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spainmore about spain

spain


  4  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Spain 
  n  :  a  kingdom  in  southwestern  Europe  on  the  Iberian  Peninsula;  a 
  former  colonial  power  [syn:  {Spain},  {Espana}] 
 
  From  Easton's  1897  Bible  Dictionary  [easton]: 
 
  Spain 
  Paul  expresses  his  intention  (Rom.  15:24,  28)  to  visit  Spain. 
  There  is  however,  no  evidence  that  he  ever  carried  it  into 
  effect,  although  some  think  that  he  probably  did  so  between  his 
  first  and  second  imprisonment.  (See  {TARSHISH}.) 
 
 
  From  Hitchcock's  Bible  Names  Dictionary  (late  1800's)  [hitchcock]: 
 
  Spain,  rare  precious 
 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Spain 
 
  Spain:Geography 
 
  Location:  Southwestern  Europe,  bordering  the  Bay  of  Biscay, 
  Mediterranean  Sea,  and  North  Atlantic  Ocean,  southwest  of  France 
 
  Map  references:  Europe 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  504,750  sq  km 
  land  area:  499,400  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  more  than  twice  the  size  of  Oregon 
  note:  includes  Balearic  Islands,  Canary  Islands,  and  five  places  of 
  sovereignty  (plazas  de  soberania)  on  and  off  the  coast  of  Morocco  - 
  Ceuta  Mellila  Islas  Chafarinas  Penon  de  Alhucemas  and  Penon  de 
  Velez  de  la  Gomera 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  1,903.2  km  Andorra  65  km  France  623  km 
  Gibraltar  1.2  km  Portugal  1,214  km 
 
  Coastline:  4,964  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  exclusive  economic  zone:  200  nm 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  Gibraltar  question  with  UK  Spain  controls 
  five  places  of  sovereignty  (plazas  de  soberania)  on  and  off  the  coast 
  of  Morocco  -  the  coastal  enclaves  of  Ceuta  and  Melilla,  which  Morocco 
  contests,  as  well  as  the  islands  of  Penon  de  Alhucemas  Penon  de  Velez 
  de  la  Gomera,  and  Islas  Chafarinas 
 
  Climate:  temperate;  clear,  hot  summers  in  interior,  more  moderate  and 
  cloudy  along  coast;  cloudy,  cold  winters  in  interior,  partly  cloudy 
  and  cool  along  coast 
 
  Terrain:  large  flat  to  dissected  plateau  surrounded  by  rugged  hills; 
  Pyrenees  in  north 
 
  Natural  resources:  coal,  lignite,  iron  ore,  uranium,  mercury,  pyrites, 
  fluorspar,  gypsum,  zinc,  lead,  tungsten,  copper,  kaolin,  potash, 
  hydropower 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  31% 
  permanent  crops:  10% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  21% 
  forest  and  woodland:  31% 
  other:  7% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  33,600  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  pollution  of  the  Mediterranean  Sea  from  raw  sewage  and 
  effluents  from  the  offshore  production  of  oil  and  gas;  air  pollution; 
  deforestation;  desertification 
  natural  hazards:  periodic  droughts 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Air  Pollution,  Air 
  Pollution-Nitrogen  Oxides,  Air  Pollution-Volatile  Organic  Compounds, 
  Antarctic-Environmental  Protocol,  Antarctic  Treaty,  Biodiversity, 
  Climate  Change,  Endangered  Species,  Environmental  Modification, 
  Hazardous  Wastes,  Marine  Dumping,  Marine  Life  Conservation,  Nuclear 
  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship  Pollution,  Tropical  Timber  83, 
  Wetlands,  Whaling;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Air  Pollution-Sulphur 
  94,  Desertification  Law  of  the  Sea 
 
  Note:  strategic  location  along  approaches  to  Strait  of  Gibraltar 
 
  Spain:People 
 
  Population:  39,404,348  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  17%  (female  3,214,606;  male  3,446,643) 
  15-64  years:  68%  (female  13,377,839;  male  13,457,683) 
  65  years  and  over:  15%  (female  3,461,367;  male  2,446,210)  (July  1995 
  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  0.27%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  11.21  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  8.86  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0.31  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  6.7  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  77.91  years 
  male:  74.67  years 
  female:  81.39  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  1.41  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Spaniard(s) 
  adjective:  Spanish 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  composite  of  Mediterranean  and  Nordic  types 
 
