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  5  definitions  found 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
  n  :  an  Asian  republic  at  east  end  of  Mediterranean  [syn:  {Lebanon}] 
  From  U.S.  Gazetteer  (1990)  [gazetteer]: 
  Lebanon,  CT 
  Zip  code(s):  06249 
  Lebanon,  IL  (city,  FIPS  42496) 
  Location:  38.60305  N,  89.81498  W 
  Population  (1990):  3688  (1450  housing  units) 
  Area:  5.1  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  62254 
  Lebanon,  IN  (city,  FIPS  42624) 
  Location:  40.05164  N,  86.47346  W 
  Population  (1990):  12059  (4910  housing  units) 
  Area:  15.6  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  46052 
  Lebanon,  KS  (city,  FIPS  39100) 
  Location:  39.81049  N,  98.55705  W 
  Population  (1990):  364  (228  housing  units) 
  Area:  0.8  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Lebanon,  KY  (city,  FIPS  44344) 
  Location:  37.56703  N,  85.25444  W 
  Population  (1990):  5695  (2388  housing  units) 
  Area:  10.7  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  40033 
  Lebanon,  MO  (city,  FIPS  41168) 
  Location:  37.67055  N,  92.66086  W 
  Population  (1990):  9983  (4784  housing  units) 
  Area:  31.5  sq  km  (land),  0.1  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  65536 
  Lebanon,  NE  (village,  FIPS  26455) 
  Location:  40.04921  N,  100.27593  W 
  Population  (1990):  75  (46  housing  units) 
  Area:  0.4  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  69036 
  Lebanon,  NH  (city,  FIPS  41300) 
  Location:  43.63527  N,  72.25418  W 
  Population  (1990):  12183  (5718  housing  units) 
  Area:  104.5  sq  km  (land),  2.6  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  03766 
  Lebanon,  NJ  (borough,  FIPS  39630) 
  Location:  40.64394  N,  74.83512  W 
  Population  (1990):  1036  (489  housing  units) 
  Area:  2.3  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  08833 
  Lebanon,  NY 
  Zip  code(s):  13085 
  Lebanon,  OH  (city,  FIPS  42364) 
  Location:  39.42666  N,  84.21269  W 
  Population  (1990):  10453  (4121  housing  units) 
  Area:  24.0  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Lebanon,  OK 
  Zip  code(s):  73440 
  Lebanon,  OR  (city,  FIPS  41650) 
  Location:  44.53485  N,  122.90435  W 
  Population  (1990):  10950  (4554  housing  units) 
  Area:  12.5  sq  km  (land),  0.4  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  97355 
  Lebanon,  PA  (city,  FIPS  42168) 
  Location:  40.34131  N,  76.42326  W 
  Population  (1990):  24800  (10996  housing  units) 
  Area:  10.9  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Lebanon,  SD  (town,  FIPS  36260) 
  Location:  45.06891  N,  99.76588  W 
  Population  (1990):  115  (59  housing  units) 
  Area:  1.4  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  57455 
  Lebanon,  TN  (city,  FIPS  41520) 
  Location:  36.20978  N,  86.32220  W 
  Population  (1990):  15208  (6592  housing  units) 
  Area:  46.2  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  37087 
  Lebanon,  VA  (town,  FIPS  44696) 
  Location:  36.89940  N,  82.07853  W 
  Population  (1990):  3386  (1455  housing  units) 
  Area:  10.6  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  24266 
  From  Easton's  1897  Bible  Dictionary  [easton]: 
  white,  "the  white  mountain  of  Syria,"  is  the  loftiest  and  most 
  celebrated  mountain  range  in  Syria.  It  is  a  branch  running 
  southward  from  the  Caucasus,  and  at  its  lower  end  forking  into 
  two  parallel  ranges,  the  eastern  or  Anti-Lebanon,  and  the 
  western  or  Lebanon  proper.  They  enclose  a  long  valley  (Josh. 
  11:17)  of  from  5  to  8  miles  in  width,  called  by  Roman  writers 
  Coele-Syria,  now  called  el-Buka'a,  "the  valley,"  a  prolongation 
  of  the  valley  of  the  Jordan. 
