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rwandamore about rwanda

rwanda


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Rwanda 
  n  :  a  republic  in  central  Africa;  formerly  a  German  colony  [syn: 
  {Rwanda},  {Ruanda}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Rwanda 
 
  Rwanda:Geography 
 
  Location:  Central  Africa,  east  of  Zaire 
 
  Map  references:  Africa 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  26,340  sq  km 
  land  area:  24,950  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  smaller  than  Maryland 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  893  km  Burundi  290  km  Tanzania  217  km  Uganda 
  169  km  Zaire  217  km 
 
  Coastline:  0  km  (landlocked) 
 
  Maritime  claims:  none;  landlocked 
 
  International  disputes:  none 
 
  Climate:  temperate;  two  rainy  seasons  (February  to  April,  November  to 
  January);  mild  in  mountains  with  frost  and  snow  possible 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  grassy  uplands  and  hills;  relief  is  mountainous  with 
  altitude  declining  from  west  to  east 
 
  Natural  resources:  gold,  cassiterite  (tin  ore),  wolframite  (tungsten 
  ore),  natural  gas,  hydropower 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  29% 
  permanent  crops:  11% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  18% 
  forest  and  woodland:  10% 
  other:  32% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  40  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  deforestation  results  from  uncontrolled  cutting  of 
  trees  for  fuel;  overgrazing  soil  exhaustion;  soil  erosion 
  natural  hazards:  periodic  droughts;  the  volcanic  Virunga  mountains  are 
  in  the  northwest  along  the  border  with  Zaire 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Endangered  Species,  Nuclear  Test 
  Ban;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change,  Law  of 
  the  Sea 
 
  Note:  landlocked;  predominantly  rural  population 
 
  Rwanda:People 
 
  Population:  8,605,307  (July  1995  est.) 
  note:  the  demographic  estimates  were  prepared  before  civil  strife, 
  starting  in  April  1994,  set  in  motion  substantial  and  continuing 
  population  changes 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  51%  (female  2,184,549;  male  2,201,049) 
  15-64  years:  47%  (female  2,034,278;  male  1,968,298) 
  65  years  and  over:  2%  (female  126,255;  male  90,878)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  2.67%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  48.52  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  21.82  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  NA  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
  note:  since  April  1994,  more  than  one  million  refugees  have  fled  the 
  civil  strife  between  the  Hutu  and  Tutsi  factions  in  Rwanda  and  crossed 
  into  Zaire,  Burundi,  and  Tanzania;  close  to  350,000  Rwandan  Tutsis  who 
  fled  civil  strife  in  earlier  years  are  returning  to  Rwanda  and  a  few 
  of  the  recent  Hutu  refugees  are  going  home  despite  the  danger  of  doing 
  so  the  ethnic  violence  continues  and  in  1995  could  produce  further 
  refugee  flows  as  well  as  deter  returns 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  118.1  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  39.33  years 
  male:  38.5  years 
  female:  40.19  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  8.12  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Rwandan(s) 
  adjective:  Rwandan 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Hutu  90%,  Tutsi  9%,  Twa  Pygmoid  1% 
 
  Religions:  Roman  Catholic  65%,  Protestant  9%,  Muslim  1%,  indigenous 
  beliefs  and  other  25% 
 
  Languages:  Kinyarwanda  (official),  French  (official),  Kiswahili  used 
  in  commercial  centers 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1990  est.) 
  total  population:  50% 
  male:  64% 
  female:  37% 
 
  Labor  force:  3.6  million 
  by  occupation:  agriculture  93%,  government  and  services  5%,  industry 
  and  commerce  2% 
 
  Rwanda:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Rwanda 
  conventional  short  form:  Rwanda 
  local  long  form:  Republika  y'u  Rwanda 
  local  short  form:  Rwanda 
 
  Digraph:  RW 
 
  Type:  republic;  presidential  system 
  note:  after  genocide  and  civil  war  in  April  1994,  the  Tutsi  Rwandan 
  Patriotic  Front,  in  July  1994,  took  power  and  formed  a  new  government 
 
