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turkeymore about turkey

turkey


  6  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Turkey  \Tur"key\,  n.  [Cf.  2d  {Turkey}.] 
  An  empire  in  the  southeast  of  Europe  and  southwest  of  Asia. 
 
  {Turkey  carpet},  a  superior  kind  of  carpet  made  in  Asia  Minor 
  and  adjoining  countries,  having  a  deep  pile  and  composed 
  of  pure  wool  with  a  weft  of  different  material.  It  is 
  distinguishable  by  its  coloring  and  patterns  from  similar 
  carpets  made  in  India  and  elsewhere. 
 
  {Turkey  oak}.  (Bot.)  See  {Cerris}. 
 
  {Turkey  red}. 
  a  A  brilliant  red  imparted  by  madder  to  cottons,  calicoes, 
  etc.,  the  fiber  of  which  has  been  prepared  previously 
  with  oil  or  other  fatty  matter. 
  b  Cloth  dyed  with  this  red. 
 
  {Turkey  sponge}.  (Zo["o]l.)  See  {Toilet  sponge},  under 
  {Sponge}. 
 
  {Turkey  stone},  a  kind  of  oilstone  from  Turkey;  novaculite; 
  --  called  also  {Turkey  oilstone}. 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Turkey  \Tur"key\,  n.;  pl  {Turkeys}.  [So  called  because  it  was 
  formerly  erroneously  believed  that  it  came  originally  from 
  Turkey:  cf  F.  Turquie  Turkey.  See  {Turk}.]  (Zo["o]l.) 
  Any  large  American  gallinaceous  bird  belonging  to  the  genus 
  {Meleagris},  especially  the  North  American  wild  turkey 
  ({Meleagris  gallopavo}),  and  the  domestic  turkey,  which  was 
  probably  derived  from  the  Mexican  wild  turkey,  but  had  been 
  domesticated  by  the  Indians  long  before  the  discovery  of 
  America. 
 
  Note:  The  Mexican  wild  turkey  is  now  considered  a  variety  of 
  the  northern  species  (var.  Mexicana).  Its  tall  feathers 
  and  coverts  are  tipped  with  white  instead  of  brownish 
  chestnut,  and  its  flesh  is  white.  The  Central  American, 
  or  ocellated,  turkey  ({M.  ocellata})  is  more  elegantly 
  colored  than  the  common  species.  See  under  {Ocellated}. 
  The  Australian,  or  native,  turkey  is  a  bustard 
  ({Choriotis  australis}).  See  under  {Native}. 
 
  {Turkey  beard}  (Bot.),  a  name  of  certain  American  perennial 
  liliaceous  herbs  of  the  genus  {Xerophyllum}.  They  have  a 
  dense  tuft  of  hard,  narrowly  linear  radical  leaves,  and  a 
  long  raceme  of  small  whitish  flowers.  Also  called 
  {turkey's  beard}. 
 
  {Turkey  berry}  (Bot.),  a  West  Indian  name  for  the  fruit  of 
  certain  kinds  of  nightshade  ({Solanum  mammosum},  and  {S. 
  torvum}). 
 
  {Turkey  bird}  (Zo["o]l.),  the  wryneck.  So  called  because  it 
  erects  and  ruffles  the  feathers  of  its  neck  when 
  disturbed.  [Prov.  Eng.] 
 
  {Turkey  buzzard}  (Zo["o]l.),  a  black  or  nearly  black  buzzard 
  ({Cathartes  aura}),  abundant  in  the  Southern  United 
  States.  It  is  so  called  because  its  naked  and  warty  head 
  and  neck  resemble  those  of  a  turkey.  Its  is  noted  for  its 
  high  and  graceful  flight.  Called  also  {turkey  vulture}. 
 
  {Turkey  cock}  (Zo["o]l.),  a  male  turkey. 
 
  {Turkey  hen}  (Zo["o]l.),  a  female  turkey. 
 
