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## logic |

4 definitions found From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) [web1913]: Logic \Log"ic\, n. [OE. logike F. logique L. logica, logice, Gr logikh` (sc. te`chnh), fr logiko`s belonging to speaking or reason, fr lo`gos speech, reason, le`gein to say speak. See {Legend}.] 1. The science or art of exact reasoning, or of pure and formal thought, or of the laws according to which the processes of pure thinking should be conducted; the science of the formation and application of general notions; the science of generalization, judgment, classification, reasoning, and systematic arrangement; correct reasoning. From WordNet r 1.6 [wn]: logic n 1: the branch of philosophy that analyzes inference 2: reasoned and reasonable judgment; "it made a certain kind of logic" 3: the principles that guide reasoning within a given field or situation; "economic logic requires it"; "by the logic of war" 4: a system of reasoning [syn: {logical system}, {system of logic}] From The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (13 Mar 01) [foldoc]: logic 1.A branch of philosophy and mathematics that deals with the formal principles, methods and criteria of validity of {inference}, reasoning and {knowledge}. Logic is concerned with what is true and how we can know whether something is true. This involves the formalisation of logical arguments and {proof}s in terms of symbols representing {proposition}s and {logical connective}s. The meanings of these logical connectives are expressed by a set of rules which are assumed to be self-evident. {Boolean algebra} deals with the basic operations of truth values: AND OR NOT and combinations thereof. {Predicate logic} extends this with existential and universal {quantifier}s and symbols standing for {predicate}s which may depend on variables. The rules of {natural deduction} describe how we may proceed from valid premises to valid conclusions, where the premises and conclusions are expressions in {predicate logic}. Symbolic logic uses a {meta-language} concerned with truth, which may or may not have a corresponding expression in the world of objects called existance. In symbolic logic, arguments and {proof}s are made in terms of symbols representing {proposition}s and {logical connective}s. The meanings of these begin with a set of rules or {primitive}s which are assumed to be self-evident. Fortunately, even from vague primitives, functions can be defined with precise meaning. {Boolean logic} deals with the basic operations of {truth value}s: AND OR NOT and combinations thereof. {Predicate logic} extends this with {existential quantifier}s and {universal quantifier}s which introduce {bound variable}s ranging over {finite} sets; the {predicate} itself takes on only the values true and false. Deduction describes how we may proceed from valid {premise}s to valid conclusions, where these are expressions in {predicate logic}. Carnap used the phrase "rational reconstruction" to describe the logical analysis of thought. Thus logic is less concerned with how thought does proceed, which is considered the realm of psychology, and more with how it should proceed to discover truth. It is the touchstone of the results of thinking, but neither its regulator nor a motive for its practice. See also fuzzy logic, logic programming, arithmetic and logic unit, first-order logic, See also {Boolean logic}, {fuzzy logic}, {logic programming}, {first-order logic}, {logic bomb}, {combinatory logic}, {higher-order logic}, {intuitionistic logic}, {equational logic}, {modal logic}, {linear logic}, {paradox}. 2. {Boolean} logic circuits. See also {arithmetic and logic unit}, {asynchronous logic}, {TTL}. (1995-03-17) From THE DEVIL'S DICTIONARY ((C)1911 Released April 15 1993) [devils]: LOGIC, n. The art of thinking and reasoning in strict accordance with the limitations and incapacities of the human misunderstanding. The basic of logic is the syllogism, consisting of a major and a minor premise and a conclusion -- thus: _Major Premise_: Sixty men can do a piece of work sixty times as quickly as one man. _Minor Premise_: One man can dig a posthole in sixty seconds; therefore -- _Conclusion_: Sixty men can dig a posthole in one second This may be called the syllogism arithmetical, in which by combining logic and mathematics, we obtain a double certainty and are twice blessed.

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