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russiamore about russia


  4  definitions  found 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
  Russia  \Rus"sia\,  n. 
  A  country  of  Europe  and  Asia. 
  {Russia  iron},  a  kind  of  sheet  iron  made  in  Russia,  having  a 
  lustrous  blue-black  surface. 
  {Russia  leather},  a  soft  kind  of  leather,  made  originally  in 
  Russia  but  now  elsewhere,  having  a  peculiar  odor  from 
  being  impregnated  with  an  oil  obtained  from  birch  bark.  It 
  is  much  used  in  bookbinding,  on  account  of  its  not  being 
  subject  to  mold,  and  being  proof  against  insects. 
  {Russia  matting},  matting  manufactured  in  Russia  from  the 
  inner  bark  of  the  linden  ({Tilia  Europ[ae]a}). 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
  n  1:  a  former  communist  country  in  eastern  Europe  and  northern 
  Asia;  established  in  1922;  included  Russia  and  14  other 
  soviet  socialist  republics  (Ukraine  and  Byelorussia  an 
  others);  officially  dissolved  31  December  1991  [syn:  {Soviet 
  Union},  {Russia},  {Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics}, 
  2:  formerly  the  largest  Soviet  Socialist  Republic  in  the  USSR 
  occupying  eastern  Europe  and  northern  Asia  [syn:  {Soviet 
  Russia},  {Russia},  {Russian  Soviet  Federated  Socialist 
  3:  a  former  empire  in  eastern  Europe  and  northern  Asia; 
  powerful  in  17-18th  centuries  under  Peter  the  Great  and 
  Catherine  the  Great;  overthrown  by  revolution  in  1917 
  [syn:  {Russia}] 
  4:  a  federation  in  eastern  Europe  and  northern  Asia;  formerly 
  Soviet  Russia;  since  1992  an  independent  state  [syn:  {Russia}] 
  From  U.S.  Gazetteer  (1990)  [gazetteer]: 
  Russia,  OH  (village,  FIPS  69344) 
  Location:  40.23240  N,  84.41087  W 
  Population  (1990):  442  (143  housing  units) 
  Area:  0.9  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  45363 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
  Location:  Northern  Asia  (that  part  west  of  the  Urals  is  sometimes 
  included  with  Europe),  bordering  the  Arctic  Ocean,  between  Europe  and 
  the  North  Pacific  Ocean 
  Map  references:  Asia 
  total  area:  17,075,200  sq  km 
  land  area:  16,995,800  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  more  than  1.8  times  the  size  of  the  US 
  Land  boundaries:  total  20,139  km  Azerbaijan  284  km  Belarus  959  km 
  China  (southeast)  3,605  km  China  (south)  40  km  Estonia  290  km 
  Finland  1,313  km  Georgia  723  km  Kazakhstan  6,846  km  North  Korea  19 
  km  Latvia  217  km  Lithuania  (Kaliningrad  Oblast)  227  km  Mongolia 
  3,441  km  Norway  167  km  Poland  (Kaliningrad  Oblast)  432  km  Ukraine 
  1,576  km 
  Coastline:  37,653  km 
  Maritime  claims: 
  continental  shelf:  200-m  depth  or  to  the  depth  of  exploitation 
  exclusive  economic  zone:  200  nm 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
  International  disputes:  inherited  disputes  from  former  USSR  including: 
  sections  of  the  boundary  with  China;  islands  of  Etorofu  Kunashiri 
  and  Shikotan  and  the  Habomai  group  occupied  by  the  Soviet  Union  in 
  1945,  administered  by  Russia,  claimed  by  Japan;  maritime  dispute  with 
  Norway  over  portion  of  the  Barents  Sea;  Caspian  Sea  boundaries  are  not 
  yet  determined;  potential  dispute  with  Ukraine  over  Crimea;  Estonia 
  claims  over  2,000  sq  km  of  Russian  territory  in  the  Narva  and  Pechora 
  regions;  the  Abrene  section  of  the  border  ceded  by  the  Latvian  Soviet 
  Socialist  Republic  to  Russia  in  1944;  has  made  no  territorial  claim  in 
  Antarctica  (but  has  reserved  the  right  to  do  so)  and  does  not 
