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grammar

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grammar


  5  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Grammar  \Gram"mar\,  n.  [OE.  gramere,  OF  gramaire  F.  grammaire 
  Prob.  fr  L.  gramatica  Gr  ?,  fem.  of  ?  skilled  in  grammar, 
  fr  ?  letter.  See  {Gramme},  {Graphic},  and  cf  {Grammatical}, 
  {Gramarye}.] 
  1.  The  science  which  treats  of  the  principles  of  language; 
  the  study  of  forms  of  speech,  and  their  relations  to  one 
  another;  the  art  concerned  with  the  right  use  aud 
  application  of  the  rules  of  a  language,  in  speaking  or 
  writing. 
 
  Note:  The  whole  fabric  of  grammar  rests  upon  the  classifying 
  of  words  according  to  their  function  in  the  sentence. 
  --Bain. 
 
  2.  The  art  of  speaking  or  writing  with  correctness  or 
  according  to  established  usage;  speech  considered  with 
  regard  to  the  rules  of  a  grammar. 
 
  The  original  bad  grammar  and  bad  spelling. 
  --Macaulay. 
 
  3.  A  treatise  on  the  principles  of  language;  a  book 
  containing  the  principles  and  rules  for  correctness  in 
  speaking  or  writing. 
 
  4.  treatise  on  the  elements  or  principles  of  any  science;  as 
  a  grammar  of  geography. 
 
  {Comparative  grammar},  the  science  which  determines  the 
  relations  of  kindred  languages  by  examining  and  comparing 
  their  grammatical  forms. 
 
  {Grammar  school}. 
  a  A  school,  usually  endowed,  in  which  Latin  and  Greek 
  grammar  are  taught,  as  also  other  studies  preparatory 
  to  colleges  or  universities;  as  the  famous  Rugby 
  Grammar  School.  This  use  of  the  word  is  more  common  in 
  England  than  in  the  United  States. 
 
  When  any  town  shall  increase  to  the  number  of  a 
  hundred  families  or  householders,  they  shall  set 
  up  a  grammar  school,  the  master  thereof  being 
  able  to  instruct  youth  so  far  as  they  may  be 
  fitted  for  the  University.  --Mass. 
  Records 
  (1647). 
  b  In  the  American  system  of  graded  common  schools  an 
  intermediate  grade  between  the  primary  school  and  the 
  high  school,  in  which  the  principles  of  English 
  grammar  are  taught. 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Grammar  \Gram"mar\,  v.  i. 
  To  discourse  according  to  the  rules  of  grammar;  to  use 
  grammar.  [Obs.]  --Beau.  &  Fl 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  grammar 
  n  :  studies  of  the  formation  of  basic  linguistic  units 
 
  From  The  Free  On-line  Dictionary  of  Computing  (13  Mar  01)  [foldoc]: 
 
  grammar 
 
  A  formal  definition  of  the  syntactic  structure  of  a  language 
  (see  {syntax}),  normally  given  in  terms  of  {production  rule}s 
  which  specify  the  order  of  constituents  and  their 
  sub-constituents  in  a  {sentence}  (a  well-formed  string  in  the 
  language).  Each  rule  has  a  left-hand  side  symbol  naming  a 
  syntactic  category  (e.g.  "noun-phrase"  for  a  {natural 
  language}  grammar)  and  a  right-hand  side  which  is  a  sequence 
  of  zero  or  more  symbols.  Each  symbol  may  be  either  a 
  {terminal  symbol}  or  a  non-terminal  symbol.  A  terminal  symbol 
  corresponds  to  one  "{lexeme}"  -  a  part  of  the  sentence  with 
  no  internal  syntactic  structure  (e.g.  an  identifier  or  an 
  operator  in  a  computer  language).  A  non-terminal  symbol  is 
  the  left-hand  side  of  some  rule 
 
  One  rule  is  normally  designated  as  the  top-level  rule  which 
  gives  the  structure  for  a  whole  sentence. 
 
  A  grammar  can  be  used  either  to  parse  a  sentence  (see 
  {parser})  or  to  generate  one  Parsing  assigns  a  terminal 
  syntactic  category  to  each  input  token  and  a  non-terminal 
  category  to  each  appropriate  group  of  tokens,  up  to  the  level 
  of  the  whole  sentence.  Parsing  is  usually  preceded  by 
  {lexical  analysis}.  Generation  starts  from  the  top-level  rule 
  and  chooses  one  alternative  production  wherever  there  is  a 
  choice. 
 
  See  also  {BNF},  {yacc},  {attribute  grammar},  {grammar 
  analysis}. 
 
 
 
  From  THE  DEVIL'S  DICTIONARY  ((C)1911  Released  April  15  1993)  [devils]: 
 
  GRAMMAR,  n.  A  system  of  pitfalls  thoughtfully  prepared  for  the  feet 
  for  the  self-made  man,  along  the  path  by  which  he  advances  to 
  distinction. 
 
 




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