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been

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been


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Be  \Be\,  v.  i.  [imp.  {Was};  p.  p.  {Been};  p.  pr  &  vb  n. 
  {Being}.]  [OE.  been  beon,  AS  be['o]n  to  be  be['o]m  I  am 
  akin  to  OHG.  bim,  pim,  G.  bin,  I  am  Gael.  &  Ir  bu  was  W. 
  bod  to  be  Lith.  bu-ti,  O.  Slav.  by-ti,  to  be  L.  fu-i  I  have 
  been  fu-turus  about  to  be  fo-re  to  be  about  to  be  and  perh 
  to  fieri  to  become  Gr  ?  to  be  born,  to  be  Skr.  bh?  to  be 
  This  verb  is  defective,  and  the  parts  lacking  are  supplied  by 
  verbs  from  other  roots,  is  was  which  have  no  radical 
  connection  with  be  The  various  forms,  am  are  is  was 
  were  etc.,  are  considered  grammatically  as  parts  of  the  verb 
  ``to  be'',  which  with  its  conjugational  forms,  is  often 
  called  the  substantive  verb  ?97.  Cf  {Future},  {Physic}.] 
  1.  To  exist  actually,  or  in  the  world  of  fact  to  have 
  ex?stence. 
 
  To  be  contents  his  natural  desire.  --Pope. 
 
  To  be  or  not  to  be:  that  is  the  question.  --Shak. 
 
  2.  To  exist  in  a  certain  manner  or  relation,  --  whether  as  a 
  reality  or  as  a  product  of  thought;  to  exist  as  the 
  subject  of  a  certain  predicate,  that  is  as  having  a 
  certain  attribute,  or  as  belonging  to  a  certain  sort,  or 
  as  identical  with  what  is  specified,  --  a  word  or  words 
  for  the  predicate  being  annexed;  as  to  be  happy;  to  be 
  here  to  be  large  or  strong;  to  be  an  animal;  to  be  a 
  hero;  to  be  a  nonentity;  three  and  two  are  five 
  annihilation  is  the  cessation  of  existence;  that  is  the 
  man. 
 
  3.  To  take  place  to  happen;  as  the  meeting  was  on  Thursday. 
 
  4.  To  signify;  to  represent  or  symbolize;  to  answer  to 
 
  The  field  is  the  world.  --Matt.  xiii. 
  38. 
 
  The  seven  candlesticks  which  thou  sawest  are  the 
  seven  churches.  --Rev.  i.  20. 
 
  Note:  The  verb  to  be  (including  the  forms  is  was  etc.)  is 
  used  in  forming  the  passive  voice  of  other  verbs;  as 
  John  has  been  struck  by  James.  It  is  also  used  with  the 
  past  participle  of  many  intransitive  verbs  to  express  a 
  state  of  the  subject.  But  have  is  now  more  commonly 
  used  as  the  auxiliary,  though  expressing  a  different 
  sense  as  ``Ye  have  come  too  late  --  but  ye  are  come 
  ''  ``The  minstrel  boy  to  the  war  is  gone.''  The  present 
  and  imperfect  tenses  form  with  the  infinitive,  a 
  particular  future  tense,  which  expresses  necessity, 
  duty,  or  purpose;  as  government  is  to  be  supported;  we 
  are  to  pay  our  just  debts;  the  deed  is  to  be  signed 
  to-morrow. 
 
  Note:  Have  or  had  been  followed  by  to  implies  movement.  ``I 
  have  been  to  Paris.''  --Sydney  Smith.  ``Have  you  been 
  to  Franchard  ?''  --R.  L.  Stevenson. 
 
  Note:  Been  or  ben,  was  anciently  the  plural  of  the 
  indicative  present.  ``Ye  ben  light  of  the  world.'' 
  --Wyclif,  Matt.  v.  14.  Afterwards  be  was  used  as  in 
  our  Bible:  ``They  that  be  with  us  are  more  than  they 
  that  be  with  them.''  --2  Kings  vi  16.  Ben  was  also  the 
  old  infinitive:  ``To  ben  of  such  power.''  --R.  of 
  Gloucester.  Be  is  used  as  a  form  of  the  present 
  subjunctive:  ``But  if  it  be  a  question  of  words  and 
  names.''  --Acts  xviii.  15.  But  the  indicative  forms,  is 
  and  are  with  if  are  more  commonly  used 
 
  {Be  it  so},  a  phrase  of  supposition,  equivalent  to  suppose  it 
  to  be  so  or  of  permission,  signifying  let  it  be  so 
  --Shak. 
 
  {If  so  be},  in  case. 
 
  {To  be  from},  to  have  come  from  as  from  what  place  are  you 
  ?  I  am  from  Chicago. 
 
  {To  let  be},  to  omit,  or  leave  untouched;  to  let  alone.  ``Let 
  be  therefore,  my  vengeance  to  dissuade.''  --Spenser. 
 
  Syn:  {To  be},  {Exist}. 
 
  Usage:  The  verb  to  be  except  in  a  few  rare  case,  like  that 
  of  Shakespeare's  ``To  be  or  not  to  be'',  is  used 
  simply  as  a  copula,  to  connect  a  subject  with  its 
  predicate;  as  man  is  mortal;  the  soul  is  immortal. 
  The  verb  to  exist  is  never  properly  used  as  a  mere 
  copula,  but  points  to  things  that  stand  forth,  or  have 
  a  substantive  being  as  when  the  soul  is  freed  from 
  all  corporeal  alliance,  then  it  truly  exists.  It  is 
  not  therefore,  properly  synonymous  with  to  be  when 
  used  as  a  copula,  though  occasionally  made  so  by  some 
  writers  for  the  sake  of  variety;  as  in  the  phrase 
  ``there  exists  [is]  no  reason  for  laying  new  taxes.'' 
  We  may  indeed,  say  ``a  friendship  has  long  existed 
  between  them,''  instead  of  saying,  ``there  has  long 
  been  a  friendship  between  them;''  but  in  this  case, 
  exist  is  not  a  mere  copula.  It  is  used  in  its 
  appropriate  sense  to  mark  the  friendship  as  having 
  been  long  in  existence. 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Been  \Been\  [OE.  beon,  ben,  bin,  p.  p.  of  been  beon,  to  be  See 
  {Be}.] 
  The  past  participle  of  {Be}.  In  old  authors  it  is  also  the 
  pr  tense  plural  of  {Be}.  See  1st  {Bee}. 
 
  Assembled  been  a  senate  grave  and  stout.  --Fairfax. 




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