  recognize  the  claims  of  any  other  nation 
  Climate:  ranges  from  steppes  in  the  south  through  humid  continental  in 
  much  of  European  Russia;  subarctic  in  Siberia  to  tundra  climate  in  the 
  polar  north;  winters  vary  from  cool  along  Black  Sea  coast  to  frigid  in 
  Siberia;  summers  vary  from  warm  in  the  steppes  to  cool  along  Arctic 
  Terrain:  broad  plain  with  low  hills  west  of  Urals;  vast  coniferous 
  forest  and  tundra  in  Siberia;  uplands  and  mountains  along  southern 
  border  regions 
  Natural  resources:  wide  natural  resource  base  including  major  deposits 
  of  oil,  natural  gas,  coal,  and  many  strategic  minerals,  timber 
  note:  formidable  obstacles  of  climate,  terrain,  and  distance  hinder 
  exploitation  of  natural  resources 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  8% 
  permanent  crops:  NEGL% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  5% 
  forest  and  woodland:  45% 
  other:  42% 
  Irrigated  land:  56,000  sq  km  (1992) 
  current  issues:  air  pollution  from  heavy  industry,  emissions  of 
  coal-fired  electric  plants,  and  transportation  in  major  cities; 
  industrial  and  agricultural  pollution  of  inland  waterways  and  sea 
  coasts;  deforestation;  soil  erosion;  soil  contamination  from  improper 
  application  of  agricultural  chemicals;  scattered  areas  of  sometimes 
  intense  radioactive  contamination 
  natural  hazards:  permafrost  over  much  of  Siberia  is  a  major  impediment 
  to  development;  volcanic  activity  in  the  Kuril  Islands;  volcanoes  and 
  earthquakes  on  the  Kamchatka  Peninsula 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Air  Pollution,  Air 
  Pollution-Nitrogen  Oxides,  Air  Pollution-Sulphur  85,  Antarctic  Treaty, 
  Climate  Change,  Endangered  Species,  Environmental  Modification, 
  Hazardous  Wastes,  Marine  Dumping,  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer 
  Protection,  Ship  Pollution,  Tropical  Timber  83,  Wetlands,  Whaling; 
  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Air  Pollution-Sulphur  94, 
  Antarctic-Environmental  Protocol,  Biodiversity,  Law  of  the  Sea 
  Note:  largest  country  in  the  world  in  terms  of  area  but  unfavorably 
  located  in  relation  to  major  sea  lanes  of  the  world;  despite  its  size, 
  much  of  the  country  lacks  proper  soils  and  climates  (either  too  cold 
  or  too  dry)  for  agriculture 
  Population:  149,909,089  (July  1995  est.) 
  note:  official  Russian  statistics  put  the  population  at  148,200,000 
  for  1994 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  22%  (female  16,208,640;  male  16,784,017) 
  15-64  years:  66%  (female  50,711,209;  male  48,247,101) 
  65  years  and  over:  12%  (female  12,557,447;  male  5,400,675)  (July  1995 
  Population  growth  rate:  0.2%  (1995  est.) 
  note:  official  Russian  statistics  put  the  population  growth  rate  at 
  -6.0%  for  1994 
  Birth  rate:  12.64  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
  note:  official  Russian  statistics  put  the  birth  rate  at  9.5  births  per 
  l,000  population  for  1994 
  Death  rate:  11.36  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
  note:  official  Russian  statistics  put  the  death  rate  at  15.5  deaths 
  per  l,000  population  in  1994 
  Net  migration  rate:  0.7  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  26.4  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
  note:  official  Russian  statistics  put  the  infant  mortality  rate  at 
  19.9  deaths  per  l,000  live  births  in  1994 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  69.1  years 
  male:  64.1  years 
  female:  74.35  years  (1995  est.) 
