
 
  Digraph:  MA 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  Antananarivo 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  6  provinces;  Antananarivo,  Antsiranana 
  Fianarantsoa  Mahajanga  Toamasina  Toliary 
 
  Independence:  26  June  1960  (from  France) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  26  June  (1960) 
 
  Constitution:  19  August  1992  by  national  referendum 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  French  civil  law  system  and  traditional 
  Malagasy  law;  has  not  accepted  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Albert  ZAFY  (since  9  March  1993);  election 
  last  held  on  10  February  1993  (next  to  be  held  1998);  results  -  Albert 
  ZAFY  (UNDD),  67%;  Didier  RATSIRAKA  (AREMA),  33% 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Francisque  RAVONY  (since  9  August 
  1993) 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  appointed  by  the  prime  minister 
 
  Legislative  branch:  bicameral  Parliament 
  Senate  (Senat):  two-thirds  of  upper  house  seats  are  to  be  filled  from 
  popularly  elected  regional  assemblies;  the  remaining  third  is  to  be 
  filled  by  presidential  appointment;  decentralization  and  formation  of 
  regional  assemblies  is  not  expected  before  1997 
  National  Assembly  (Assemblee  Nationale):  elections  last  held  on  16 
  June  1993  (next  to  be  held  June  1997);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by 
  party  NA  seats  -  (138  total)  CFV  coalition  76,  PMDM/MFM  16,  CSCD  11, 
  Famima  10,  RPSD  7,  various  pro-Ratsiraka  groups  10,  others  8 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court  (Cour  Supreme),  High  Constitutional 
  Court  (Haute  Cour  Constitutionnelle) 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Committee  of  Living  Forces  (CFV),  an 
  alliance  of  National  Union  for  Development  and  Democracy  (UNDD), 
  Support  Group  for  Democracy  and  Development  in  Madagascar  (CSDDM), 
  Action  and  Reflection  Group  for  the  Development  of  Madagascar  (GRAD), 
  Congress  Party  for  Madagascar  Independence  -  Renewal 
  (AKFM-Fanavaozana),  and  some  12  other  parties,  trade  unions,  and 
  religious  groups;  Militant  Party  for  the  Development  of  Madagascar 
  (PMDM/MFM),  formerly  the  Movement  for  Proletarian  Power,  Manandafy 
  RAKOTONIRINA  Confederation  of  Civil  Societies  for  Development  (CSCD), 
  Guy  Willy  RAZANAMASY  Association  of  United  Malagasys  (Famima);  Rally 
  for  Social  Democracy  (RPSD),  Pierre  TSIRANANA 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  National  Council  of  Christian 
  Churches  (FFKM);  Federalist  Movement 
 
  Member  of:  ACCT,  ACP,  AfDB  CCC,  ECA,  FAO,  G-77,  GATT,  IAEA,  IBRD, 
  ICAO,  ICC,  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO, 
  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  ITU,  NAM,  OAU,  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNHCR 
  UNIDO  UNMIH  UPU,  WCL,  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Pierrot  Jocelyn  RAJAONARIVELO 
  chancery:  2374  Massachusetts  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  265-5525,  5526 
  consulate(s)  general:  New  York 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Dennis  P.  BARRETT 
  embassy:  14-16  Rue  Rainitovo  Antsahavola  Antananarivo 
  mailing  address:  B.  P.  620,  Antananarivo 
  telephone:  [261]  (2)  212-57,  200-89,  207-18 
  FAX:  [261]  (2)  345-39 
 