  Religions:  Roman  Catholic  99%,  other  sects  1% 
 
  Languages:  Castilian  Spanish,  Catalan  17%,  Galician  7%,  Basque  2% 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1986) 
  total  population:  96% 
  male:  98% 
  female:  94% 
 
  Labor  force:  14.621  million 
  by  occupation:  services  53%,  industry  24%,  agriculture  14%, 
  construction  9%  (1988) 
 
  Spain:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Kingdom  of  Spain 
  conventional  short  form:  Spain 
  local  short  form:  Espana 
 
  Digraph:  SP 
 
  Type:  parliamentary  monarchy 
 
  Capital:  Madrid 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  17  autonomous  communities  (comunidades 
  autonomas,  singular  -  comunidad  autonoma);  Andalucia,  Aragon, 
  Asturias,  Canarias,  Cantabria,  Castilla-La  Mancha,  Castilla  y  Leon, 
  Cataluna,  Communidad  Valencia,  Extremadura  Galicia,  Islas  Baleares 
  La  Rioja,  Madrid,  Murcia,  Navarra,  Pais  Vasco 
  note:  there  are  five  places  of  sovereignty  on  and  off  the  coast  of 
  Morocco  (Ceuta,  Mellila  Islas  Chafarinas  Penon  de  Alhucemas  and 
  Penon  de  Velez  de  la  Gomera)  with  administrative  status  unknown 
 
  Independence:  1492  (expulsion  of  the  Moors  and  unification) 
 
  National  holiday:  National  Day  12  October 
 
  Constitution:  6  December  1978,  effective  29  December  1978 
 
  Legal  system:  civil  law  system,  with  regional  applications;  does  not 
  accept  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  King  JUAN  CARLOS  I  (since  22  November  1975) 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Felipe  GONZALEZ  Marquez  (since  2 
  December  1982);  Deputy  Prime  Minister  Narcis  SERRA  y  Serra  (since  13 
  March  1991) 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  designated  by  the  prime  minister 
  Council  of  State:  is  the  supreme  consultative  organ  of  the  government 
 
  Legislative  branch:  bicameral  The  General  Courts  or  National  Assembly 
  (Las  Cortes  Generales) 
  Senate  (Senado):  elections  last  held  6  June  1993  (next  to  be  held  by 
  June  1997);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA  seats  -  (255  total) 
  PSOE  117,  PP  107,  CiU  15,  PNV  5,  IU  2,  other  9 
  Congress  of  Deputies  (Congreso  de  los  Diputados):  elections  last  held 
  6  June  1993  (next  to  be  held  by  June  1997);  results  -  percent  of  vote 
  by  party  NA  seats  -  (350  total)  PSOE  159,  PP  141,  IU  18,  CiU  17,  PNV 
  5,  CC  4,  HB  2,  other  4 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court  (Tribunal  Supremo) 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders: 
  principal  national  parties,  from  right  to  left:  Popular  Party  (PP), 
  Jose  Maria  AZNAR  Lopez;  Democratic  Social  Center  (CDS),  Rafael  CALVO 
  Ortega;  Spanish  Socialist  Workers  Party  (PSOE),  Felipe  GONZALEZ 
  Marquez,  secretary  general;  Socialist  Democracy  Party  (DS),  Ricardo 
  GARCIA  Damborenea  Spanish  Communist  Party  (PCE),  Julio  ANGUITA 
  Gonzalez;  United  Left  (IU  -  a  coalition  of  parties  including  the  PCE, 
  a  branch  of  the  PSOE,  and  other  small  parties),  Julio  ANGUITA  Gonzalez 
 