  note:  official  Russian  statistics  put  life  expectancy  at  birth  as  64 
  years  for  total  population  in  1994 
  Total  fertility  rate:  1.82  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
  noun:  Russian(s) 
  adjective:  Russian 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Russian  81.5%,  Tatar  3.8%,  Ukrainian  3%,  Chuvash 
  1.2%,  Bashkir  0.9%,  Byelorussian  0.8%,  Moldavian  0.7%,  other  8.1% 
  Religions:  Russian  Orthodox,  Muslim,  other 
  Languages:  Russian,  other 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1989) 
  total  population:  98% 
  male:  100% 
  female:  97% 
  Labor  force:  85  million  (1993) 
  by  occupation:  production  and  economic  services  83.9%,  government 
  conventional  long  form:  Russian  Federation 
  conventional  short  form:  Russia 
  local  long  form:  Rossiyskaya  Federatsiya 
  local  short  form:  Rossiya 
  former:  Russian  Soviet  Federative  Socialist  Republic 
  Digraph:  RS 
  Type:  federation 
  Capital:  Moscow 
  Administrative  divisions:  21  autonomous  republics  (avtomnykh 
  respublik  singular  -  avtomnaya  respublika);  Adygea  (Maykop), 
  Bashkortostan  (Ufa),  Buryatia  (Ulan-Ude),  Chechnya  (Groznyy), 
  Chuvashia  (Cheboksary),  Dagestan  (Makhachkala),  Gorno-Altay 
  (Gorno-Altaysk),  Ingushetia  (Nazran'),  Kabardino-Balkaria  (Nal'chik), 
  Kalmykia  (Elista),  Karachay-Cherkessia  (Cherkessk),  Karelia 
  (Petrozavodsk),  Khakassia  (Abakan),  Komi  (Syktyvkar),  Mari  El 
  (Yoshkar-Ola),  Mordovia  (Saransk),  North  Ossetia  (Vladikavkaz), 
  Tatarstan  (Kazan'),  Tuva  (Kyzyl),  Udmurtia  (Izhevsk),  Yakutia  -  also 
  known  as  Sakha  (Yakutsk);  49  oblasts  (oblastey,  singular  -  oblast'); 
  Amur  (Blagoveshchensk),  Arkhangel'sk,  Astrakhan',  Belgorod  Bryansk 
  Chelyabinsk,  Chita,  Irkutsk  Ivanovo  Kaliningrad  Kaluga,  Kamchatka 
  (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy),  Kemerovo  Kirov,  Kostroma  Kurgan,  Kursk, 
  Leningrad  (St.  Petersburg),  Lipetsk  Magadan,  Moscow,  Murmansk, 
  Nizhniy  Novgorod,  Novgorod,  Novosibirsk,  Omsk,  Orel,  Orenburg  Penza, 
  Perm',  Pskov,  Rostov,  Ryazan',  Sakhalin  (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk),  Samara, 
  Saratov,  Smolensk,  Sverdlovsk  (Yekaterinburg),  Tambov  Tomsk,  Tula, 
  Tver',  Tyumen',  Ul'yanovsk,  Vladimir,  Volgograd,  Vologda  Voronezh 
  Yaroslavl';  6  krays  (krayev,  singular  -  kray);  Altay  (Barnaul), 
  Khabarovsk  Krasnodar  Krasnoyarsk  Primorskiy  (Vladivostok), 
  Stavropol';  10  autonomous  okrugs  Aga  (Aginskoye),  Chukotka  (Anadyr'), 
  Evenkia  (Tura),  Khantia-Mansia  (Khanty-Mansiysk),  Koryakia  (Palana), 
  Nenetsia  (Nar'yan-Mar),  Permyakia  (Kudymkar),  Taymyria  (Dudinka), 
  Ust'-Onda  (Ust'-Ordynskiy),  Yamalia  (Salekhard);  1  autonomous  oblast 
  (avtomnykh  oblast');  Birobijan 
  note:  the  autonomous  republics  of  Chechnya  and  Ingushetia  were 
  formerly  the  autonomous  republic  of  Checheno-Ingushetia  (the  boundary 
  between  Chechenia  and  Ingushetia  has  yet  to  be  determined);  the  cities 
  of  Moscow  and  St  Petersburg  are  federal  cities;  an  administrative 
  division  has  the  same  name  as  its  administrative  center  (exceptions 
  have  the  administrative  center  name  following  in  parentheses) 
  Independence:  24  August  1991  (from  Soviet  Union) 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  June  12  (1990) 
  Constitution:  adopted  12  December  1993 
  Legal  system:  based  on  civil  law  system;  judicial  review  of 
  legislative  acts 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Boris  Nikolayevich  YEL'TSIN  (since  12  June 