  Flag:  two  equal  horizontal  bands  of  red  top  and  green  with  a 
  vertical  white  band  of  the  same  width  on  hoist  side 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Madagascar  is  one  of  the  poorest  countries  in  the  world, 
  suffering  from  chronic  malnutrition,  underfunded  health  and  education 
  facilities,  a  3%  annual  population  growth  rate,  and  severe  loss  of 
  forest  cover,  accompanied  by  erosion.  Agriculture,  including  fishing 
  and  forestry,  is  the  mainstay  of  the  economy,  accounting  for  over  30% 
  of  GDP  and  contributing  more  than  70%  of  total  export  earnings. 
  Industry  is  largely  confined  to  the  processing  of  agricultural 
  products  and  textile  manufacturing;  in  1991  it  accounted  for  only  13% 
  of  GDP.  In  1986  the  government  introduced  a  five-year  development  plan 
  that  stressed  self-sufficiency  in  food  (mainly  rice)  by  1990, 
  increased  production  for  exports,  and  reduced  energy  imports. 
  Subsequently,  growth  in  output  has  been  held  back  because  of 
  protracted  antigovernment  strikes  and  demonstrations  for  political 
  reform.  Since  1993,  corruption  and  political  instability  have  caused 
  the  economy  and  infrastructure  to  decay  further.  Since  April  1994,  the 
  government  commitment  to  economic  reforms  has  been  erratic.  Enormous 
  obstacles  stand  in  the  way  of  Madagascar's  realizing  its  considerable 
  growth  potential. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $10.6  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  2.8%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $790  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  35%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  NA% 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $250  million 
  expenditures:  $265  million,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $180 
  million  (1991  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $240  million  (f.o.b.,  1993  est.) 
  commodities:  coffee  45%,  vanilla  20%,  cloves  11%,  shellfish,  sugar, 
  petroleum  products 
  partners:  France,  US  Germany,  Japan,  Russia 
 
  Imports:  $510  million  (f.o.b.,  1993  est.) 
  commodities:  intermediate  manufactures  30%,  capital  goods  28%, 
  petroleum  15%,  consumer  goods  14%,  food  13% 
  partners:  France,  Germany,  Japan,  UK  Italy,  Netherlands 
 
  External  debt:  $4.3  billion  (1993  est.) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  3.8%  (1993  est.);  accounts  for  13% 
  of  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  220,000  kW 
  production:  560  million  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  40  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  agricultural  processing  (meat  canneries,  soap  factories, 
  breweries,  tanneries,  sugar  refining  plants),  light  consumer  goods 
  industries  (textiles,  glassware),  cement,  automobile  assembly  plant, 
  paper,  petroleum 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  31%  of  GDP;  cash  crops  -  coffee,  vanilla, 
  sugarcane,  cloves,  cocoa;  food  crops  -  rice,  cassava,  beans,  bananas, 
  peanuts;  cattle  raising  widespread;  almost  self-sufficient  in  rice 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  illicit  producer  of  cannabis  (cultivated  and  wild 
  varieties)  used  mostly  for  domestic  consumption 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-89),  $136  million; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-89),  $3.125  billion;  Communist  countries  (1970-89),  $491  million 
 
  Currency:  1  Malagasy  franc  (FMG)  =  100  centimes 
 
  Exchange  rates:  Malagasy  francs  (FMG)  per  US$1  -  3,718.0  (November 
  1994),  1,913.8  (1993),  1,864.0  (1992),  1,835.4  (1991),  1,454.6 
  (December  1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Madagascar:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  1,020  km 
  narrow  gauge:  1,020  km  1.000-m  gauge 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  40,000  km 
  paved:  4,694  km 
  unpaved:  gravel,  crushed  stone,  stabilized  earth  811  km  other  earth 
  34,495  km  (est.) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  of  local  importance  only;  isolated  streams  and  small 
  portions  of  Canal  des  Pangalanes 
 
  Ports:  Antsiranana  Mahajanga  Port  Saint-Louis,  Toamasina  Toliaria 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  10  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  20,261  GRT/28,193  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  cargo  5,  chemical  tanker  1,  liquefied  gas  tanker  1,  oil 
  tanker  1,  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  2 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  138 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  1 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  3 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  21 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  42 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  5 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  64 
 
  Madagascar:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  NA  telephones;  above  average  system 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  open-wire  lines,  coaxial  cables,  microwave  radio  relay,  and 
  tropospheric  scatter  links 
  international:  submarine  cable  to  Bahrain;  1  earth  station  for  Indian 
  Ocean  INTELSAT 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  17,  FM  3,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  1  (repeaters  36) 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Madagascar:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Popular  Armed  Forces  (includes  Intervention  Forces, 
  Development  Forces,  Aeronaval  Forces  -  includes  Navy  and  Air  Force), 
  Gendarmerie,  Presidential  Security  Regiment 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  3,027,156;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  1,800,127;  males  reach  military  age  (20)  annually 
  130,071  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $35  million,  1.3%  of 
  GDP  (1991) 
 
 
 




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