  chief  regional  parties:  Convergence  and  Union  (CiU),  Miquel  ROCA  i 
  Junyent  secretary  general;  Basque  Nationalist  Party  (PNV),  Xabier 
  ARZALLUS  Antia  and  Jose  Antonio  ARDANZA  Basque  United  People  (HB), 
  Jon  IDIGORAS  Guerricabeitia  and  Inaki  ESNAOLA  Canarian  Coalition 
  (CC),  a  coalition  of  five  parties 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  on  the  extreme  left  the  Basque 
  Fatherland  and  Liberty  (ETA)  and  the  First  of  October  Antifascist 
  Resistance  Group  (GRAPO)  use  terrorism  to  oppose  the  government;  free 
  labor  unions  (authorized  in  April  1977)  include  the 
  Communist-dominated  Workers  Commissions  (CCOO);  the  Socialist  General 
  Union  of  Workers  (UGT),  and  the  smaller  independent  Workers  Syndical 
  Union  (USO);  business  and  landowning  interests;  the  Catholic  Church; 
  Opus  Dei;  university  students 
 
  Member  of:  AfDB  AG  (observer),  AsDB  Australia  Group  BIS,  CCC,  CE 
  CERN,  EBRD,  EC  ECE,  ECLAC  EIB,  ESA,  FAO,  G-  8,  GATT,  IADB,  IAEA, 
  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICC,  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA,  IEA,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF, 
  IMO,  INMARSAT  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  IOM  (observer),  ISO,  ITU,  LAIA 
  (observer),  MTCR,  NACC,  NAM  (guest),  NATO,  NEA,  NSG,  OAS  (observer), 
  OECD  ONUSAL  OSCE,  PCA,  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNHCR  UNIDO  UNMIH 
  UNOMOZ  UNPROFOR  UNU,  UPU,  WCL,  WEU,  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO,  ZC 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Jaime  De  OJEDA  Eiseley 
  chancery:  2375  Pennsylvania  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20037 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  452-0100,  728-2340 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  833-5670 
  consulate(s)  general:  Boston,  Chicago,  Houston,  Los  Angeles,  Miami, 
  New  Orleans,  New  York,  San  Francisco,  and  San  Juan  (Puerto  Rico) 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Richard  N.  GARDNER 
  embassy:  Serrano  75,  28006  Madrid 
  mailing  address:  APO  AE  09642 
  telephone:  [34]  (1)  577-4000 
  FAX:  [34]  (1)  577-5735 
  consulate(s)  general:  Barcelona 
  consulate(s):  Bilbao 
 
  Flag:  three  horizontal  bands  of  red  (top),  yellow  (double  width),  and 
  red  with  the  national  coat  of  arms  on  the  hoist  side  of  the  yellow 
  band;  the  coat  of  arms  includes  the  royal  seal  framed  by  the  Pillars 
  of  Hercules,  which  are  the  two  promontories  (Gibraltar  and  Ceuta)  on 
  either  side  of  the  eastern  end  of  the  Strait  of  Gibraltar 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Spain,  with  a  per  capita  output  approximately  two-thirds 
  that  of  the  four  leading  economies  of  Western  Europe,  has  shared  with 
  these  countries  the  recession  of  the  early  1990s  and  the  upturn  of 
  their  economic  fortunes  in  1994.  But  whereas  unemployment  in  these 
  countries  has  hovered  just  above  10%,  Spain  has  been  forced  to  cope 
  with  a  25%  unemployment  rate.  Continued  political  turmoil  has 
  complicated  the  establishment  of  stable  government  policies  toward 
  budgetary  restraint,  interest  rates,  labor  law  reform,  and  Spain's 
  role  in  the  evolving  economic  integration  of  Western  Europe.  Because 
  the  recession  has  been  so  deep,  the  growth  in  industrial  output, 
  tourism,  and  other  sectors  in  1994,  while  welcome,  falls  far  short  of 
  the  growth  required  to  bring  unemployment  down  to  say  10%.  The 
  recovery  in  the  economies  of  major  trade  partners,  the  comparatively 
  low  inflation  rate,  lower  interest  rates,  and  prospects  in  the  tourist 
  sector  suggest  that  Spain  can  make  substantial  progress  in  1995. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $515.8  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  1.8%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $13,120  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  4.9%  (1994) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  24.5%  (yearend  1994) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $97.7  billion 
  expenditures:  $128  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA 
  (1993  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $72.8  billion  (f.o.b.,  1993) 
  commodities:  cars  and  trucks,  semifinished  manufactured  goods, 
  foodstuffs,  machinery 
  partners:  EC  71.2%,  US  4.8%,  other  developed  countries  7.9%  (1992) 
 