  1991);  election  last  held  12  June  1991  (next  to  be  held  NA  1996); 
  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA  note  -  no  vice  president;  if 
  the  president  dies  in  office,  cannot  exercise  his  powers  because  of 
  ill  health,  is  impeached,  or  resigns,  the  premier  succeeds  him  the 
  premier  serves  as  acting  president  until  a  new  presidential  election 
  is  held,  which  must  be  within  three  months 
  head  of  government:  Premier  and  Chairman  of  the  Council  of  Ministers 
  Viktor  Stepanovich  CHERNOMYRDIN  (since  14  December  1992);  First  Deputy 
  Chairmen  of  the  Council  of  Ministers  Oleg  SOSKOVETS  (since  30  April 
  1993)  and  Anatoliy  CHUBAYS  (since  5  November  1994) 
  Security  Council:  originally  established  as  a  presidential  advisory 
  body  in  June  1991,  but  restructured  in  March  1992  with  responsibility 
  for  managing  individual  and  state  security 
  Presidential  Administration:  drafts  presidential  edicts  and  provides 
  staff  and  policy  support  to  the  entire  executive  branch 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  appointed  by  the  president 
  Group  of  Assistants:  schedules  president's  appointments,  processes 
  presidential  edicts  and  other  official  documents,  and  houses  the 
  president's  press  service  and  primary  speechwriters 
  Council  of  Heads  of  Republics:  includes  the  leaders  of  the  21 
  ethnic-based  Republics 
  Council  of  Heads  of  Administrations:  includes  the  leaders  of  the  66 
  autonomous  territories  and  regions,  and  the  mayors  of  Moscow  and  St 
  Presidential  Council:  prepares  policy  papers  for  the  president 
  Legislative  branch:  bicameral  Federal  Assembly 
  Federation  Council:  elections  last  held  12  December  1993  (next  to  be 
  held  NA);  results  -  two  members  elected  from  each  of  Russia's  89 
  territorial  units  for  a  total  of  176  deputies;  2  seats  unfilled  as  of 
  15  May  1994  (Chechnya  did  not  participate  in  the  election);  Speaker 
  Vladimir  SHUMEYKO  (Russia's  Democratic  Choice) 
  State  Duma:  elections  last  held  12  December  1993  (next  to  be  held  NA 
  December  1995);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA  seats  -  (450 
  total)  Russia's  Democratic  Choice  78,  New  Regional  Policy  66,  Liberal 
  Democrats  63,  Agrarian  Party  55,  Communist  Party  of  the  Russian 
  Federation  45,  Unity  and  Accord  30,  Yavlinskiy-Boldyrev-Lukin  Bloc 
  Yabloko  27,  Women  of  Russia  23,  Democratic  Party  of  Russia  15, 
  Russia's  Path  12,  other  parties  23,  affiliation  unknown  12,  unfilled 
  (as  of  13  March  1994;  Chechnya  did  not  participate  in  the  election)  1; 
  Speaker  Ivan  RYBKIN  (Agrarian  Party);  note  -  as  of  11  April  1995, 
  seats  were  as  follows:  Russia's  Democratic  Choice  54,  New  Regional 
  Policy  32,  Liberal  Democrats  54,  Agrarian  Party  51,  Communist  Party  of 
  the  Russian  Federation  45,  Unity  and  Accord  25, 
  Yavlinskiy-Boldyrev-Lukin  Bloc  Yabloko  28,  Liberal  Democratic  Union 
  of  12  December  9,  Women  of  Russia  22,  Democratic  Party  of  Russia  10, 
  Russia's  Path  12,  Duma  96  23,  Russia  35,  Stability  36,  affiliation 
  unknown  14 
  Judicial  branch:  Constitutional  Court,  Supreme  Court  (highest  court 
  for  criminal,  civil,  and  administrative  cases),  Superior  Court  of 
  Arbitration  (highest  court  that  resolves  economic  disputes) 
  Political  parties  and  leaders: 
  pro-market  democrats:  Party  of  Russian  Unity  and  Accord,  Sergey 
  SHAKHRAY  Russia's  Democratic  Choice  Party,  Yegor  GAYDAR;  Russian 
