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perumore about peru


  3  definitions  found 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
  n  :  a  republic  in  western  South  America;  was  the  heart  of  the 
  Inca  empire  from  the  12th  to  16th  centuries  [syn:  {Peru}] 
  From  U.S.  Gazetteer  (1990)  [gazetteer]: 
  Peru,  IA 
  Zip  code(s):  50222 
  Peru,  IL  (city,  FIPS  59234) 
  Location:  41.34175  N,  89.12829  W 
  Population  (1990):  9302  (3954  housing  units) 
  Area:  12.6  sq  km  (land),  0.3  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  61354 
  Peru,  IN  (city,  FIPS  59328) 
  Location:  40.75364  N,  86.06805  W 
  Population  (1990):  12843  (5732  housing  units) 
  Area:  10.0  sq  km  (land),  0.1  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  46970 
  Peru,  KS  (city,  FIPS  55525) 
  Location:  37.08124  N,  96.09601  W 
  Population  (1990):  206  (114  housing  units) 
  Area:  1.0  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  67360 
  Peru,  MA 
  Zip  code(s):  01235 
  Peru,  ME 
  Zip  code(s):  04290 
  Peru,  NE  (city,  FIPS  38960) 
  Location:  40.47866  N,  95.73102  W 
  Population  (1990):  1110  (334  housing  units) 
  Area:  1.4  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  68421 
  Peru,  NY  (CDP,  FIPS  57364) 
  Location:  44.58002  N,  73.53446  W 
  Population  (1990):  1565  (552  housing  units) 
  Area:  4.2  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  12972 
  Peru,  VT 
  Zip  code(s):  05152 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
  Location:  Western  South  America,  bordering  the  South  Pacific  Ocean, 
  between  Chile  and  Ecuador 
  Map  references:  South  America 
  total  area:  1,285,220  sq  km 
  land  area:  1.28  million  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  smaller  than  Alaska 
  Land  boundaries:  total  6,940  km  Bolivia  900  km  Brazil  1,560  km 
  Chile  160  km  Colombia  2,900  km  Ecuador  1,420  km 
  Coastline:  2,414  km 
  Maritime  claims: 
  continental  shelf:  200  nm 
  territorial  sea:  200  nm 
  International  disputes:  three  sections  of  the  boundary  with  Ecuador 
  are  in  dispute 
  Climate:  varies  from  tropical  in  east  to  dry  desert  in  west 
  Terrain:  western  coastal  plain  (costa),  high  and  rugged  Andes  in 
  center  (sierra),  eastern  lowland  jungle  of  Amazon  Basin  (selva) 
  Natural  resources:  copper,  silver,  gold,  petroleum,  timber,  fish,  iron 
  ore,  coal,  phosphate,  potash 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  3% 
  permanent  crops:  0% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  21% 
  forest  and  woodland:  55% 
  other:  21% 
  Irrigated  land:  12,500  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
  current  issues:  deforestation;  overgrazing  of  the  slopes  of  the  costa 
  and  sierra  leading  to  soil  erosion;  desertification  air  pollution  in 
  Lima;  pollution  of  rivers  and  coastal  waters  from  municipal  and  mining 
  natural  hazards:  earthquakes,  tsunamis,  flooding,  landslides,  mild 
  volcanic  activity 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Antarctic-Environmental  Protocol, 
  Antarctic  Treaty,  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change,  Endangered  Species, 
  Hazardous  Wastes,  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship 
  Pollution,  Tropical  Timber  83,  Wetlands,  Whaling;  signed,  but  not 
  ratified  -  Desertification  Tropical  Timber  94 
  Note:  shares  control  of  Lago  Titicaca  world's  highest  navigable  lake, 
  with  Bolivia 
  Population:  24,087,372  (July  1995  est.) 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  35%  (female  4,152,520;  male  4,296,293) 
  15-64  years:  61%  (female  7,280,287;  male  7,378,227) 
  65  years  and  over:  4%  (female  535,156;  male  444,889)  (July  1995  est.) 
  Population  growth  rate:  1.8%  (1995  est.) 
  Birth  rate:  24.88  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
  Death  rate:  6.84  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  52.1  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  66.07  years 
  male:  63.86  years 
  female:  68.38  years  (1995  est.) 