  {Turkey  pout}  (Zo["o]l.),  a  young  turkey.  [R.] 
 
  {Turkey  vulture}  (Zo["o]l.),  the  turkey  buzzard. 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  turkey 
  n  1:  large  gallinaceous  bird  with  fan-shaped  tail;  widely 
  domesticated  for  food  [syn:  {Meleagris  gallopavo}] 
  2:  a  Eurasian  republic  in  Asia  Minor  and  the  Balkans  [syn:  {Turkey}] 
  3:  a  person  who  does  something  thoughtless  or  annoying;  "some 
  joker  is  blocking  the  driveway"  [syn:  {joker}] 
  4:  flesh  of  large  domesticated  fowl  usually  roasted 
  5:  an  event  that  fails  badly  or  is  totally  ineffectual;  "the 
  first  experiment  was  a  real  turkey";  "the  meeting  was  a 
  dud  as  far  as  new  business  was  concerned"  [syn:  {bomb},  {dud}] 
  6:  wild  turkey  of  Central  and  northern  South  America  [syn:  {ocellated 
  turkey},  {Agriocharis  ocellata}] 
 
  From  U.S.  Gazetteer  (1990)  [gazetteer]: 
 
  Turkey,  NC  (town,  FIPS  68740) 
  Location:  34.99319  N,  78.18537  W 
  Population  (1990):  234  (102  housing  units) 
  Area:  1.0  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  28393 
  Turkey,  TX  (city,  FIPS  73964) 
  Location:  34.39419  N,  100.89546  W 
  Population  (1990):  507  (282  housing  units) 
  Area:  2.1  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  79261 
 
  From  THE  DEVIL'S  DICTIONARY  ((C)1911  Released  April  15  1993)  [devils]: 
 
  TURKEY,  n.  A  large  bird  whose  flesh  when  eaten  on  certain  religious 
  anniversaries  has  the  peculiar  property  of  attesting  piety  and 
  gratitude.  Incidentally,  it  is  pretty  good  eating. 
 
 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Turkey 
 
  Turkey:Geography 
 
  Location:  Southwestern  Asia  (that  part  west  of  the  Bosporus  is 
  sometimes  included  with  Europe),  bordering  the  Black  Sea,  between 
  Bulgaria  and  Georgia,  and  bordering  the  Aegean  Sea  and  the 
  Mediterranean  Sea,  between  Greece  and  Syria 
 
  Map  references:  Middle  East 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  780,580  sq  km 
  land  area:  770,760  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  larger  than  Texas 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  2,627  km  Armenia  268  km  Azerbaijan  9  km 
  Bulgaria  240  km  Georgia  252  km  Greece  206  km  Iran  499  km  Iraq  331 
  km  Syria  822  km 
 
  Coastline:  7,200  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  exclusive  economic  zone:  in  Black  Sea  only  -  to  the  maritime  boundary 
  agreed  upon  with  the  former  USSR 
  territorial  sea:  6  nm  in  the  Aegean  Sea,  12  nm  in  the  Black  Sea  and  in 
  the  Mediterranean  Sea 
 
  International  disputes:  complex  maritime,  air  and  territorial  disputes 
  with  Greece  in  Aegean  Sea;  Cyprus  question;  Hatay  question  with  Syria; 
  ongoing  dispute  with  downstream  riparians  (Syria  and  Iraq)  over  water 
  development  plans  for  the  Tigris  and  Euphrates  Rivers 
 
  Climate:  temperate;  hot,  dry  summers  with  mild,  wet  winters;  harsher 
  in  interior 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  mountains;  narrow  coastal  plain;  high  central  plateau 
  (Anatolia) 
 