  Movement  for  Democratic  Reforms,  Anatoliy  SOBCHAK 
  Yavlinskiy-Boldyrev-Lukin  Bloc  (Yabloko),  Grigoriy  YAVLINSKIY  Liberal 
  Democratic  Union  of  12  December,  Boris  FEDOROV 
  centrists/special  interest  parties:  Civic  Union  for  Stability, 
  Justice,  and  Progress,  Arkadiy  VOL'SKIY;  Democratic  Party  of  Russia, 
  Sergey  GLAZ'YEV;  Women  of  Russia,  Alevtina  FEDULOVA  Social  Democratic 
  Peoples'  Party,  Vasiliy  LIPITSKIY  New  Regional  Policy  (NRP),  Vladimir 
  anti-market  and/or  ultranationalist  parties:  Agrarian  Party,  Mikhail 
  LAPSHIN  Communist  Party  of  the  Russian  Federation,  Gennadiy  ZYUGANOV 
  Liberal  Democratic  Party  of  Russia,  Vladimir  ZHIRINOVSKIY  Derzhava 
  Aleksandr  RUTSKOY 
  note:  more  than  20  political  parties  and  associations  tried  to  gather 
  enough  signatures  to  run  slates  of  candidates  in  the  12  December  1993 
  legislative  elections,  but  only  13  succeeded 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  NA 
  Member  of:  BSEC,  CBSS,  CCC,  CE  (guest),  CERN  (observer),  CIS,  EBRD, 
  NACC,  NSG,  OAS  (observer),  OSCE,  PCA,  PFP,  UN  UN  Security  Council, 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Sergey  LAVROV 
  chancery:  2650  Wisconsin  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20007 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  298-5700  through  5704 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  298-5735 
  consulate(s)  general:  New  York,  San  Francisco,  and  Seattle 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Thomas  R.  PICKERING 
  embassy:  Novinskiy  Bul'var  19/23,  Moscow 
  mailing  address:  APO  AE  09721 
  telephone:  [7]  (095)  252-24-51  through  59 
  FAX:  [7]  (095)  956-42-61 
  consulate(s)  general:  St  Petersburg,  Vladivostok,  Yekaterinburg 
  Flag:  three  equal  horizontal  bands  of  white  (top),  blue,  and  red 
  Overview:  Russia,  a  vast  country  with  a  wealth  of  natural  resources,  a 
  well-educated  population,  and  a  diverse  industrial  base,  continues  to 
  experience  formidable  difficulties  in  moving  from  its  old  centrally 
  planned  economy  to  a  modern  market  economy.  President  YEL'TSIN's 
  government  has  made  substantial  strides  in  converting  to  a  market 
  economy  since  launching  its  economic  reform  program  in  January  1992  by 
  freeing  nearly  all  prices,  slashing  defense  spending,  eliminating  the 
  old  centralized  distribution  system,  completing  an  ambitious  voucher 
  privatization  program,  establishing  private  financial  institutions, 
  and  decentralizing  foreign  trade  Russia,  however,  has  made  little 
  progress  in  a  number  of  key  areas  that  are  needed  to  provide  a  solid 
  foundation  for  the  transition  to  a  market  economy.  Financial 
  stabilization  has  remained  elusive,  with  wide  swings  in  monthly 
  inflation  rates.  Only  limited  restructuring  of  industry  has  occurred 
  so  far  because  of  a  scarcity  of  investment  funds  and  the  failure  of 
  enterprise  managers  to  make  hard  cost-cutting  decisions.  In  addition, 
  Moscow  has  yet  to  develop  a  social  safety  net  that  would  allow  faster 
  restructuring  by  relieving  enterprises  of  the  burden  of  providing 
  social  benefits  for  their  workers  and  has  been  slow  to  develop  the 
  legal  framework  necessary  to  fully  support  a  market  economy  and  to 
  encourage  foreign  investment.  As  a  result,  output  has  continued  to 
  fall.  According  to  Russian  official  data,  which  probably  overstate  the 
  fall,  GDP  declined  by  15%  in  1994  compared  with  a  12%  decline  in  1993. 