  Lebanon  proper,  Jebel  es-Sharki,  commences  at  its  southern 
  extremity  in  the  gorge  of  the  Leontes  the  ancient  Litany,  and 
  extends  north-east,  parallel  to  the  Mediterranean  coast,  as  far 
  as  the  river  Eleutherus  at  the  plain  of  Emesa,  "the  entering  of 
  Hamath"  (Num.  34:8;  1  Kings  8:65),  in  all  about  90  geographical 
  miles  in  extent.  The  average  height  of  this  range  is  from  6,000 
  to  8,000  feet;  the  peak  of  Jebel  Mukhmel  is  about  10,200  feet, 
  and  the  Sannin  about  9,000.  The  highest  peaks  are  covered  with 
  perpetual  snow  and  ice.  In  the  recesses  of  the  range  wild  beasts 
  as  of  old  still  abound  (2  Kings  14:9;  Cant.  4:8).  The  scenes  of 
  the  Lebanon  are  remarkable  for  their  grandeur  and  beauty,  and 
  supplied  the  sacred  writers  with  many  expressive  similes  (Ps. 
  29:5,  6;  72:16;  104:16-18;  Cant.  4:15;  Isa.  2:13;  35:2;  60:13; 
  Hos.  14:5).  It  is  famous  for  its  cedars  (Cant.  5:15),  its  wines 
  (Hos.  14:7),  and  its  cool  waters  (Jer.  18:14).  The  ancient 
  inhabitants  were  Giblites  and  Hivites  (Josh.  13:5;  Judg.  3:3). 
  It  was  part  of  the  Phoenician  kingdom  (1  Kings  5:2-6). 
  The  eastern  range,  or  Anti-Lebanon,  or  "Lebanon  towards  the 
  sunrising,"  runs  nearly  parallel  with  the  western  from  the  plain 
  of  Emesa  till  it  connects  with  the  hills  of  Galilee  in  the 
  south.  The  height  of  this  range  is  about  5,000  feet.  Its  highest 
  peak  is  Hermon  (q.v.),  from  which  a  number  of  lesser  ranges 
  Lebanon  is  first  mentioned  in  the  description  of  the  boundary 
  of  Palestine  (Deut.  1:7;  11:24).  It  was  assigned  to  Israel,  but 
  was  never  conquered  (Josh.  13:2-6;  Judg.  3:1-3). 
  The  Lebanon  range  is  now  inhabited  by  a  population  of  about 
  300,000  Christians,  Maronites,  and  Druses,  and  is  ruled  by  a 
  Christian  governor.  The  Anti-Lebanon  is  inhabited  by 
  Mohammedans,  and  is  under  a  Turkish  ruler. 
  From  Hitchcock's  Bible  Names  Dictionary  (late  1800's)  [hitchcock]: 
  Lebanon,  white,  incense 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
  Note--Lebanon  has  made  progress  toward  rebuilding  its  political 
  institutions  and  regaining  its  national  sovereignty  since  the  end  of 
  the  devastating  16-year  civil  war  which  began  in  1975.  Under  the  Ta'if 
  accord  -  the  blueprint  for  national  reconciliation  -  the  Lebanese  have 
  established  a  more  equitable  political  system,  particularly  by  giving 
  Muslims  a  greater  say  in  the  political  process.  Since  December  1990, 
  the  Lebanese  have  formed  three  cabinets  and  conducted  the  first 
  legislative  election  in  20  years.  Most  of  the  militias  have  been 
  weakened  or  disbanded.  The  Lebanese  Armed  Forces  (LAF)  has  seized  vast 
  quantities  of  weapons  used  by  the  militias  during  the  war  and  extended 
  central  government  authority  over  about  one-half  of  the  country. 
  Hizballah  the  radical  Sh'ia  party,  retains  most  of  its  weapons. 
  Foreign  forces  still  occupy  areas  of  Lebanon.  Israel  maintains  troops 
  in  southern  Lebanon  and  continues  to  support  a  proxy  militia,  The  Army 
  of  South  Lebanon  (ASL),  along  a  narrow  stretch  of  territory  contiguous 
  to  its  border.  The  ASL's  enclave  encompasses  this  self-declared 
  security  zone  and  about  20  kilometers  north  to  the  strategic  town  of 
  Jazzine  As  of  December  1993,  Syria  maintained  about  30,000-35,000 
  troops  in  Lebanon.  These  troops  are  based  mainly  in  Beirut,  North 
  Lebanon,  and  the  Bekaa  Valley.  Syria's  deployment  was  legitimized  by 
  the  Arab  League  early  in  Lebanon's  civil  war  and  in  the  Ta'if  accord. 