  Total  fertility  rate:  3  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
  noun:  Peruvian(s) 
  adjective:  Peruvian 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Indian  45%,  mestizo  (mixed  Indian  and  European 
  ancestry)  37%,  white  15%,  black,  Japanese,  Chinese,  and  other  3% 
  Religions:  Roman  Catholic 
  Languages:  Spanish  (official),  Quechua  (official),  Aymara 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1990  est.) 
  total  population:  82% 
  male:  92% 
  female:  74% 
  Labor  force:  8  million  (1992) 
  by  occupation:  government  and  other  services  44%,  agriculture  37%, 
  industry  19%  (1988  est.) 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Peru 
  conventional  short  form:  Peru 
  local  long  form:  Republica  del  Peru 
  local  short  form:  Peru 
  Digraph:  PE 
  Type:  republic 
  Capital:  Lima 
  Administrative  divisions:  24  departments  (departamentos,  singular  - 
  departamento)  and  1  constitutional  province*  (provincia 
  constitucional);  Amazonas,  Ancash,  Apurimac  Arequipa,  Ayacucho 
  Cajamarca  Callao*,  Cusco,  Huancavelica  Huanuco,  Ica,  Junin,  La 
  Libertad  Lambayeque  Lima,  Loreto,  Madre  de  Dios,  Moquegua  Pasco, 
  Piura,  Puno,  San  Martin,  Tacna,  Tumbes  Ucayali 
  note:  the  1979  Constitution  mandated  the  creation  of  regions 
  (regiones,  singular  -  region)  to  function  eventually  as  autonomous 
  economic  and  administrative  entities;  so  far  12  regions  have  been 
  constituted  from  23  of  the  24  departments  -  Amazonas  (from  Loreto), 
  Andres  Avelino  Caceres  (from  Huanuco,  Pasco,  Junin),  Arequipa  (from 
  Arequipa),  Chavin  (from  Ancash),  Grau  (from  Tumbes  Piura),  Inca  (from 
  Cusco,  Madre  de  Dios,  Apurimac),  La  Libertad  (from  La  Libertad),  Los 
  Libertadores-Huari  (from  Ica,  Ayacucho  Huancavelica),  Mariategui 
  (from  Moquegua  Tacna,  Puno),  Nor  Oriental  del  Maranon  (from 
  Lambayeque  Cajamarca  Amazonas),  San  Martin  (from  San  Martin), 
  Ucayali  (from  Ucayali);  formation  of  another  region  has  been  delayed 
  by  the  reluctance  of  the  constitutional  province  of  Callao  to  merge 
  with  the  department  of  Lima;  because  of  inadequate  funding  from  the 
  central  government  and  organizational  and  political  difficulties,  the 
  regions  have  yet  to  assume  major  responsibilities;  the  1993 
  Constitution  retains  the  regions  but  limits  their  authority;  the  1993 
  Constitution  also  reaffirms  the  roles  of  departmental  and  municipal 
  Independence:  28  July  1821  (from  Spain) 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  28  July  (1821) 
  Constitution:  31  December  1993 
  Legal  system:  based  on  civil  law  system;  has  not  accepted  compulsory 
  ICJ  jurisdiction 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state  and  head  of  government:  President  Alberto  Kenyo 
  FUJIMORI  Fujimori  (since  28  July  1990);  election  last  held  9  April 
  1995  (next  to  be  held  NA  2000);  results  -  Alberto  FUJIMORI  64.42%, 
  Javier  PEREZ  de  CUELLAR  21.80%,  Mercedes  CABANILLAS  4.11%,  other  9.67% 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  appointed  by  the  president 
  note:  Prime  Minister  Efrain  GOLDENBERG  Schreiber  (since  NA  February 
  1994)  does  not  exercise  executive  power;  this  power  is  in  the  hands  of 
  the  president 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  Congress:  elections  last  held  9  April  1995  (next  to  be  held  NA  2000); 
  results  -  C90/NM  52.1%  of  the  total  vote,  UPP  14%,  eleven  other 
  parties  33.9%;  seats  -  (120  total,  when  installed  on  28  July  1995) 
  C90/NM  67,  UPP  17,  APRA  8,  FIM  6,  (CODE)-Pais  Posible  5,  AP  4,  PPC  3, 
  Renovacion  3,  IU  2,  OBRAS  2,  MIA  1,  FRENATRACA  1,  FREPAP  1 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court  of  Justice  (Corte  Suprema  de  Justicia) 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Change  90-New  Majority  (C90/NM), 
  Alberto  FUJIMORI  Union  for  Peru  (UPP),  Javier  PEREZ  de  CUELLAR; 