  Industrial  output  in  1994  fell  21%  with  all  major  sectors  taking  a 
  hit.  Agricultural  production  in  1994  was  down  9%.  The  grain  harvest 
  totaled  81  million  tons,  some  15  million  tons  less  than  in  1993. 
  Unemployment  climbed  to  an  estimated  6.6  million  or  about  7%  of  the 
  work  force  by  yearend  1994.  Floundering  Russian  firms  have  already  had 
  to  put  another  4.8  million  workers  on  involuntary,  unpaid  leave  or 
  shortened  workweeks.  Government  fears  of  large-scale  unemployment 
  continued  to  hamper  industrial  restructuring  efforts.  According  to 
  official  Russian  data,  real  per  capita  income  was  up  nearly  18%  in 
  1994  compared  with  1993,  in  part  because  many  Russians  are  working 
  second  jobs.  Most  Russians  perceive  that  they  are  worse  off  now 
  because  of  growing  crime  and  health  problems  and  mounting  wage 
  arrears.  Russia  has  made  significant  headway  in  privatizing  state 
  assets,  completing  its  voucher  privatization  program  at  midyear  1994. 
  At  least  a  portion  of  about  110,000  state  enterprises  were  transferred 
  to  private  hands  by  the  end  of  1994.  Including  partially  privatized 
  firms,  the  private  sector  accounted  for  roughly  half  of  GDP  in  1994. 
  Financial  stabilization  continued  to  remain  a  challenge  for  the 
  government.  Moscow  tightened  financial  policies  in  late  1993  and  early 
  1994,  including  postponing  planned  budget  spending,  and  succeeded  in 
  reducing  monthly  inflation  from  18%  in  January  to  about  5%  in  July  and 
  August.  At  midyear  however,  the  government  relaxed  austerity  measures 
  in  the  face  of  mounting  pressure  from  industry  and  agriculture, 
  sparking  a  new  round  of  inflation;  the  monthly  inflation  rate  jumped 
  to  roughly  15%  per  month  during  the  fourth  quarter.  In  response, 
  Moscow  announced  a  fairly  tight  government  budget  for  1995  designed  to 
  bring  monthly  inflation  down  to  around  1%  by  the  end  of  1995. 
  According  to  official  statistics,  Russia's  1994  trade  with  nations 
  outside  the  former  Soviet  Union  produced  a  $12.3  billion  surplus,  up 
  from  $11.3  billion  in  1993.  Foreign  sales  -  comprised  largely  of  oil, 
  natural  gas,  and  other  raw  materials  -  grew  more  than  8%.  Imports  also 
  were  up  8%  as  demand  for  food  and  other  consumer  goods  surged.  Russian 
  trade  with  other  former  Soviet  republics  continued  to  decline  At  the 
  same  time,  Russia  paid  only  a  fraction  of  the  roughly  $20  billion  in 
  debt  that  came  due  in  1994,  and  by  the  end  of  the  year,  Russia's  hard 
  currency  foreign  debt  had  risen  to  nearly  $100  billion.  Moscow  reached 
  agreement  to  restructure  debts  with  Paris  Club  official  creditors  in 
  mid-1994  and  concluded  a  preliminary  deal  with  its  commercial  bank 
  creditors  late  in  the  year  to  reschedule  debts  owed  them  in  early 
  1995.  Capital  flight  continued  to  be  a  serious  problem  in  1994,  with 
  billions  of  additional  dollars  in  assets  being  moved  abroad,  primarily 
  to  bank  accounts  in  Europe.  Russia's  physical  plant  continues  to 
  deteriorate  because  of  insufficient  maintenance  and  new  construction. 