  Citing  the  continued  weakness  of  the  LAF,  Beirut's  requests,  and 
  failure  of  the  Lebanese  Government  to  implement  all  of  the 
  constitutional  reforms  in  the  Ta'if  accord,  Damascus  has  so  far 
  refused  to  withdraw  its  troops  from  Beirut. 
  Location:  Middle  East,  bordering  the  Mediterranean  Sea,  between  Israel 
  and  Syria 
  Map  references:  Middle  East 
  total  area:  10,400  sq  km 
  land  area:  10,230  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  about  0.8  times  the  size  of  Connecticut 
  Land  boundaries:  total  454  km  Israel  79  km  Syria  375  km 
  Coastline:  225  km 
  Maritime  claims: 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
  International  disputes:  separated  from  Israel  by  the  1949  Armistice 
  Line  Israeli  troops  in  southern  Lebanon  since  June  1982;  Syrian 
  troops  in  northern,  central,  and  eastern  Lebanon  since  October  1976 
  Climate:  Mediterranean;  mild  to  cool,  wet  winters  with  hot,  dry 
  summers;  Lebanon  mountains  experience  heavy  winter  snows 
  Terrain:  narrow  coastal  plain;  Al  Biqa'  (Bekaa  Valley)  separates 
  Lebanon  and  Anti-Lebanon  Mountains 
  Natural  resources:  limestone,  iron  ore,  salt,  water-surplus  state  in  a 
  water-deficit  region 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  21% 
  permanent  crops:  9% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  1% 
  forest  and  woodland:  8% 
  other:  61% 
  Irrigated  land:  860  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
  current  issues:  deforestation;  soil  erosion;  desertification  air 
  pollution  in  Beirut  from  vehicular  traffic  and  the  burning  of 
  industrial  wastes;  pollution  of  coastal  waters  from  raw  sewage  and  oil 
  natural  hazards:  duststorms  sandstorms 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change, 
  Hazardous  Wastes,  Law  of  the  Sea,  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer 
  Protection,  Ship  Pollution;  signed,  but  not  ratified  - 
  Desertification  Environmental  Modification,  Marine  Dumping,  Marine 
  Life  Conservation 
  Note:  Nahr  al  Litani  only  major  river  in  Near  East  not  crossing  an 
  international  boundary;  rugged  terrain  historically  helped  isolate, 
  protect,  and  develop  numerous  factional  groups  based  on  religion, 
  clan,  and  ethnicity 
  Population:  3,695,921  (July  1995  est.) 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  36%  (female  657,403;  male  682,757) 
  15-64  years:  58%  (female  1,131,450;  male  1,016,859) 
  65  years  and  over:  6%  (female  111,585;  male  95,867)  (July  1995  est.) 
  Population  growth  rate:  2.15%  (1995  est.) 
  Birth  rate:  27.9  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
  Death  rate:  6.44  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  38  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  69.69  years 
  male:  67.22  years 
  female:  72.28  years  (1995  est.) 
  Total  fertility  rate:  3.31  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
  noun:  Lebanese  (singular  and  plural) 
  adjective:  Lebanese 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Arab  95%,  Armenian  4%,  other  1% 
  Religions:  Islam  70%  (5  legally  recognized  Islamic  groups  -  Alawite  or 
  Nusayri  Druze,  Isma'ilite,  Shi'a,  Sunni),  Christian  30%  (11  legally 
  recognized  Christian  groups  -  4  Orthodox  Christian,  6  Catholic,  1 
  Protestant),  Judaism  NEGL% 
  Languages:  Arabic  (official),  French  (official),  Armenian,  English 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1990  est.) 