  American  Popular  Revolutionary  Alliance  (APRA),  Agustin  MANTILLA 
  Campos;  Independent  Moralizing  Front  (FIM),  Fernando  OLIVERA  Vega; 
  Democratic  Coordinator  (CODE)  -  Pais  Posible,  Jose  BARBA  Caballero  and 
  Alejandro  TOLEDO;  Popular  Action  Party  (AP),  Raul  DIEZ  CANSECO 
  Popular  Christian  Party  (PPC),  Luis  BEDOYA  Reyes;  Renovacion,  Rafael 
  REY  Rey;  Civic  Works  Movement  (OBRAS),  Ricardo  BELMONT;  United  Left 
  (IU),  Agustin  HAYA  de  la  TORRE;  Independent  Agrarian  Movement  (MIA), 
  Rolando  SALVATERRIE  Peru  2000-National  Front  of  Workers  and  Peasants 
  (FRENATRACA),  Roger  CACARES  Popular  Agricultural  Front  (FREPAP), 
  Ezequiel  ATAUCUSI 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  leftist  guerrilla  groups  include 
  Shining  Path,  Abimael  GUZMAN  Reynoso  (imprisoned);  Tupac  Amaru 
  Revolutionary  Movement,  Nestor  SERPA  and  Victor  POLAY  (imprisoned) 
  Member  of:  AG  CCC,  ECLAC  FAO,  G-11,  G-15,  G-19,  G-24,  G-77,  GATT, 
  IMO,  INMARSAT  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  IOM,  ISO  (correspondent),  ITU, 
  LAES,  LAIA,  NAM,  OAS,  OPANAL  PCA,  RG  (suspended),  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO, 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Ricardo  V.  LUNA  Mendoza 
  chancery:  1700  Massachusetts  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20036 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  833-9860  through  9869 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  659-8124 
  consulate(s)  general:  Chicago,  Houston,  Los  Angeles,  Miami,  New  York, 
  Paterson  (New  Jersey),  and  San  Francisco 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Alvin  P.  ADAMS,  Jr 
  embassy:  corner  of  Avenida  Inca  Garcilaso  de  la  Vega  and  Avenida 
  Espana,  Lima 
  mailing  address:  P.  O.  Box  1995,  Lima  1;  American  Embassy  (Lima),  APO 
  AA  34031 
  telephone:  [51]  (14)  338000 
  FAX:  [51]  (14)  316682 
  Flag:  three  equal,  vertical  bands  of  red  (hoist  side),  white,  and  red 
  with  the  coat  of  arms  centered  in  the  white  band;  the  coat  of  arms 
  features  a  shield  bearing  a  llama,  cinchona  tree  (the  source  of 
  quinine),  and  a  yellow  cornucopia  spilling  out  gold  coins,  all  framed 
  by  a  green  wreath 
  Overview:  The  Peruvian  economy  has  become  increasingly 
  market-oriented,  with  major  privatizations  completed  in  1994  in  the 
  mining  and  telecommunications  industries.  In  the  1980s  the  economy 
  suffered  from  hyperinflation  declining  per  capita  output,  and 
  mounting  external  debt.  Peru  was  shut  off  from  IMF  and  World  Bank 
  support  in  the  mid-1980s  because  of  its  huge  debt  arrears.  An 
  austerity  program  implemented  shortly  after  the  FUJIMORI  government 
  took  office  in  July  1990  contributed  to  a  third  consecutive  yearly 
  contraction  of  economic  activity,  but  the  slide  came  to  a  halt  late 
  that  year,  and  in  1991  output  rose  2.4%.  After  a  burst  of  inflation  as 
  the  austerity  program  eliminated  government  price  subsidies,  monthly 
  price  increases  eased  to  the  single-digit  level  and  by  December  1991 
  dropped  to  the  lowest  increase  since  mid-1987.  Lima  obtained  a 
  financial  rescue  package  from  multilateral  lenders  in  September  1991, 
  although  it  faced  $14  billion  in  arrears  on  its  external  debt.  By 
  working  with  the  IMF  and  World  Bank  on  new  financial  conditions  and 
  arrangements,  the  government  succeeded  in  ending  its  arrears  by  March 
  1993.  In  1992,  GDP  had  fallen  by  2.8%,  in  part  because  a 
  warmer-than-usual  El  Nino  current  resulted  in  a  30%  drop  in  the  fish 
  catch,  but  the  economy  rebounded  as  strong  foreign  investment  helped 
  push  growth  to  6%  in  1993  and  8.6%  in  1994. 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $73.6  billion  (1994 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  8.6%  (1994  est.) 