  Plant  and  equipment  on  average  are  twice  the  age  of  the  West's.  Many 
  years  will  pass  before  Russia  can  take  full  advantage  of  its  natural 
  resources  and  its  human  assets. 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $721.2  billion  (1994 
  estimate  as  extrapolated  from  World  Bank  estimate  for  1992) 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  -15%  (1994  est.) 
  National  product  per  capita:  $4,820  (1994  est.) 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  10%  per  month  (average  1994) 
  Unemployment  rate:  7.1%  (December  1994)  with  considerable  additional 
  revenues:  $NA 
  expenditures:  $NA,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA 
  Exports:  $48  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994) 
  commodities:  petroleum  and  petroleum  products,  natural  gas,  wood  and 
  wood  products,  metals,  chemicals,  and  a  wide  variety  of  civilian  and 
  military  manufactures 
  partners:  Europe,  North  America,  Japan,  Third  World  countries,  Cuba 
  Imports:  $35.7  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994) 
  commodities:  machinery  and  equipment,  consumer  goods,  medicines,  meat, 
  grain,  sugar,  semifinished  metal  products 
  partners:  Europe,  North  America,  Japan,  Third  World  countries,  Cuba 
  External  debt:  $95  billion-$100  billion  (yearend  1994) 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  -21%  (1994) 
  capacity:  213,100,000  KW 
  production:  876  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  5,800  kWh  (1994) 
  Industries:  complete  range  of  mining  and  extractive  industries 
  producing  coal,  oil,  gas,  chemicals,  and  metals;  all  forms  of  machine 
  building  from  rolling  mills  to  high-performance  aircraft  and  space 
  vehicles;  ship-  building;  road  and  rail  transportation  equipment; 
  communications  equipment;  agricultural  machinery,  tractors,  and 
  construction  equipment;  electric  power  generating  and  transmitting 
  equipment;  medical  and  scientific  instruments;  consumer  durables 
  Agriculture:  grain,  sugar  beets,  sunflower  seeds,  meat,  milk, 
  vegetables,  fruits;  because  of  its  northern  location  does  not  grow 
  citrus,  cotton,  tea,  and  other  warm  climate  products 
  Illicit  drugs:  illicit  cultivator  of  cannabis  and  opium  poppy;  mostly 
  for  domestic  consumption;  government  has  active  eradication  program; 
  used  as  transshipment  point  for  Asian  and  Latin  American  illicit  drugs 
  to  Western  Europe  and  Latin  America 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (1990-94),  $15  billion; 
  other  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments  (1990-93),  $120 
  Currency:  1  ruble  R  =  100  kopeks 
  Exchange  rates:  rubles  per  US$1  -  3,550  (29  December  1994),  1,247  (27 
  December  1993);  nominal  exchange  rate  still  deteriorating  but  real 
  exchange  rate  holding  steady 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
  total:  154,000  km  note  -  87,000  km  in  common  carrier  service  (49,000 
  km  diesel;  and  38,000  km  electrified);  67,000  km  serve  specific 
  industries  and  are  not  available  for  common  carrier  use 
  broad  gauge:  154,000  km  1.520-m  gauge  (1  January  1994) 
  total:  934,000  km  (445,000  km  serve  specific  industries  or  farms  and 
  are  not  available  for  common  carrier  use) 
  paved  and  graveled:  725,000  km 
  unpaved:  209,000  km  (1  January  1994) 
  Inland  waterways:  total  navigable  routes  in  general  use  101,000  km 
  routes  with  navigation  guides  serving  the  Russian  River  Fleet  95,900 
  km  of  which  routes  with  night  navigational  aids  60,400  km  man-made 
  navigable  routes  16,900  km  (1  January  1994) 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  48,000  km  petroleum  products  15,000  km  natural 
  gas  140,000  km  (30  June  1993) 
  Ports:  Arkhangel'sk,  Astrakhan',  Kaliningrad  Kazan',  Khabarovsk 
  Kholmsk  Krasnoyarsk  Moscow,  Murmansk,  Nakhodka  Nevel'sk, 
  Novorossiysk  Petropavlovsk  St  Petersburg,  Rostov,  Sochi,  Tuapse 
  Vladivostok,  Volgograd,  Vostochnyy  Vyborg 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  800  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  7,295,109  GRT/10,128,579 