  Capital:  Kigali 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  10  prefectures  (prefectures,  singular  - 
  prefecture  in  French;  plural  -  NA  singular  -  prefegitura  in 
  Kinyarwanda);  Butare,  Byumba  Cyangugu  Gikongoro  Gisenyi  Gitarama 
  Kibungo  Kibuye  Kigali,  Ruhengeri 
 
  Independence:  1  July  1962  (from  Belgium-administered  UN  trusteeship) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  1  July  (1962) 
 
  Constitution:  18  June  1991 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  German  and  Belgian  civil  law  systems  and 
  customary  law;  judicial  review  of  legislative  acts  in  the  Supreme 
  Court;  has  not  accepted  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  NA  years  of  age;  universal  adult 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Pasteur  BIZIMUNGU  (since  19  July  1994);  took 
  office  following  the  siezure  of  the  government  by  the  Tutsi  Rwandan 
  Patriotic  Front  and  the  exiling  of  interim  President  Dr  Theodore 
  SINDIKUBWABO  no  future  election  dates  have  been  set 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Faustin  TWAGIRAMUNGU  (since  the 
  siezure  of  power  by  the  Tutsi  Rwandan  Patriotic  Front  in  July  1994) 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  appointed  by  the  president 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  National  Development  Council:  (Conseil  National  de  Developpement) 
  elections  last  held  19  December  1988  (next  to  be  held  NA  1995); 
  results  -  MRND  was  the  only  party;  seats  -  (70  total)  MRND  70 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Constitutional  Court  consists  of  the  Court  of 
  Cassation  and  the  Council  of  State  in  joint  session 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Rwandan  Patriotic  Front  (RPF),  Alexis 
  KANYARENGWE  Chairman;  National  Revolutionary  Movement  for  Democracy 
  and  Development  (MRND);  significant  independent  parties  include: 
  Democratic  Republican  Movement  (MDR);  Liberal  Party  (PL);  Democratic 
  and  Socialist  Party  (PSD);  Coalition  for  the  Defense  of  the  Republic 
  (CDR);  Party  for  Democracy  in  Rwanda  (PADER);  Christian  Democratic 
  Party  (PDL) 
  note:  formerly  a  one-party  state,  Rwanda  legalized  independent  parties 
  in  mid-1991 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  Rwanda  Patriotic  Army  (RPA),  the 
  RPF  military  wing,  Maj.  Gen.  Paul  KAGAME,  commander; 
 
  Member  of:  ACCT,  ACP,  AfDB  CCC,  CEEAC  CEPGL  ECA,  FAO,  G-77,  GATT, 
  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  INTELSAT, 
  INTERPOL,  IOC,  ITU,  NAM,  OAU,  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNIDO  UPU,  WCL, 
  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  (vacant);  Charge  d'Affaires  ad  interim  Joseph  W. 
  MUTABOBA 
  chancery:  1714  New  Hampshire  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20009 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  232-2882 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  232-4544 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  note:  US  Embassy  closed  indefinitely 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  David  P.  RAWSON 
  embassy:  Boulevard  de  la  Revolution,  Kigali 
  mailing  address:  B.  P.  28,  Kigali 
  telephone:  [250]  756  01  through  03 
  FAX:  [250]  721  28 
 