  Imports:  $92.5  billion  (c.i.f.,  1993) 
  commodities:  machinery,  transport  equipment,  fuels,  semifinished 
  goods,  foodstuffs,  consumer  goods,  chemicals 
  partners:  EC  60.7%,  US  7.4%,  other  developed  countries  11.5%,  Middle 
  East  5.9%  (1992) 
 
  External  debt:  $90  billion  (1993  est.) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  4%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  43,800,000  kW 
  production:  148  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  3,545  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  textiles  and  apparel  (including  footwear),  food  and 
  beverages,  metals  and  metal  manufactures,  chemicals,  shipbuilding, 
  automobiles,  machine  tools,  tourism 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  about  5%  of  GDP  and  14%  of  labor  force; 
  major  products  -  grain,  vegetables,  olives,  wine  grapes,  sugar  beets, 
  citrus  fruit,  beef,  pork,  poultry,  dairy;  largely  self-sufficient  in 
  food;  fish  catch  of  1.4  million  metric  tons  is  among  top  20  nations 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  key  European  gateway  country  for  Latin  American  cocaine 
  and  North  African  hashish  entering  the  European  market;  transshipment 
  point  for  Southwest  Asian  heroin 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-87),  $1.9  billion; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-79),  $545  million 
  note:  not  currently  a  recipient 
 
  Currency:  1  peseta  (Pta)  =  100  centimos 
 
  Exchange  rates:  pesetas  (Ptas)  per  US$1  -  132.61  (January  1995), 
  133.96  (1994),  127.26  (1993),  102.38  (1992),  103.91  (1991),  101.93 
  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Spain:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  14,400  km 
  broad  gauge:  12,111  km  1.668-m  gauge  (6,404  km  electrified;  2,295  km 
  double  track) 
  standard  gauge:  515  km  1.435-m  gauge  (515  km  electrified) 
  narrow  gauge:  1,774  km  (privately  owned:  1,727  km  1.000-m  gauge,  560 
  km  electrified;  28  km  0.914-m  gauge,  28  km  electrified;  government 
  owned:  19  km  1.000-m  gauge,  all  electrified) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  331,961  km 
  paved:  328,641  km  (2,700  km  of  expressways) 
  unpaved:  3,320  km  (1991) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  1,045  km  but  of  minor  economic  importance 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  265  km  petroleum  products  1,794  km  natural  gas 
  1,666  km 
 
  Ports:  Aviles,  Barcelona,  Bilbao,  Cadiz,  Cartagena,  Castellon  de  la 
  Plana,  Ceuta  Huelva  La  Coruna,  Las  Palmas  (Canary  Islands),  Malaga, 
  Melilla,  Pasajes  Puerto  de  Gijon,  Santa  Cruz  de  Tenerife  (Canary 
  Islands),  Santander  Tarragona,  Valencia,  Vigo 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  157  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  868,326  GRT/1,382,335 
  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  12,  cargo  41,  chemical  tanker  11,  container  9, 
  liquefied  gas  tanker  4,  oil  tanker  25,  passenger  2,  refrigerated  cargo 
  12,  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  34,  short-sea  passenger  5,  specialized 
  tanker  2 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  106 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  15 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  11 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  16 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  12 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  34 
  with  unpaved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  1 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  1 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  16 
 
  Spain:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  15,350,464  telephones;  generally  adequate,  modern 
  facilities 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  NA 
  international:  22  coaxial  submarine  cables;  2  earth  stations  for 
  INTELSAT  (1  Atlantic  Ocean  and  1  Indian  Ocean);  earth  stations  for 
  working  the  EUTELSAT  INMARSAT  and  MARECS  satellite  communications 
  systems;  microwave  tropospheric  scatter  links  to  adjacent  countries 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  190,  FM  406  (repeaters  134),  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  100  (repeaters  1,297) 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Spain:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army,  Navy,  Air  Force,  Marines,  Civil  Guard,  National 
  Police,  Coastal  Civil  Guard 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  10,435,970;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  8,434,460;  males  reach  military  age  (20)  annually 
  335,967  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $8  billion,  1.6%  of 
  GDP  (1994) 
 
 
 




more about spain