  ships  by  type:  barge  carrier  2,  bulk  cargo  26,  cargo  424,  chemical 
  tanker  7,  combination  bulk  22,  combination  ore/oil  16,  container  81, 
  multifunction  large-load  carrier  3,  oil  tanker  111,  passenger  4, 
  passenger-cargo  5,  refrigerated  cargo  19,  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  62, 
  short-sea  passenger  16,  specialized  tanker  2 
  note:  in  addition,  Russia  owns  235  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling 
  5,084,439  DWT  that  operate  under  Maltese,  Cypriot,  Liberian, 
  Panamanian,  Saint  Vincent  and  the  Grenadines,  Honduran,  Marshall 
  Islands,  Bahamian,  and  Vanuatu  registry 
  total:  2,517 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  54 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  202 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  108 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  115 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  151 
  with  unpaved  runways  over  3,047  m:  25 
  with  unpaved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  45 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  134 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  291 
  with  unpaved  runways  under  914  m:  1,392 
  Telephone  system:  24,400,000  telephones;  20,900,000  telephones  in 
  urban  areas  and  3,500,000  telephones  in  rural  areas;  of  these  total 
  installed  in  homes  15,400,000;  total  pay  phones  for  long  distant  calls 
  34,100;  about  164  telephones/1,000  persons;  Russia  is  enlisting 
  foreign  help,  by  means  of  joint  ventures,  to  speed  up  the 
  modernization  of  its  telecommunications  system;  in  1992,  only  661,000 
  new  telephones  were  installed  compared  with  855,000  in  1991,  and  in 
  1992  the  number  of  unsatisfied  applications  for  telephones  reached 
  11,000,000;  expanded  access  to  international  E-mail  service  available 
  via  Sprint  network;  the  inadequacy  of  Russian  telecommunications  is  a 
  severe  handicap  to  the  economy,  especially  with  respect  to 
  international  connections 
  local:  NMT-450  analog  cellular  telephone  networks  are  operational  and 
  growing  in  Moscow  and  St  Petersburg 
  intercity:  intercity  fiberoptic  cable  installation  remains  limited 
  international:  international  traffic  is  handled  by  an  inadequate 
  system  of  satellites,  land  lines,  microwave  radio  relay  and  outdated 
  submarine  cables;  this  traffic  passes  through  the  international 
  gateway  switch  in  Moscow  which  carries  most  of  the  international 
  traffic  for  the  other  countries  of  the  Commonwealth  of  Independent 
  States;  a  new  Russian  Raduga  satellite  will  link  Moscow  and  St 
  Petersburg  with  Rome  from  whence  calls  will  be  relayed  to  destinations 
  in  Europe  and  overseas;  satellite  earth  stations  -  INTELSAT, 
  Intersputnik  Eutelsat  (Moscow),  INMARSAT  Orbita 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  1,050,  FM  1,050,  shortwave  1,050 
  radios:  48.8  million  (radio  receivers  with  multiple  speaker  systems 
  for  program  diffusion  74,300,000) 
  broadcast  stations:  7,183 
  televisions:  54.2  million 
  Russia:Defense  Forces 
  Branches:  Ground  Forces,  Navy,  Air  Forces,  Air  Defense  Forces, 
  Strategic  Rocket  Forces 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  38,264,699;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  29,951,977;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually 
  1,106,176  (1995  est.) 
  Defense  expenditures:  $NA,  NA%  of  GDP 
  note:  the  Intelligence  Community  estimates  that  defense  spending  in 
  Russia  fell  about  15%  in  real  terms  in  1994,  reducing  Russian  defense 
  outlays  to  about  one-fourth  of  peak  Soviet  levels  in  the  late  1980s; 
  although  Russia  may  still  spend  as  much  as  10%  of  its  GDP  on  defense, 
  this  is  significantly  below  the  15%  to  17%  burden  the  former  USSR 
  carried  during  much  of  the  1980s;  conversion  of  military  expenditures 
  into  US  dollars  using  the  current  exchange  rate  could  produce 
  misleading  results 

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