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switzerlandmore about switzerland

switzerland


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Switzerland 
  n  :  a  federal  republic  in  central  Europe  [syn:  {Switzerland},  {Suisse}, 
  {Schweiz},  {Svizzera},  {Swiss  Confederation}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Switzerland 
 
  Switzerland:Geography 
 
  Location:  Central  Europe,  east  of  France 
 
  Map  references:  Europe 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  41,290  sq  km 
  land  area:  39,770  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  more  than  twice  the  size  of  New  Jersey 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  1,852  km  Austria  164  km  France  573  km  Italy 
  740  km  Liechtenstein  41  km  Germany  334  km 
 
  Coastline:  0  km  (landlocked) 
 
  Maritime  claims:  none;  landlocked 
 
  International  disputes:  none 
 
  Climate:  temperate,  but  varies  with  altitude;  cold,  cloudy, 
  rainy/snowy  winters;  cool  to  warm,  cloudy,  humid  summers  with 
  occasional  showers 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  mountains  (Alps  in  south,  Jura  in  northwest)  with  a 
  central  plateau  of  rolling  hills,  plains,  and  large  lakes 
 
  Natural  resources:  hydropower  potential,  timber,  salt 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  10% 
  permanent  crops:  1% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  40% 
  forest  and  woodland:  26% 
  other:  23% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  250  sq  km  (1989) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  air  pollution  from  vehicle  emissions  and  open  air 
  burning;  acid  rain;  water  pollution  from  increased  use  of  agricultural 
  fertilizers;  loss  of  biodiversity 
  natural  hazards:  avalanches,  landslides,  flash  floods 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Air  Pollution,  Air 
  Pollution-Nitrogen  Oxides,  Air  Pollution-Sulphur  85,  Air 
  Pollution-Volatile  Organic  Compounds,  Antarctic  Treaty,  Biodiversity, 
  Climate  Change,  Endangered  Species,  Environmental  Modification, 
  Hazardous  Wastes,  Marine  Dumping,  Marine  Life  Conservation,  Nuclear 
  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship  Pollution,  Tropical  Timber  83, 
  Wetlands,  Whaling;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Air  Pollution-Sulphur 
  94,  Antarctic-Environmental  Protocol,  Desertification  Law  of  the  Sea 
 
  Note:  landlocked;  crossroads  of  northern  and  southern  Europe;  along 
  with  southeastern  France  and  northern  Italy,  contains  the  highest 
  elevations  in  Europe 
 
  Switzerland:People 
 
  Population:  7,084,984  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  17%  (female  594,565;  male  622,436) 
  15-64  years:  68%  (female  2,375,792;  male  2,448,213) 
  65  years  and  over:  15%  (female  623,136;  male  420,842)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  0.57%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  12.04  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  9.16  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  2.82  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  6.3  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  78.36  years 
  male:  74.99  years 
  female:  81.88  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  1.6  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Swiss  (singular  and  plural) 
  adjective:  Swiss 
 
  Ethnic  divisions: 
  total  population:  German  65%,  French  18%,  Italian  10%,  Romansch  1%, 
  other  6% 
  Swiss  nationals:  German  74%,  French  20%,  Italian  4%,  Romansch  1%, 
  other  1% 
 
  Religions:  Roman  Catholic  47.6%,  Protestant  44.3%,  other  8.1%  (1980) 
 
  Languages:  German  65%,  French  18%,  Italian  12%,  Romansch  1%,  other  4% 
  note:  figures  for  Swiss  nationals  only  -  German  74%,  French  20%, 
  Italian  4%,  Romansch  1%,  other  1% 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1980  est.) 
  total  population:  99% 
 
  Labor  force:  3.48  million  (900,000  foreign  workers,  mostly  Italian) 
  by  occupation:  services  50%,  industry  and  crafts  34%,  government  10%, 
  agriculture  and  forestry  6%  (1992) 
 
  Switzerland:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Swiss  Confederation 
  conventional  short  form:  Switzerland 
  local  long  form:  Schweizerische  Eidgenossenschaft  (German) 
  Confederation  Suisse  (French)  Confederazione  Svizzera  (Italian) 
  local  short  form:  Schweiz  (German)  Suisse  (French)  Svizzera  (Italian) 
 
  Digraph:  SZ 
 
  Type:  federal  republic 
 
  Capital:  Bern 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  26  cantons  (cantons,  singular  -  canton  in 
  French;  cantoni,  singular  -  cantone  in  Italian;  kantone,  singular  - 
  kanton  in  German);  Aargau  Ausser-Rhoden,  Basel-Landschaft, 
  Basel-Stadt,  Bern,  Fribourg,  Geneve,  Glarus,  Graubunden  Inner-Rhoden, 
  Jura,  Luzern,  Neuchatel,  Nidwalden  Obwalden  Sankt  Gallen, 
  Schaffhausen  Schwyz  Solothurn  Thurgau  Ticino,  Uri,  Valais,  Vaud, 
  Zug,  Zurich 
 