  National  product  per  capita:  $3,110  (1994  est.) 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  15%  (1994  est.) 
  Unemployment  rate:  15%;  extensive  underemployment  (1992  est.) 
  revenues:  $2  billion 
  expenditures:  $1.7  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $300 
  million  (1992  est.) 
  Exports:  $4.1  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  copper,  zinc,  fishmeal  crude  petroleum  and  byproducts, 
  lead,  refined  silver,  coffee,  cotton 
  partners:  US  19%,  Japan  9%,  Italy,  Germany 
  Imports:  $5.1  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  machinery,  transport  equipment,  foodstuffs,  petroleum, 
  iron  and  steel,  chemicals,  pharmaceuticals 
  partners:  US  21%,  Colombia,  Argentina,  Japan,  Germany,  Brazil 
  External  debt:  $22.4  billion  (1994  est.) 
  Industrial  production:  NA 
  capacity:  4,190,000  kW 
  production:  11.2  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  448  kWh  (1993) 
  Industries:  mining  of  metals,  petroleum,  fishing,  textiles,  clothing, 
  food  processing,  cement,  auto  assembly,  steel,  shipbuilding,  metal 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  12%  of  GDP,  about  35%  of  labor  force; 
  commercial  crops  -  coffee,  cotton,  sugarcane;  other  crops  -  rice, 
  wheat,  potatoes,  plantains,  coca;  animal  products  -  poultry,  red 
  meats,  dairy,  wool;  not  self-sufficient  in  grain  or  vegetable  oil; 
  fish  catch  of  6.9  million  metric  tons  (1990) 
  Illicit  drugs:  world's  largest  coca  leaf  producer  with  about  108,600 
  hectares  under  cultivation  in  1994;  source  of  supply  for  most  of  the 
  world's  coca  paste  and  cocaine  base;  at  least  85%  of  coca  cultivation 
  is  for  illicit  production;  most  of  cocaine  base  is  shipped  to 
  Colombian  drug  dealers  for  processing  into  cocaine  for  the 
  international  drug  market,  but  exports  of  finished  cocaine  are 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-89),  $1.7  billion; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-89),  $4.3  billion;  Communist  countries  (1970-89),  $577  million 
  Currency:  1  nuevo  sol  (S/.)  =  100  centimos 
  Exchange  rates:  nuevo  sol  (S/.)  per  US$1  -  2.20  (February  1995),  2.195 
  (1994),1.988  (1993),  1.245  (1992),  0.772  (1991),  0.187  (1990) 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
  total:  1,801  km 
  standard  gauge:  1,501  km  1.435-m  gauge 
  narrow  gauge:  300  km  0.914-m  gauge 
  total:  69,942  km 
  paved:  7,459  km 
  unpaved:  improved  earth  13,538  km  unimproved  earth  48,945  km 
  Inland  waterways:  8,600  km  of  navigable  tributaries  of  Amazon  system 
  and  208  km  of  Lago  Titicaca 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  800  km  natural  gas  and  natural  gas  liquids  64  km 
  Ports:  Callao,  Chimbote  Ilo,  Iquitos  Matarani,  Paita,  Pucallpa 
  Salaverry  San  Martin,  Talara,  Yurimaguas 
  note:  Iquitos  Pucallpa  and  Yurimaguas  are  all  on  the  upper  reaches 
  of  the  Amazon  and  its  tributaries 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  10  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  90,501  GRT/144,913  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  3,  cargo  6,  refrigerated  cargo  1 
  note:  in  addition,  4  naval  tankers  and  1  naval  cargo  are  sometimes 
  used  commercially 
  total:  236 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  6 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  16 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  11 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  5 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  97 
  with  unpaved  runways  over  3,047  m:  1 
  with  unpaved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  2 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  21 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  77 
  Telephone  system:  544,000  telephones;  fairly  adequate  for  most 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  nationwide  microwave  radio  relay  system  and  12  domestic 
  satellite  links 
  international:  2  Atlantic  Ocean  INTELSAT  earth  stations 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  273,  FM  0,  shortwave  144 
  radios:  NA 
  broadcast  stations:  140 
  televisions:  NA 
  Peru:Defense  Forces 
  Branches:  Army  (Ejercito  Peruano),  Navy  (Marina  de  Guerra  del  Peru), 
  Air  Force  (Fuerza  Aerea  del  Peru),  National  Police 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  6,369,157;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  4,300,772;  males  reach  military  age  (20)  annually 
  251,798  (1995  est.) 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $810  million,  about 
  2.7%  of  GDP  (1994) 

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