  total  population:  80% 
  male:  88% 
  female:  73% 
  Labor  force:  650,000 
  by  occupation:  industry,  commerce,  and  services  79%,  agriculture  11%, 
  government  10%  (1985) 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Lebanon 
  conventional  short  form:  Lebanon 
  local  long  form:  Al  Jumhuriyah  al  Lubnaniyah 
  local  short  form:  none 
  Digraph:  LE 
  Type:  republic 
  Capital:  Beirut 
  Administrative  divisions:  5  governorates  (muhafazat,  singular  - 
  muhafazah);  Al  Biqa,  'Al  Janub,  Ash  Shamal,  Bayrut  Jabal  Lubnan 
  Independence:  22  November  1943  (from  League  of  Nations  mandate  under 
  French  administration) 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  22  November  (1943) 
  Constitution:  23  May  1926,  amended  a  number  of  times 
  Legal  system:  mixture  of  Ottoman  law,  canon  law,  Napoleonic  code,  and 
  civil  law;  no  judicial  review  of  legislative  acts  has  not  accepted 
  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction 
  Suffrage:  21  years  of  age;  compulsory  for  all  males;  authorized  for 
  women  at  age  21  with  elementary  education 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Ilyas  HARAWI  (since  24  November  1989);  note 
  -  by  custom,  the  president  is  a  Maronite  Christian,  the  prime  minister 
  is  a  Sunni  Muslim,  and  the  speaker  of  the  legislature  is  a  Shi'a 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Rafiq  HARIRI  (since  22  October 
  cabinet:  Cabinet;  chosen  by  the  president  in  consultation  with  the 
  members  of  the  National  Assembly 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  National  Assembly:  (Arabic  -  Majlis  Alnuwab  French  -  Assemblee 
  Nationale)  Lebanon's  first  legislative  election  in  20  years  was  held 
  in  the  summer  of  1992;  the  National  Assembly  is  composed  of  128 
  deputies,  one-half  Christian  and  one-half  Muslim;  its  mandate  expires 
  in  1996 
  Judicial  branch:  four  Courts  of  Cassation  (three  courts  for  civil  and 
  commercial  cases  and  one  court  for  criminal  cases) 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  political  party  activity  is  organized 
  along  largely  sectarian  lines;  numerous  political  groupings  exist, 
  consisting  of  individual  political  figures  and  followers  motivated  by 
  religious,  clan,  and  economic  considerations 
  Member  of:  ABEDA,  ACCT,  AFESD  AL  AMF,  CCC,  ESCWA  FAO,  G-24,  G-77, 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Riyad  TABBARAH 
  chancery:  2560  28th  Street  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  939-6300 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  939-6324 
  consulate(s)  general:  Detroit,  New  York,  and  Los  Angeles 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  (vacant) 
  embassy:  Antelias  Beirut 
  address:  P.  O.  Box  70-840,  Beirut;  PSC  815,  Box  2,  Beirut;  FPO  AE 
  telephone:  [961]  (1)  402200,  403300,  416502,  426183,  417774 
  FAX:  [961]  (1)  407112 
  Flag:  three  horizontal  bands  of  red  (top),  white  (double  width),  and 
  red  with  a  green  and  brown  cedar  tree  centered  in  the  white  band 
  Overview:  The  1975-1991  civil  war  seriously  damaged  Lebanon's  economic 
  infrastructure,  cut  national  output  by  half,  and  all  but  ended 
  Lebanon's  position  as  a  Middle  Eastern  entrepot  and  banking  hub.  A 
  tentative  peace  has  enabled  the  central  government  to  begin  restoring 
  control  in  Beirut,  collect  taxes,  and  regain  access  to  key  port  and 
  government  facilities.  The  battered  economy  has  also  been  propped  up 
  by  a  financially  sound  banking  system  and  resilient  small-  and 
  medium-scale  manufacturers.  Family  remittances,  banking  transactions, 
  manufactured  and  farm  exports,  the  narcotics  trade  and  international 
  emergency  aid  are  the  main  sources  of  foreign  exchange.  In  the 
  relatively  settled  year  of  1991,  industrial  production,  agricultural 
  output,  and  exports  showed  substantial  gains.  The  further  rebuilding 
  of  the  war-ravaged  country  was  delayed  in  1992  because  of  an  upturn  in 
  political  wrangling.  In  October  1992,  Rafiq  HARIRI  was  appointed  Prime 
  Minister.  HARIRI  a  wealthy  entrepreneur,  announced  ambitious  plans 
  for  Lebanon's  reconstruction  which  involve  a  substantial  influx  of 
  foreign  aid  and  investment.  Progress  on  restoring  basic  services  is 
  limited.  Since  Prime  Minister  HARIRI's  appointment,  the  most 
  significant  improvement  lies  in  the  stabilization  of  the  Lebanese 
  pound,  which  had  gained  over  30%  in  value  by  yearend  1993.  The  years 
  1993  and  1994  were  marked  by  efforts  of  the  new  administration  to 
  encourage  domestic  and  foreign  investment  and  to  obtain  additional 
  international  assistance.  The  construction  sector  led  the  8.5%  advance 
  in  real  GDP  in  1994. 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $15.8  billion  (1994 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  8.5%  (1994  est.) 