  Independence:  1  August  1291 
 
  National  holiday:  Anniversary  of  the  Founding  of  the  Swiss 
  Confederation,  1  August  (1291) 
 
  Constitution:  29  May  1874 
 
  Legal  system:  civil  law  system  influenced  by  customary  law;  judicial 
  review  of  legislative  acts  except  with  respect  to  federal  decrees  of 
  general  obligatory  character;  accepts  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction, 
  with  reservations 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state  and  head  of  government:  President  Kaspar  VILLIGER  (1995 
  calendar  year;  presidency  rotates  annually);  Vice  President 
  Jean-Pascal  DELAMURAZ  (term  runs  concurrently  with  that  of  president) 
  cabinet:  Federal  Council  (German  -  Bundesrat,  French  -  Censeil 
  Federal,  Italian  -  Consiglio  Federale);  elected  by  the  Federal 
  Assembly  from  own  members 
 
  Legislative  branch:  bicameral  Federal  Assembly  (German  - 
  Bundesversammlung,  French  -  Assemblee  Federale,  Italian  -  Assemblea 
  Federale) 
  Council  of  States:  German  -  Standerat,  French  -  Conseil  des  Etats, 
  Italian  -  Consiglio  degli  Stati;  elections  last  held  throughout  1991 
  (next  to  be  held  NA  1995);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA 
  seats  -  (46  total)  FDP  18,  CVP  16,  SVP  4,  SPS  3,  LPS  3,  LdU  1,  Ticino 
  League  1 
  National  Council:  German  -  Nationalrat,  French  -  Conseil  National, 
  Italian  -  Consiglio  Nazionale  elections  last  held  20  October  1991 
  (next  to  be  held  NA  October  1995);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party 
  NA  seats  -  (200  total)  FDP  44,  SPS  42,  CVP  37,  SVP  25,  GPS  14,  LPS 
  10,  AP  8,  LdU  6,  SD  5,  EVP  3,  PdA  2,  Ticino  League  2,  other  2 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Federal  Supreme  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Free  Democratic  Party  (FDP),  Franz 
  STEINEGGER  president;  Social  Democratic  Party  (SPS),  Peter  BODENMANN 
  president;  Christian  Democratic  People's  Party  (CVP),  Anton  COTTIER, 
  president;  Swiss  People's  Party  (SVP),  Hans  UHLMANN  president;  Green 
  Party  (GPS),  Verena  DIENER,  president;  Freedom  Party  (FPS),  Roland 
  BORER,  president;  Liberal  Party  (LPS),  Christoph  EYMANN  president; 
  Alliance  of  Independents'  Party  (LdU),  Monica  WEBER,  president;  Ticino 
  League,  Giuliano  BIGNASCA  president;  and  other  minor  parties 
  including  the  Automobile  Party  (AP),  Swiss  Democratic  Party  (SD), 
  Workers'  Party  (PdA),  and  the  Evangelical  People's  Party  (EVP);  note  - 
  see  elections 
 
  Member  of:  AfDB  AG  (observer),  AsDB  Australia  Group  BIS,  CCC,  CE 
  CERN,  EBRD,  ECE,  EFTA,  ESA,  FAO,  G-  8,  G-10,  GATT,  IADB,  IAEA,  IBRD, 
  ICAO,  ICC,  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA,  IEA,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO, 
  INMARSAT  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  IOM,  ISO,  ITU,  MINURSO  MTCR,  NAM 
  (guest),  NEA,  NSG,  OAS  (observer),  OECD  OSCE,  PCA,  UN  (observer), 
  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNHCR  UNIDO  UNITAR,  UNMIH  UNOMIG  UNPROFOR  UNTSO 
  UNU,  UPU,  WCL,  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO,  ZC 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Carlo  JAGMETTI 
  chancery:  2900  Cathedral  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  745-7900 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  387-2564 
  consulate(s)  general:  Atlanta,  Chicago,  Houston,  Los  Angeles,  New 
  York,  Pago  Pago  (American  Samoa),  and  San  Francisco 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  M.  Larry  LAWRENCE 
  embassy:  Jubilaeumstrasse  93,  3005  Bern 
  mailing  address:  use  embassy  street  address 
  telephone:  [41]  (31)  357  70  11 
  FAX:  [41]  (31)  357  73  44 
  branch  office:  Geneva 
  consulate(s)  general:  Zurich 
 
