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linux

linux


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  Jargon  File  (4.2.3,  23  NOV  2000)  [jargon]: 
 
  Linux  /lee'nuhks/  or  /li'nuks/,  _not_  /li:'nuhks/  n.  The  free 
  Unix  workalike  created  by  Linus  Torvalds  and  friends  starting  about 
  1991.  The  pronunciation  /lee'nuhks/  is  preferred  because  the  name  `Linus' 
  has  an  /ee/  sound  in  Swedish  (Linus's  family  is  part  of  Finland's  6% 
  ethnic-Swedish  minority).  This  may  be  the  most  remarkable  hacker  project 
  in  history  --  an  entire  clone  of  Unix  for  386,  486  and  Pentium  micros, 
  distributed  for  free  with  sources  over  the  net  (ports  to  Alpha  and  Sparc 
  and  many  other  machines  are  also  in  use). 
 
  Linux  is  what  {GNU}  aimed  to  be  and  it  relies  on  the  GNU  toolset 
  But  the  Free  Software  Foundation  didn't  produce  the  kernel  to  go  with 
  that  toolset  until  1999,  which  was  too  late.  Other  similar  efforts 
  like  FreeBSD  and  NetBSD  have  been  technically  successful  but  never 
  caught  fire  the  way  Linux  has  as  this  is  written  in  2000,  Linux  is 
  seriously  challenging  Microsoft's  OS  dominance.  It  has  already  captured 
  31%  of  the  Internet-server  market  and  25%  of  general  business  servers. 
 
  An  earlier  version  of  this  entry  opined  "The  secret  of  Linux's 
  success  seems  to  be  that  Linus  worked  much  harder  early  on  to  keep  the 
  development  process  open  and  recruit  other  hackers,  creating  a  snowball 
  effect."  Truer  than  we  knew.  See  {bazaar}. 
 
  (Some  people  object  that  the  name  `Linux'  should  be  used  to  refer 
  only  to  the  kernel,  not  the  entire  operating  system.  This  claim  is  a 
  proxy  for  an  underlying  territorial  dispute;  people  who  insist  on  the 
  term  `GNU/Linux'  want  the  the  {FSF}  to  get  most  of  the  credit  for  Linux 
  because  RMS  and  friends  wrote  many  of  its  user-level  tools.  Neither  this 
  theory  nor  the  term  `GNU/Linux'  has  gained  more  than  minority  acceptance). 
 
 
 
  From  The  Free  On-line  Dictionary  of  Computing  (13  Mar  01)  [foldoc]: 
 
  Linux 
 
    ("Linus  Unix")  /li:'nuks/  (but  see  below) 
  An  implementation  of  the  {Unix}  {kernel}  originally  written 
  from  scratch  with  no  proprietary  code. 
 
  The  kernel  runs  on  {Intel}  and  {Alpha}  hardware  in  the  general 
  release,  with  {SPARC},  {PowerPC},  {MIPS},  {ARM},  {Amiga}, 
  {Atari},  and  {SGI}  in  active  development.  The  SPARC,  PowerPC, 
  ARM,  {PowerMAC}  -  {OSF},  and  68k  ports  all  support  {shells}, 
  {X}  and  {networking}.  The  Intel  and  SPARC  versions  have 
  reliable  {symmetric  multiprocessing}. 
 
  Work  on  the  kernel  is  coordinated  by  Linus  Torvalds  who  holds 
  the  copyright  on  a  large  part  of  it  The  rest  of  the 
  copyright  is  held  by  a  large  number  of  other  contributors  (or 
  their  employers).  Regardless  of  the  copyright  ownerships,  the 
  kernel  as  a  whole  is  available  under  the  {GNU}  {General  Public 
  License}.  The  GNU  project  supports  Linux  as  its  kernel  until 
  the  research  {Hurd}  kernel  is  completed. 
 
  This  kernel  would  be  no  use  without  {application  programs}. 
  The  GNU  project  has  provided  large  numbers  of  quality  tools, 
  and  together  with  other  {public  domain}  software  it  is  a  rich 
  Unix  environment.  A  compilation  of  the  Linux  kernel  and  these 
  tools  is  known  as  a  Linux  distribution.  Compatibility  modules 
  and/or  {emulators}  exist  for  dozens  of  other  computing 
  environments. 
 
  The  kernel  version  numbers  are  significant:  the  odd  numbered 
  series  (e.g.  1.3.xx)  is  the  development  (or  beta)  kernel  which 
  evolves  very  quickly.  Stable  (or  release)  kernels  have  even 
  major  version  numbers  (e.g.  1.2.xx). 
 
  There  is  a  lot  of  commercial  support  for  and  use  of  Linux, 
  both  by  hardware  companies  such  as  {Digital},  {IBM},  and 
  {Apple}  and  numerous  smaller  network  and  integration 
  specialists.  There  are  many  commercially  supported 
  distributions  which  are  generally  entirely  under  the  GPL.  At 
  least  one  distribution  vendor  guarantees  {Posix}  compliance. 
  Linux  is  particularly  popular  for  {Internet  Service 
  Providers},  and  there  are  ports  to  both  parallel 
  supercomputers  and  {embedded}  {microcontrollers}.  {Debian}  is 
  one  popular  {open  source}  distribution. 
 
  Some  including  Torvalds  insist  on  the  anomalous 
  pronunciation  /li'nuks/,  the  {Jargon  File}  prefers  the  rarely 
  used  /lee'nuhks/  because  Linus"  has  an  /ee/  sound  in  Swedish, 
  others  in  the  know  say  /li'niks/,  but  normal  rules  demand 
  /li:'nuks/,  which  is  also  widely  used  and  agrees  with  the 
  normal  english  pronunciation  of  "Linus". 
 
  {More  on  pronunciation 
  (http://www.foldoc.org/pub/linux-pronunciation)}. 
 
  {LinuxHQ  (http://www.linuxhq.com/)}.  {slashdot 
  (http://slashdot.org/)}.  {freshmeat  (http://freshmeat.net/)}. 
  {Woven  Goods  (http://www.fokus.gmd.de/linux/)}.  {Linux 
  Gazette  (http://www.ssc.com/lg)}. 
 
  {funet  Linux  Archive  (ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/Linux)},  {US 
  mirror  (ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/)},  {UK  Mirror 
  (ftp://sunsite.doc.ic.ac.uk/packages/Linux/)}. 
 
  (2000-06-09)