  Natural  resources:  antimony,  coal,  chromium,  mercury,  copper,  borate, 
  sulphur,  iron  ore 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  30% 
  permanent  crops:  4% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  12% 
  forest  and  woodland:  26% 
  other:  28% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  22,200  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  water  pollution  from  dumping  of  chemicals  and 
  detergents;  air  pollution,  particularly  in  urban  areas;  deforestation 
  natural  hazards:  very  severe  earthquakes,  especially  in  northern 
  Turkey,  along  an  arc  extending  from  the  Sea  of  Marmara  to  Lake  Van 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Air  Pollution,  Hazardous  Wastes, 
  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship  Pollution,  Wetlands; 
  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Biodiversity,  Desertification 
  Environmental  Modification 
 
  Note:  strategic  location  controlling  the  Turkish  Straits  (Bosporus, 
  Sea  of  Marmara,  Dardanelles)  that  link  Black  and  Aegean  Seas 
 
  Turkey:People 
 
  Population:  63,405,526  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  35%  (female  10,815,288;  male  11,203,723) 
  15-64  years:  60%  (female  18,723,772;  male  19,391,037) 
  65  years  and  over:  5%  (female  1,764,363;  male  1,507,343)  (July  1995 
  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  1.97%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  25.33  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  5.64  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  45.6  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  71.48  years 
  male:  69.11  years 
  female:  73.96  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  3.12  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Turk(s) 
  adjective:  Turkish 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Turkish  80%,  Kurdish  20% 
 
  Religions:  Muslim  99.8%  (mostly  Sunni),  other  0.2%  (Christian  and 
  Jews) 
 
  Languages:  Turkish  (official),  Kurdish,  Arabic 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1990) 
  total  population:  79% 
  male:  90% 
  female:  68% 
 
  Labor  force:  20.4  million 
  by  occupation:  agriculture  44%,  services  41%,  industry  15% 
  note:  between  1.5  million  and  1.8  million  Turks  work  abroad  (1994) 
 
  Turkey:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Turkey 
  conventional  short  form:  Turkey 
  local  long  form:  Turkiye  Cumhuriyeti 
  local  short  form:  Turkiye 
 
  Digraph:  TU 
 
  Type:  republican  parliamentary  democracy 
 
  Capital:  Ankara 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  73  provinces  (iller,  singular  -  il);  Adana, 
  Adiyaman  Afyon,  Agri,  Aksaray  Amasya,  Ankara,  Antalya,  Artvin, 
  Aydin,  Balikesir  Batman,  Bayburt  Bilecik  Bingol,  Bitlis,  Bolu, 
  Burdur  Bursa,  Canakkale  Cankiri  Corum,  Denizli  Diyarbakir  Edirne, 
  Elazig  Erzincan  Erzurum  Eskisehir  Gazi  Antep,  Giresun  Gumushane 
  Hakkari  Hatay  Icel,  Isparta,  Istanbul,  Izmir,  Kahraman  Maras, 
  Karaman  Kars,  Kastamonu  Kayseri  Kirikkale  Kirklareli  Kirsehir 
  Kocaeli  Konya,  Kutahya  Malatya,  Manisa,  Mardin,  Mugla,  Mus, 
  Nevsehir  Nigde,  Ordu,  Rize,  Sakarya  Samsun,  Sanli  Urfa,  Siirt, 
  Sinop,  Sirnak  Sivas,  Tekirdag  Tokat,  Trabzon  Tunceli  Usak,  Van, 
  Yozgat  Zonguldak 
 
  Independence:  29  October  1923  (successor  state  to  the  Ottoman  Empire) 
 
  National  holiday:  Anniversary  of  the  Declaration  of  the  Republic,  29 
  October  (1923) 
 
  Constitution:  7  November  1982 
 
  Legal  system:  derived  from  various  continental  legal  systems;  accepts 
  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction,  with  reservations 
 