  Flag:  red  square  with  a  bold,  equilateral  white  cross  in  the  center 
  that  does  not  extend  to  the  edges  of  the  flag 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Switzerland's  economy  -  one  of  the  most  prosperous  and 
  stable  in  the  world  -  is  nonetheless  undergoing  a  stressful  adjustment 
  after  both  the  inflationary  boom  of  the  late  1980s  and  the 
  electorate's  rejection  of  membership  in  the  European  Economic  Area 
  (EEA)  in  1992.  So  far  the  decision  to  remain  outside  the  European 
  single  market  structure  does  not  appear  to  have  harmed  Swiss 
  interests.  In  December  1994,  the  Swiss  began  bilateral  negotiations 
  with  the  EU  aimed  at  establishing  closer  ties  in  areas  of  mutual 
  interest  and  progressing  toward  the  free  circulation  of  persons, 
  goods,  capital,  and  services  between  the  two  parties.  The  Swiss 
  emerged  from  a  three-year  recession  in  mid-1993  and  posted  1.8%  GDP 
  growth  in  1994.  The  Swiss  central  bank's  tight  monetary  policies 
  brought  inflation  down  from  about  4%  in  1992  to  just  under  1%  in  1994. 
  Unemployment  has  fallen  slightly  from  5.1%  in  1993  to  4.7%  in  1994. 
  Swiss  per  capita  output,  living  standards,  education,  and  health  care 
  remain  unsurpassed  in  Europe.  The  country  has  few  mineral  resources, 
  but  its  spectacular  natural  beauty  sustains  a  substantial  tourism 
  industry. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $148.4  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  1.8%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $22,080  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  0.9%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  4.7%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $26.7  billion 
  expenditures:  $32  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $69.6  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  machinery  and  equipment,  precision  instruments,  metal 
  products,  foodstuffs,  textiles  and  clothing 
  partners:  Western  Europe  63.1%  (EU  countries  56%,  other  7.1%),  US 
  8.8%,  Japan  3.4% 
 
  Imports:  $68.2  billion  (c.i.f.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  agricultural  products,  machinery  and  transportation 
  equipment,  chemicals,  textiles,  construction  materials 
  partners:  Western  Europe  79.2%  (EU  countries  72.3%,  other  6.9%),  US 
  6.4% 
 
  External  debt:  $NA 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  0%  (1993  est.) 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  15,430,000  kW 
  production:  58  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  6,699  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  machinery,  chemicals,  watches,  textiles,  precision 
  instruments 
 
  Agriculture:  dairy  farming  predominates;  less  than  50%  self-sufficient 
  in  food;  must  import  fish,  refined  sugar,  fats  and  oils  (other  than 
  butter),  grains,  eggs,  fruits,  vegetables,  meat 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  money-laundering  center 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  donor:  ODA  and  OOF  commitments  (1970-89),  $3.5  billion 
 
  Currency:  1  Swiss  franc,  franken,  or  franco  (SwF)  =  100  centimes, 
  rappen,  or  centesimi 
 
  Exchange  rates:  Swiss  francs,  franken,  or  franchi  (SwF)  per  US$1  - 
  1.2880  (January  1995),  1.3677  (1994),  1.4776  (1993),  1.4062  (1992), 
  1.4340  (1991),  1.3892  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Switzerland:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  5,763  km  (1,432  km  double  track) 
  standard  gauge:  3,533  km  1.435-m  gauge  (99%  electrified;  560  km 
  nongovernment  owned) 
  narrow  gauge:  1,094  km  1.000-m  gauge  (99%  electrified;  1,020  km 
  nongovernment  owned) 
  other:  1,136  km  NA-m  gauge  (1994) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  71,118  km 
  paved:  71,118  km  (including  1,514  km  of  expressways) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  65  km  Rhine  (Basel  to  Rheinfelden  Schaffhausen  to 
  Bodensee);  12  navigable  lakes 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  314  km  natural  gas  1,506  km 
 
  Ports:  Basel 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  22  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  374,935  GRT/669,353  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  12,  cargo  2,  chemical  tanker  4,  oil  tanker  2, 
  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  1,  specialized  tanker  1 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  69 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  4 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  3 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  14 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  5 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  42 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  1 
 
  Switzerland:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  5,890,000  telephones;  excellent  domestic, 
  international,  and  broadcast  services 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  extensive  cable  and  microwave  networks 
  international:  2  INTELSAT  (Atlantic  Ocean  and  Indian  Ocean)  earth 
  stations 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  7,  FM  265,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  18  (repeaters  1,322) 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Switzerland:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army,  Air  Force  and  Antiaircraft  Command 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  1,847,639;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  1,582,335;  males  reach  military  age  (20)  annually 
  41,831  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $4.1  billion,  1.4%  of 
  GDP  (1995) 
 
 
 




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