  National  product  per  capita:  $4,360  (1994  est.) 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  12%  (1994  est.) 
  Unemployment  rate:  35%  (1993  est.) 
  revenues:  $1.4  billion 
  expenditures:  $3.2  billion  (1994  est.) 
  Exports:  $925  million  (f.o.b.,  1993  est.) 
  commodities:  agricultural  products,  chemicals,  textiles,  precious  and 
  semiprecious  metals  and  jewelry,  metals  and  metal  products 
  partners:  Saudi  Arabia  21%,  Switzerland  9.5%,  Jordan  6%,  Kuwait  12%, 
  US  5% 
  Imports:  $4.1  billion  (c.i.f.,  1993  est.) 
  commodities:  consumer  goods,  machinery  and  transport  equipment, 
  petroleum  products 
  partners:  Italy  14%,  France  12%,  US  6%,  Turkey  5%,  Saudi  Arabia  3% 
  External  debt:  $765  million  (1994  est.) 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  25%  (1993  est.) 
  capacity:  1,220,000  kW 
  production:  2.5  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  676  kWh  (1993) 
  Industries:  banking,  food  processing,  textiles,  cement,  oil  refining, 
  chemicals,  jewelry,  some  metal  fabricating 
  Agriculture:  principal  products  -  citrus  fruits,  vegetables,  potatoes, 
  olives,  tobacco,  hemp  (hashish),  sheep,  goats;  not  self-sufficient  in 
  Illicit  drugs:  illicit  producer  of  hashish  and  heroin  for  the 
  international  drug  trade  hashish  production  is  shipped  to  Western 
  Europe,  the  Middle  East,  and  North  and  South  America;  increasingly  a 
  key  locus  of  cocaine  processing  and  trafficking;  a  Lebanese/Syrian 
  1994  eradication  campaign  eliminated  the  opium  crop  and  caused  a  50% 
  decrease  in  the  cannabis  crop 
  Economic  aid:  the  government  estimates  that  it  has  received  $1.7 
  billion  in  aid  and  has  an  additional  $725  million  in  commitments  to 
  support  its  $3  billion  National  Emergency  Recovery  Program 
  Currency:  1  Lebanese  pound  (#L)  =  100  piasters 
  Exchange  rates:  Lebanese  pounds  (#L)  per  US$1  -  1,644.6  (January 
  1995),  1,680.1  (1994),  1,741.4  (1993),  1,712.8  (1992),  928.23  (1991), 
  695.09  (1990) 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
  total:  222  km 
  standard  gauge:  222  km  1.435-m 
  note:  system  in  disrepair,  considered  inoperable 
  total:  7,300  km 
  paved:  6,200  km 
  unpaved:  gravel  450  km  improved  earth  650  km 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  72  km  (none  in  operation) 
  Ports:  Al  Batrun  Al  Mina,  An  Naqurah  Antilyas  Az  Zahrani  Beirut, 
  Jubayl,  Juniyah  Shikka  Jadidah,  Sidon,  Tripoli,  Tyre 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  64  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  260,383  GRT/381,937  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  4,  cargo  41,  chemical  tanker  1,  combination  bulk 
  1,  combination  ore/oil  1,  container  2,  livestock  carrier  6, 
  refrigerated  cargo  3,  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  2,  specialized  tanker  1, 
  vehicle  carrier  2 
  total:  9 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  1 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  1 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  2 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  1 
  Telephone  system:  325,000  telephones;  95  telephones/1,000  persons; 
  telecommunications  system  severely  damaged  by  civil  war;  rebuilding 
  still  underway 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  primarily  microwave  radio  relay  and  cable 
  international:  2  INTELSAT  (1  Indian  Ocean  and  1  Atlantic  Ocean)  earth 
  stations  (erratic  operations);  coaxial  cable  to  Syria;  microwave  radio 
  relay  to  Syria  but  inoperable  beyond  Syria  to  Jordan;  3  submarine 
  coaxial  cables 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  5,  FM  3,  shortwave  0;  note  -  numerous  AM  and  FM 
  stations  are  operated  sporadically  by  various  factions 
  radios:  NA 
  broadcast  stations:  13 
  televisions:  NA 
  Lebanon:Defense  Forces 
  Branches:  Lebanese  Armed  Forces  (LAF;  includes  Army,  Navy,  and  Air 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  857,698;  males  fit  for  military 
  service  533,640  (1995  est.) 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $278  million,  5.5%  of 
  GDP  (1994) 

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