  Suffrage:  21  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Suleyman  DEMIREL  (since  16  May  1993) 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Tansu  CILLER  (since  5  July  1993); 
  Deputy  Prime  Minister  Hikmet  CETIN  (since  27  March  1995) 
  National  Security  Council:  advisory  body  to  the  President  and  the 
  Cabinet 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  appointed  by  the  president  on 
  nomination  of  the  prime  minister 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  Grand  National  Assembly  of  Turkey:  (Turkiye  Buyuk  Millet  Meclisi) 
  elections  last  held  20  October  1991  (next  to  be  held  NA  October  1996); 
  results  -  DYP  27.03%,  ANAP  24.01%,  SHP  20.75%,  RP  16.88%,  DSP  10.75%, 
  SBP  0.44%,  independent  0.14%;  seats  -  (450  total)  DYP  178,  ANAP  115, 
  SHP  86,  RP  40,  MCP  19,  DSP  7,  other  5 
  note:  seats  held  by  various  parties  are  subject  to  change  due  to 
  defections,  creation  of  new  parties,  and  ouster  or  death  of  sitting 
  deputies;  present  seats  by  party  are  as  follows:  DYP  183,  ANAP  97,  RP 
  38,  CHP  65,  MHP  17,  BBP  7,  DSP  10,  YP  3,  MP  2,  independents  6,  vacant 
  22 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Court  of  Cassation 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  True  Path  Party  (DYP),  Tansu  CILLER; 
  Motherland  Party  (ANAP),  Mesut  YILMAZ  Welfare  Party  (RP),  Necmettin 
  ERBAKAN  Democratic  Left  Party  (DSP),  Bulent  ECEVIT  Nationalist 
  Action  Party  (MHP  -  members  also  regroup  under  the  name  of  National 
  Labor  Party  or  MCP),  Alparslan  TURKES;  Socialist  Unity  Party  (SBP), 
  Sadun  AREN;  New  Party  (YP),  Yusuf  Bozkurt  OZAL;  Republican  People's 
  Party  (CHP),  Hikmet  CETIN;  note  -  Social  Democrat  Populist  Party  (SHP) 
  has  merged  with  CHP;  Workers  Party  (IP),  Dogu  PERINCEK  Nation  Party 
  (MP),  Aykut  EDIBALI  Democrat  Party  (DP),  Aydin  MENDERES  Grand  Unity 
  Party  (BBP),  Muhsin  YAZICIOGLU  Rebirth  Party  (YDP),  Hasan  Celal 
  GUZEL;  People's  Democracy  Party  (HADEP),  Murat  BOZLAK  Main  Path  Party 
  (ANAYOL),  Gurcan  BASER;  Democratic  Target  Party  (DHP),  Abdulkadir 
  Yasar  TURK;  Liberal  Party  (LP),  Besim  TIBUK  New  Democracy  Movement 
  (YDH),  Cem  BOYNER;  Democracy  and  Change  Party  (DDP),  Ibrahim  AKSOY 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  Turkish  Confederation  of  Labor 
  (TURK-IS),  Bayram  MERAL;  Confederation  of  Revolutionary  Workers  Unions 
  (DISK),  Ridvan  BUDAK;  Moral  Rights  Workers  Union  (HAK-IS),  Negati 
  CECIK;  Turkish  Industrialists'  and  Businessmen's  Association  (TUSIAD), 
  Halis  KOMILI  Turkish  Union  of  Chambers  of  Commerce  and  Commodity 
  Exchanges  (TOBB),  Yalim  EREZ;  Turkish  Confederation  of  Employers' 
  Unions  (TISK),  Refik  BAYDUR 
 
  Member  of:  AsDB  BIS,  BSEC,  CCC,  CE  CERN  (observer),  EBRD,  ECE,  ECO, 
  FAO,  GATT,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICC,  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA,  IDB,  IEA,  IFAD, 
  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INMARSAT  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  IOM 
  (observer),  ISO,  ITU,  NACC,  NATO,  NEA,  OECD  OIC,  OSCE,  PCA,  UN 
  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNHCR  UNIDO  UNIKOM  UNRWA  UPU,  WEU  (associate), 
  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Nuzhet  KANDEMIR 
  chancery:  1714  Massachusetts  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20036 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  659-8200 
  consulate(s)  general:  Chicago,  Houston,  Los  Angeles,  and  New  York 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Marc  GROSSMAN 
  embassy:  110  Ataturk  Boulevard,  Ankara 
  mailing  address:  PSC  93,  Box  5000,  Ankara;  APO  AE  09823 
  telephone:  [90]  (312)  468-6110  through  6128 
  FAX:  [90]  (312)  467-0019 
  consulate(s)  general:  Istanbul 
  consulate(s):  Adana 
 