  Flag:  three  equal  vertical  bands  of  red  (hoist  side),  yellow,  and 
  green  with  a  large  black  letter  R  centered  in  the  yellow  band;  uses 
  the  popular  pan-African  colors  of  Ethiopia;  similar  to  the  flag  of 
  Guinea,  which  has  a  plain  yellow  band 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Rwanda  is  a  poor  African  nation  suffering  bitterly  from 
  ethnic-based  civil  war.  Almost  50%  of  GDP  comes  from  the  agricultural 
  sector;  coffee  and  tea  make  up  80%-90%  of  total  exports.  The  amount  of 
  fertile  land  is  limited,  however,  and  deforestation  and  soil  erosion 
  continue  to  create  problems.  The  industrial  sector  in  Rwanda  is  small 
  contributing  only  17%  to  GDP.  Manufacturing  focuses  mainly  on  the 
  processing  of  agricultural  products.  The  Rwandan  economy  remains 
  dependent  on  coffee/tea  exports  and  foreign  aid.  Weak  international 
  prices  since  1986  have  caused  the  economy  to  contract  and  per  capita 
  GDP  to  decline  A  structural  adjustment  program  with  the  World  Bank 
  began  in  October  1990.  Ethnic-based  insurgency  since  1990  has 
  devastated  wide  areas,  especially  in  the  north,  and  displaced  hundreds 
  of  thousands  of  people.  A  peace  accord  in  mid-1993  temporarily  ended 
  most  of  the  fighting,  but  massive  resumption  of  civil  warfare  in  April 
  1994  in  the  capital  city  Kigali  and  elsewhere  has  been  taking 
  thousands  of  lives  and  severely  affecting  short-term  economic 
  prospects.  The  economy  suffers  massively  from  failure  to  maintain  the 
  infrastructure,  looting,  neglect  of  important  cash  crops,  and  lack  of 
  health  care  facilities. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $7.9  billion  (1993 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  -8%  (1993  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $950  (1993  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  NA% 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  NA% 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $350  million 
  expenditures:  $NA,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA  (1992  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $44  million  (f.o.b.,  1993  est.) 
  commodities:  coffee  63%,  tea,  cassiterite,  wolframite,  pyrethrum 
  partners:  Germany,  Belgium,  Italy,  Uganda,  UK  France,  US 
 
  Imports:  $250  million  (f.o.b.,  1993  est.) 
  commodities:  textiles,  foodstuffs,  machines  and  equipment,  capital 
  goods,  steel,  petroleum  products,  cement  and  construction  material 
  partners:  US  Belgium,  Germany,  Kenya,  Japan 
 
  External  debt:  $873  million  (1993  est.) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  -2.2%  (1991);  accounts  for  17%  of 
  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  60,000  kW 
  production:  190  million  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  23  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  mining  of  cassiterite  (tin  ore)  and  wolframite  (tungsten 
  ore),  tin,  cement,  agricultural  processing,  small-scale  beverage 
  production,  soap,  furniture,  shoes,  plastic  goods,  textiles, 
  cigarettes 
 
  Agriculture:  cash  crops  -  coffee,  tea,  pyrethrum  (insecticide  made 
  from  chrysanthemums);  main  food  crops  -  bananas,  beans,  sorghum, 
  potatoes;  stock  raising 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-89),  $128  million; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-89),  $2  billion;  OPEC  bilateral  aid  (1979-89),  $45  million; 
  Communist  countries  (1970-89),  $58  million 
  note:  in  October  1990  Rwanda  launched  a  Structural  Adjustment  Program 
  with  the  IMF;  since  September  1991,  the  EC  has  given  $46  million  and 
  the  US  $25  million  in  support  of  this  program  (1993) 
 
  Currency:  1  Rwandan  franc  RF  =  100  centimes 
 
  Exchange  rates:  Rwandan  francs  RF  per  US$1  -  144.3  (3rd  quarter 
  1994),  144.25  (1993),  133.35  (1992),  125.14  (1991),  82.60  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Rwanda:Transportation 
 
  Railroads:  0  km 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  4,885  km 
  paved:  880  km 
  unpaved:  gravel,  sand  and  gravel  1,305  km  unimproved  earth  2,700  km 
 
  Inland  waterways:  Lac  Kivu  navigable  by  shallow-draft  barges  and 
  native  craft 
 
  Ports:  Cyangugu  Gisenyi  Kibuye 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  7 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  1 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  3 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  1 
 
  Rwanda:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  NA  telephones;  telephone  system  does  not  provide 
  service  to  the  general  public  but  is  intended  for  business  and 
  government  use 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  the  capital,  Kigali,  is  connected  to  the  centers  of  the 
  prefectures  by  microwave  radio  relay;  the  remainder  of  the  network 
  depends  on  wire  and  high  frequency  radio 
  international:  international  connections  employ  microwave  radio  relay 
  to  neighboring  countries  and  satellite  communications  to  more  distant 
  countries;  1  INTELSAT  (Indian  Ocean)  and  1  SYMPHONIE  earth  station  in 
  Kigali  (includes  telex  and  telefax  service) 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  1,  FM  1,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  1 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Rwanda:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army,  Gendarmerie 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  1,792,326;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  913,711  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $112.5  million,  7%  of 
  GDP  (1992) 
 
 
 




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