  Flag:  red  with  a  vertical  white  crescent  (the  closed  portion  is  toward 
  the  hoist  side)  and  white  five-pointed  star  centered  just  outside  the 
  crescent  opening 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  In  early  1995,  after  an  impressive  economic  performance 
  through  most  of  the  1980s,  Turkey  continues  to  suffer  through  its  most 
  damaging  economic  crisis  in  the  last  15  years.  Sparked  by  the 
  downgrading  in  January  1994  of  Turkey's  international  credit  rating  by 
  two  US  credit  rating  agencies,  the  crisis  stems  from  years  of  loose 
  fiscal  and  monetary  policies  that  had  exacerbated  inflation  and 
  allowed  the  public  debt,  money  supply,  and  current  account  deficit  to 
  explode.  In  April  1994,  Prime  Minister  CILLER  introduced  an  austerity 
  package  aimed  at  restoring  domestic  and  international  confidence  in 
  her  fragile  coalition  government.  Three  months  later  the  IMF  endorsed 
  the  program,  paving  the  way  for  a  $740  million  IMF  standby  loan. 
  Although  the  economy  showed  signs  of  improvement  following  the 
  stabilization  measures,  CILLER  has  been  unable  to  overcome  the 
  political  obstacles  to  tough  structural  reforms  necessary  for 
  sustained,  longer-term  growth.  As  a  consequence,  the  economy  is 
  suffering  the  worst  of  both  worlds:  at  the  end  of  1994,  inflation  hit 
  a  record  126%  (annual  rate),  and  real  GDP  dropped  an  estimated  5%  for 
  the  year  as  a  whole,  the  worst  decline  in  Turkey's  post-war  history. 
  At  the  same  time,  the  government  missed  key  1994  targets  stipulated  in 
  the  IMF  agreement:  the  budget  deficit  is  estimated  to  have  overshot 
  the  government's  goal  by  47%;  the  total  public  sector  borrowing 
  requirement  likely  reached  10%-12%  of  GDP,  rather  than  8.5%  called  for 
  in  the  program;  and  the  Turkish  lira's  value  fell  5%  to  7%  more  than 
  expected.  The  unprecedented  effort  by  the  Kurdistan  Workers'  Party 
  (PKK)  to  raise  the  economic  costs  of  its  insurgency  against  the 
  Turkish  state  is  adding  to  Turkey's  economic  problems.  Attacks  against 
  tourists  have  jeopardized  tourist  revenues,  which  account  for  about  3% 
  of  GDP,  while  economic  activity  in  southeastern  Turkey,  where  most  of 
  the  violence  occurs,  has  dropped  considerably.  Turkish  officials  are 
  now  negotiating  a  new  letter  of  intent  with  the  IMF  that  will 
  stipulate  more  realistic  macroeconomic  goals  for  1995  and  allow  the 
  release  of  remaining  funds  of  the  standby  agreement. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $305.2  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  -5%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $4,910  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  106%  (1994) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  12.6%  (1994) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $28.3  billion 
  expenditures:  $33.3  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $3.2 
  billion  (1995) 
 
  Exports:  $15.3  billion  (f.o.b.,  1993) 
  commodities:  manufactured  products  72%,  foodstuffs  23%,  mining 
  products  4%  (1993) 
  partners:  Germany  24%,  Russia  7%,  US  7%,  UK  6%  (1993) 
 
  Imports:  $27.6  billion  (f.o.b.,  1993) 
  commodities:  manufactured  products  71%,  fuels  14%,  foodstuffs  6% 
  (1993) 
  partners:  Germany  15%,  US  11%,  Italy  9%,  Russia  8%  (1993) 
 
  External  debt:  $66.6  billion  (1994) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  6.7%  (1993);  accounts  for  26%  of 
  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  18,710,000  kW 
  production:  71  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  1,079  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  textiles,  food  processing,  mining  (coal,  chromite,  copper, 
  boron),  steel,  petroleum,  construction,  lumber,  paper 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  16%  of  GDP;  products  -  tobacco,  cotton, 
  grain,  olives,  sugar  beets,  pulses,  citrus  fruit,  variety  of  animal 
  products;  self-sufficient  in  food  most  years 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  major  transit  route  for  Southwest  Asian  heroin  and 
  hashish  to  Western  Europe  and  the  US  via  air,  land,  and  sea  routes; 
  major  Turkish,  Iranian,  and  other  international  trafficking 
  organizations  operate  out  of  Istanbul;  laboratories  to  convert 
  imported  morphine  base  into  heroin  are  in  remote  regions  of  Turkey  as 
  well  as  near  Istanbul;  government  maintains  strict  controls  over  areas 
  of  legal  opium  poppy  cultivation  and  output  of  poppy  straw  concentrate 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-89),  $2.3  billion; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-89),  $10.1  billion;  OPEC  bilateral  aid  (1979-89),  $665  million; 
  Communist  countries  (1970-89),  $4.5  billion 
  note:  aid  for  Persian  Gulf  war  efforts  from  coalition  allies  (1991), 
  $4.1  billion;  aid  pledged  for  Turkish  Defense  Fund,  $2.5  billion 
 
  Currency:  1  Turkish  lira  TL  =  100  kurus 
 
  Exchange  rates:  Turkish  liras  TL  per  US$1  -  37,444.1  (December 
  1994),  29,608.7  (1994),  10,984.6  (1993),  6,872.4  (1992),  4,171.8 
  (1991),  2,608.6  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Turkey:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  10,413  km 
  standard  gauge:  10,413  km  1.435-m  gauge  (1,033  km  electrified) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  320,611  km 
  paved:  29,915  km  (including  862  km  of  expressways) 
  unpaved:  290,696  km  (1992) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  about  1,200  km 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  1,738  km  petroleum  products  2,321  km  natural 
  gas  708  km 
 
  Ports:  Gemlik,  Hopa,  Iskenderun  Istanbul,  Izmir,  Izmit,  Mersin, 
  Samsun,  Trabzon 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  423  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  5,014,004  GRT/8,695,636 
  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  113,  cargo  203,  chemical  tanker  14,  combination 
  bulk  7,  combination  ore/oil  12,  container  2,  liquefied  gas  tanker  4, 
  livestock  carrier  1,  oil  tanker  46,  passenger-cargo  1,  refrigerated 
  cargo  2,  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  9,  short-sea  passenger  7,  specialized 
  tanker  2 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  116 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  16 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  20 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  12 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  21 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  34 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  2 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  11 
 
  Turkey:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  3,400,000  telephones;  fair  domestic  and 
  international  systems 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  trunk  radio  relay  microwave  network;  limited  open  wire 
  network 
  international:  2  INTELSAT  (Atlantic  Ocean)  and  1  EUTELSAT  earth 
  station;  1  submarine  cable 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  15,  FM  94,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  357 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Turkey:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Land  Forces,  Navy  (includes  Naval  Air  and  Naval  Infantry), 
  Air  Force,  Coast  Guard,  Gendarmerie 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  16,519,152;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  10,067,089;  males  reach  military  age  (20)  annually 
  625,476  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $6.9  billion,  4.1%  of 
  GDP  (1993);  note  -  figures  do  not  include  about  $7  billion  for  the 
  government's  counterinsurgency  efforts  against  the  separatist 
  Kurdistan  Workers'  Party  (PKK) 
 
 
 




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